Core 3


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Core 3 PD/H/PE Yr 11

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  • Core 3

    2. 2. MAJOR SKELETAL BONES <ul><li>There are 206 bones in the body. They range in size and function depending on what they are used for in the body. E.g The skull is used for protection of the brain so therefore it is hard and made in a way that it protects soft tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Some bones are to protect vital organs and others are used to transfer a load through a joint. </li></ul><ul><li>When discussing the body and it’s skeletal and muscular system health workers talk in Anatomical language. When a person is standing up straight and facing forward and they have their palms facing down; this is called anatomical position. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Function of the skeleton & bones <ul><li>Provide a strong framework for muscles to contract against </li></ul><ul><li>Shape and support the body </li></ul><ul><li>Protect vital organs ie heart, lungs, brain </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral storage </li></ul><ul><li>Blood cell protection </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Long shaft made of hard compact bone </li></ul><ul><li>Bulbous ends consist of spongy bone </li></ul><ul><li>In children the shaft and the ends of bone are separated by the growth plate ( epiphyseal plate ) </li></ul><ul><li>Ends of bone are covered with cartilage - can wear away </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrous membrane supplied with blood vessels and nerves covers the bone </li></ul>Structure of a Bone
    5. 5. The Skeleton
    6. 6. Anatomical language <ul><li>It is really important that when we discuss the body that anatomical language used. The following terms are used to describe certain movements and or positions in relation to the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior </li></ul><ul><li>Medial </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal </li></ul><ul><li>Superior </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral </li></ul><ul><li>Distal </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior </li></ul><ul><li>Deep </li></ul>
    7. 7. Anatomical Language <ul><li>SUPERIOR- Towards the head </li></ul><ul><li>INFERIOR- Towards the feet </li></ul><ul><li>ANTERIOR- Towards the front </li></ul><ul><li>POSTERIOR- Towards the back </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIAL- Towards the midline of the body (big toe) </li></ul><ul><li>LATERAL- Towards the side of the body </li></ul><ul><li>PROXIMAL- Towards the body mass </li></ul><ul><li>DISTAL- Away from the body’s mass </li></ul>
    8. 8. 2 types of the skeleton <ul><li>There are two sections of the skeleton: </li></ul><ul><li>The AXIAL - This part of the skeleton provides a central support axis. It includes ( the skull, vertebral column, sternum, and ribs ) name each organ each axial skeleton protects? </li></ul><ul><li>The APPENDICULAR SKELTON- These skeletons transfer loads through joints ( bones of the arms, and legs, shoulder girdle, pelvic girdle ) The last two join all appendicular bones to the axial skeleton system. </li></ul>
    9. 9. The skull <ul><li>The skull is made up of the cranium and the facial bones . The cranium is the skull and is made up of 8 bones joined together by suture joints ?? ask! </li></ul><ul><li>There are then 14 facial bones that are fused together except one? Which one? </li></ul>
    10. 10. VERTEBRAL COLUMN <ul><li>The vertebral column has 33 bones that have sponges or pads between them, (intervertebral discs) </li></ul><ul><li>The first 7 (C1-7) (smallest) are called cervical and are located at the top of the spine. </li></ul><ul><li>The next 12 are called Thoracic and they are the upper back section. (T1-12) </li></ul><ul><li>The next are the Lumbar , there are 5 of them and they are located in the lower back and are the strongest and largest of all vertebrae. (L1-5) </li></ul><ul><li>The next 5 vertebrae are fused together (the sacrum ) and are located at the rump section. </li></ul><ul><li>And finally the coccyx four fused vertebrae together at the base of our spine. </li></ul><ul><li>The major role that the spine plays in the structure to allow us to stand up straight and support the muscles around the spine. The second role is the protection of the spinal cord. </li></ul>
    11. 12. THE THORAX <ul><li>The thorax combines certain skeletal bones to support and protect the heart lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>It is made up of the sternum and the ribs . The sternum attaches to the ribs and the ribs are our main shark cage that protects the lungs. If the lungs were not protected then they would be open to puncturing. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 12 pairs of ribs that join to the sternum. There are 2 pairs of ribs that are floating. </li></ul>
    12. 13. SHOULDER GIRDLE <ul><li>The bones of the clavicle and scapula make up the shoulder girdle. The clavicle (collarbone) is a long bone that allows greater mobility to the shoulder joint. </li></ul><ul><li>The scapula is a triangular bone that allows for the arms to attach to the trunk portion of the axial skeleton, (vertebrae) </li></ul>
    13. 14. UPPER LIMB (ARMS) <ul><li>This section consists of the arm, wrist and hand. So what bones would be included in this list, (Humerus, rad…., ul….,car…..,metac……,phal…..) These bones are meant for manipulation. E.g. throwing, writing. </li></ul>
    14. 15. PELVIS <ul><li>This consists of three large bones that are fused together. </li></ul><ul><li>They are illium, ischium and pubis . </li></ul><ul><li>The illium looks like two big elephants ears. This is what you put your hands on when you lean on your hips. </li></ul><ul><li>The ischium is at the bottom of the pelvis and has a hole in the middle of it on both sides. </li></ul><ul><li>The pubis is V shaped and the bladder rests upon it. </li></ul><ul><li>The pelvis allows for the large amount of weight that the upper body brings. It also allows attachment for the lower limbs and muscles of the leg. It also houses some of the reproductive organs for both females and males. </li></ul><ul><li>The pelvic girdle doesn’t allow for much movement due to the ligaments shortened length and their strength. The hip joint is quite deep and therefore adds to the stability of the joint. </li></ul>
    15. 17. LOWER LIMB (LEGS) <ul><li>See if you can list the bones that would make up the lower limb section of the body. (fem…,pat…., or sesamoi., tib.., fib…,tar…, meta….,phal…., </li></ul>
    16. 18. JOINT STRUCTURES AND JOINT ACTIONS <ul><li>A joint is a junction of two or more bones (door handle) commonly known as an articulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Joints allow for the ranges of movement that allow us to do some of the impressive things humans can do, (flexibility) Each joint has it’s own reason for the way it works and all joints are specific to the type of movement needed by it’s adjoining bones and muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three types: next page. </li></ul>
    17. 19. Joints <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed, e.g. suture lines in the skull </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly moveable, e.g. in the pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>Freely moveable cartilaginous (synovial joints), e.g. shoulder, knee, wrist they contain synovial fluid. </li></ul>
    18. 20. Major Synovial Joints of the Body <ul><li>Which of these synovial joints would be called: </li></ul><ul><li>Ball and socket joint </li></ul><ul><li>Hinge joint </li></ul><ul><li>The most important structures in synovial joints are tendons, ligaments, cartilage and synovial fluid. </li></ul>
    19. 21. Structure of Joints Most of the joints in the body contain the following structures: <ul><li>Joint cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more connecting bones </li></ul><ul><li>Cartilage - end of bones </li></ul><ul><li>Joint capsule </li></ul><ul><li>Synovial membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Synovial fluid - lubricates & nourishes cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Ligaments - connect bones at joint </li></ul>
    20. 22. What is a ligament? <ul><li>Dense connective tissue that joins bones </li></ul><ul><li>(to hold the joint together) </li></ul><ul><li>Provides proprioception </li></ul><ul><li>Ligaments have great resistance to pulling forces </li></ul><ul><li>Ligaments are extremely susceptible to tearing or stretching due to their nature of entanglement around a joint. </li></ul>
    21. 23. <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><li>Attach muscle to bone </li></ul>Tendons
    22. 24. Tendons <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Tough bands of cord-like connective tissue surrounded by a sheath </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid is located between the tendon and sheath to prevent wear and ensure smooth movement </li></ul><ul><li>Tendons have a limited blood supply </li></ul><ul><li>Common Injuries to Tendons </li></ul><ul><li>Strain </li></ul><ul><li>Tendonitis ( ie Tennis Elbow & Achilles Tendonitis) </li></ul><ul><li>Tendonopathy the better term since 2000 </li></ul>
    23. 25. SYNOVIAL FLUID <ul><li>It is the bodies lubricant keeping a joint well oiled (like a motor, motor oil) Synovial fluid allows joints to fit together and acts like a cushion. It is also how the joint eats, it provides nutrition for cartilage and carries away waste products from the joint ( swelling after an injury) </li></ul><ul><li>The reason for joint stiffness is a lack of synovial fluid. E.g. in the morning there is a lack of synovial fluid so movement is harder. However in the afternoon is actually worse for the joints to exercise due to the synovial fluid be compressed. </li></ul>
    24. 26. HYALINE CARTILAGE <ul><li>This is a smooth shiny cartilage that allows bones to move freely over one another. (it would be very painful without this = bone on bone. It is fed by synovial fluid and needs to be thicker in areas of greater weight bearing. E.g. legs, knees. </li></ul>
    25. 27. Anatomical Movements <ul><li>There are 12 types of anatomical movements! </li></ul><ul><li>They are listed on the next page. </li></ul><ul><li>It is really important that from now on you focus on using anatomical language. </li></ul>
    26. 28. Anatomical Movements <ul><li>Flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Abduction </li></ul><ul><li>Adduction </li></ul><ul><li>Supination </li></ul><ul><li>Pronation </li></ul><ul><li>Inversion </li></ul><ul><li>Eversion </li></ul><ul><li>Plantarflexion </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsiflexion </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul>
    27. 29. Anatomical Movements <ul><li>Flexion – Decrease in the angle at the joint. For example pulling the leg up towards your but. </li></ul><ul><li>Extension – Increases the angle between the joint. For example straightening the leg at the knee. </li></ul><ul><li>Abduction – Movement of a limb away from the midline of the body. For example raising the arm to the side. </li></ul><ul><li>Adduction – The movement of the body towards the midline of the body. For example lowering the arm towards the midline of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Inversion – Rotation of the foot so the toes point inwards towards the midline of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Eversion – Rotation of the foot so the toes are pointing out away from the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation – Moving the body around an axis </li></ul><ul><li>Circumduction – A circular movement of a body part. For example rotating an arm </li></ul><ul><li>Pronation – Rotation of the hand and forearm that causes the palm to face the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Supination – Rotation of the hand and forearm so the palm faces upwards </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsiflexion – Flexion of the ankle so the toes point to the sky </li></ul><ul><li>Plantar Flexion – Extension of the ankle pointing the toes towards the ground. </li></ul>
    28. 30. MAJOR SKELETAL MUSCLES <ul><li>There are more than 600 muscles in the body and again just like the bones they can be broken down into sub groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal means that all muscles must have a attachment to bones for movement to occur. </li></ul><ul><li>When muscles contract then we can move they are unable to push or create force that way. Instead they shorten causing joint movement then relax as opposing muscles pull the joint back into place. </li></ul><ul><li>The best example of this is the movement of the biceps and Triceps which allows movement of which joint>???? </li></ul><ul><li>The biceps do the shortening and the Triceps pulling so that we have a hinge style movement. </li></ul>
    29. 31. <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><li>Move bones </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilise the body (i.e. stomach and hips) </li></ul>Muscles <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of cells that contract </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are bound into bundles by connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Connective tissue extends beyond the muscle to form a tendon </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive blood supply provides oxygen and nutrients and removes waste products </li></ul>
    30. 32. <ul><li>The way we locate muscles is to know where the ORIGIN and INSERTION are located. </li></ul><ul><li>The ORIGIN is usually attached to the bone through a tendon and is closest to the body mass. </li></ul><ul><li>The INSERTION is located at the moveable end of the bone usually the furthest away from the body mass. </li></ul><ul><li>So in conclusion when a muscle contracts that causes movement and when it needs to extend again it is termed a muscle action. </li></ul><ul><li>Palpation refers to feeling certain muscles. Palpated muscles are ones that are located just under the skin so they can be felt and or moved. (massage is termed palpation </li></ul>
    31. 33. Muscles <ul><li>Now lets look at the muscles in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>You can follow on with your sheet and we will add some extras for added knowledge. </li></ul>
    32. 35. Surface Anatomy With a partner spend 5 mins. to find the following muscles. <ul><li>Anterior Muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Deltoid </li></ul><ul><li>Biceps Brachii </li></ul><ul><li>Pectoralis major </li></ul><ul><li>Forearm flexors </li></ul><ul><li>Rectus abdominus </li></ul><ul><li>Adductor longus </li></ul><ul><li>Quadriceps </li></ul><ul><li>Tibialis Anterior </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior Muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Trapezius </li></ul><ul><li>Latissimus Dorsi </li></ul><ul><li>Triceps </li></ul><ul><li>Forearm extensors </li></ul><ul><li>Gluteus maximus </li></ul><ul><li>Biceps Femoris </li></ul><ul><li>Semimembranosus </li></ul><ul><li>Semitendinosus </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrochnemius </li></ul><ul><li>Soleus </li></ul>
    33. 36. Muscle Actions <ul><li>When the body moves muscles can perform one of three roles. </li></ul><ul><li>AGONIST: This is the prime mover muscle that allows the joint to work. In the arm what muscle do you think the agonist is?? There are agonist muscles in all moving joints. </li></ul><ul><li>ANTAGONIST: This is the relaxing muscle in joint action. It must relax so the agonist can contract. (both can’t contract at the same time) The two roles change every time you change the movement. For example a bicep curl requires the bicep to be the agonist and the tricep to be the antagonist. However the uncurling of the same bicep curl requires the triceps to be the agonist and the biceps to be the antagonist. </li></ul><ul><li>STABILISER: This muscle works to stabilize the joint and give an anchor point to the agonist and antagonist. An example of this in action is throwing a ball, some shoulders will propel the ball by contracting and therefore creating force and some shoulder muscles will stablize the joint so the humorous does not just pop out. </li></ul>
    34. 37. Muscle Contractions <ul><li>Isometric - muscle length does not change </li></ul><ul><li>Concentric - muscle shortens under tension </li></ul><ul><li>Eccentric - muscle lengthens under tension </li></ul>Qn. 10
    35. 38. <ul><li>Concentric is the most common type of contraction, It shortens the muscle and when a resistance is added that contraction causes muscle tears. (more later) and therefore size can change. E.g. weightlifting </li></ul><ul><li>Eccentric contraction occurs when the muscles lengthens while under tension. (e.g lowering yourself slowly in a chin up) Gravity helps with this movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Isometric is when no lengthening or shortening occurs, instead the muscle fibers are activated and develop force. (movement does not occur) an action for isometric is rock climbing where the movement does not occur but you still require a force to hang up there. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think stretches are ?????? </li></ul>
    36. 39. <ul><li>Now we go outside! </li></ul><ul><li>Yes we go outside! </li></ul>