By:Phoebe D. PangilinanClaire Jan Mariel ParamioSean SantosMarielle TamboleroRafaela Villanueva
the act, fact, ability, or power of moving A musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system) is an organ system that gives animals (including humans) the ability to move using the muscular and skeletal systems. provides form, support, stability, and movement to the body.
provides the shape and form for our bodies in addition to supporting, protecting, allowing bodily movement, producing blood for the body, and storing minerals. Humans are born with about 300 to 350 bones; however, many bones fuse together between birth and maturity. As a result an average adult skeleton consists of 206 bones.
From Greek, skeletos = "dried-body", "mummy“ consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. It serves as a scaffold which supports organs, anchors muscles, and protects organs such as the brain, lungs and heart.
Exoskeletons are external, and are found in many invertebrates; they enclose and protect the soft tissues and organs of the body. Endoskeletons is the internal support structure of an animal, composed of mineralized tissue and are typical of many vertebrates.
The axial skeleton transmits the weight from the upper extremities down to the lower extremities at the hip joints responsible for the upright position of the human body. The axial skeleton (80 bones) is formed by the vertebral column (26) the rib cage (12 pairs of ribs and the sternum) the skull (22 bones and 7 associated bones).
Functions: to make locomotion possible and to protect the major organs of locomotion, digestion, excretion, and reproduction. The appendicular skeleton (126 bones) is formed by the shoulder girdles (4) the upper limbs (60) the pelvic girdle (2) the lower limbs (60).
A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. They are constructed to allow movement and provide mechanical support, and are classified structurally and functionally.
Movable joints: Ball-and-socket -distal bone is capable of motion around an indefinite number of axes Hinge joint -the articular surfaces are molded to each other in such a manner as to permit motion only in backward and forward motion Pivot joint-allows for rotation, which can be external (for example when rotating an arm outward), or internal (as in rotating an arm inward). Gliding joint- under physiological conditions, allows only gliding movement. Immovable joints: Suture joint- a type of fibrous joint which only occurs in the skull (or "cranium")
is the major structural and supportive connective tissue of the body. Osseous tissue forms the rigid part of the bone organs that make up the skeletal system. Two types: Compact bone-facilitates bones main functions: to support the whole body, protect organs, provide levers for movement, and store and release chemical elements, mainly calcium. Spongy bone-makes up most of the volume of the bone. It contains bone marrow which is a flexible tissue found in the interior of bones
Nervous system Bones provide calcium that is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. The skull protects the brain from injury. The vertebrae protect the spinal cord from injury. The vertebrae protect the spinal cord from injury. The brain regulates the position of bones by controlling muscles. Muscular System To help the body move freely, the skeletal system works very closely with the muscular system, which contains all the muscles in the body. Each individual muscle in the body is connected to one or more parts of the skeletal system Digestive System During the digestion of proteins, bones release Calcium which is an essential element for the strength of bones.
is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles. It permits movement of the body, maintains posture, and circulates blood throughout the body. Muscle cells, called fibers, move by lengthening and contracting, a process that generates much of the body heat needed for survival.
Skeletal muscles Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by dense, fibrous connective tissue called tendons. Exert balanced tension to hold bones in place to maintain the bodys position, or posture. There are nearly 650 skeletal muscles in the human body Cardiac muscle Cardiac, or heart, muscle is striated, but its action is beyond conscious control. When the skeletal muscles are exercised, they send signals to the heart via nerve cells to provide more oxygen Smooth or visceral muscles found in blood vessels and organs including the intestines, stomach and urinary tract, are involuntary They respond to demands for increased oxygen from the skeletal
Tendons are tough bands of fibrous connective tissue that usually connect muscle to bone Ligaments refer to fibrous tissue that connect bones to other bones. Example : head and neck, wrist, thorax, pelvis, knee
The Skeletal System Most of the muscular system exists for the exclusive purpose of interacting with the skeletal system. Muscles move bones in relationship to each other whenever you move your legs or arms. Smaller muscles move your jaws and fingers. The Nervous System The nervous system can be viewed as complex information-possessing systems whose input is the senses and whose output is the muscles. The Circulatory System The circulatory system brings nutrients to the muscles and takes away wastes. The circulatory system also carries hormones that regulate muscular activity. The pump for the circulatory system is the heart--a muscle.
The Digestive System The muscles of the jaw masticate food, and then muscles along the esophagus move food from the mouth to the stomach. Muscles along the intestines move digesting food along, and muscles control sphincters that isolate the sections of the digestive system. The Respiratory System The main interaction between the muscular system and the respiratory system is the diaphragm: a large, flat muscle that separates the lungs from the intestines. It is the movement of the diaphragm that causes the lungs to inflate and deflate. The Immune System The muscular system interacts with the immune system via the lymph system. The lymph vessels run through the muscles, and the regular action of the muscles pumps lymph through the lymph vessels. The lymph system does not have a pump like the circulatory system does.
Flexors Flexors bend at the joint, decreasing the interior angle of the joint. Bicep, is a flexor of the elbow joint, bringing the fist towards the shoulder. Extendors Extensors unbend at the joint, increasing the interior angle. The tricep, is an extensor of the elbow joint, taking the fist farther away from the shoulder. Abductors (link) Abductors take away from the body, like lifting the arm to the side. Abd- means to take away. Spreading out your fingers uses abductors, because you are taking away your fingers from an imaginary line running down your arm Adductors (link) Adductors move toward the body. By lowing an arm raised to the side, or moving your fingers together while keeping them straight, your muscles are adducting.