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The Muscular System Powerpoint


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The Muscular System Powerpoint

  1. 1. The Muscular System Specialized tissue that enable the body and its parts to move.
  2. 2. Anterior View
  3. 3. Posterior View
  4. 4. TRIVIA! <ul><li>How many muscles are there in the human body? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer: 640 Muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The muscles make up about 40 % of the body mass. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the longest muscle in the body? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer: The S artorius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sartorius runs from the outside of the hip, down and across to the inside of the knee. It twists and pulls the thigh outwards. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the smallest muscle in the body? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer: The S tapedius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stapedius is located deep in the ear. It is only 5mm long and thinner than cotton thread. It is involved in hearing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the biggest muscle in the body? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer: The G luteus Maximus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Gluteus Maximus is located in the buttock. It pulls the leg backwards powerfully for walking and running. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Functions of the Muscles <ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of posture and muscle tone </li></ul><ul><li>Heat production </li></ul><ul><li>Protects the bones and internal organs. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Muscle Classification <ul><li>Functionally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntarily – can be moved at will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntarily – can’t be moved intentionally </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structurally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Striated – have stripes across the fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth – no striations </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The 3 Types of Muscles
  8. 8. Smooth Muscle <ul><li>Fibers are thin and spindle shaped. </li></ul><ul><li>No striations </li></ul><ul><li>Single nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary </li></ul><ul><li>Contracts slowly </li></ul>
  9. 9. Smooth Muscle <ul><li>They fatigue… but very slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the circulatory system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lining of the blood vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps in the circulation of the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Found in the digestive system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Esophagus, stomach, intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Found in the respiratory system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Found in the urinary system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urinary bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls urination </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Cardiac Muscle <ul><li>Cells are branched and appear fused with one another </li></ul><ul><li>Has striations </li></ul><ul><li>Each cell has a central nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cardiac Muscle <ul><li>Found ONLY in the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Contractions of the heart muscles pump blood throughout the body and account for the heartbeat. </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy cardiac muscle NEVER fatigues  or else… </li></ul>
  12. 12. Skeletal Muscle <ul><li>Fibers are long and cylindrical </li></ul><ul><li>Has many nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Has striations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have alternating dark and light bands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voluntary </li></ul>
  13. 13. Skeletal Muscle <ul><li>Attached to skeleton by tendons </li></ul><ul><li>Causes movement of bones at the joints. </li></ul><ul><li>And yes… they do fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle fatigue activity  what substance forms causing muscle fatigue??? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Functions of Skeletal Muscle <ul><li>Movement – muscle move bones by pulling not pushing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synergists – any movement is generally accomplished by more than one muscle. All of the muscles responsible for the movement are synergists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The one that is most responsible for the movement is the Prime Mover (agonist) . </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Functions of Skeletal Muscle <ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antagonists – muscles and muscle groups usually work in pairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– example the biceps flex your arm and its partner the triceps extend your arm. The two muscles are antagonists , i.e. cause opposite actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– when one contracts the other relaxes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Levators – muscle that raise a body part. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Functions of Skeletal Muscle <ul><li>Maintenance of posture or muscle tone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We are able to maintain our body position because of tonic contractions in our skeletal muscles. These contractions don’t produce movement yet hold our muscles in position. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heat production – contraction of muscles produces most of the heat required to maintain body temperature. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Structure of Skeletal Muscle <ul><li>Composed of striated muscle cells (=muscle fibers) and connective tissue. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most muscles attach to 2 bones that have a moveable joint between them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The attachment to the bone that does not move is the origin . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The attachment to the bone that moves is the insertion . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendons anchor muscle firmly to bones. Tendons are made of dense fibrous connective tissue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ligaments connect bone to bone at a joint. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Structure of Skeletal Muscle <ul><li>Bursae – small fluid filled sacs that lie between some tendons and the bones beneath them. They are made of connective tissue and are lined with synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Structure of Skeletal Muscle <ul><li>Contribution of the nervous system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrochemical impulses travel from the frontal lobes of the cerebrum via motor nerves to the muscle fibers and cause them to contract. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensation is a function of the brain – impulses are integrated in the parietal lobes of the cerebrum (conscious muscle sense) and in the cerebellum (unconscious). These activities promote coordination . </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Structure of Skeletal Muscle <ul><li>Microscopic anatomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle cells (fibers) are grouped in a highly organized way in the muscle. The membrane that surrounds the muscle cell is called the sarcolemma . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle cells are filled with 2 types of fine threadlike proteins called myofilaments: myosin (thick) and actin (thin). These structures slide past each other causing the muscle cell to contract or shorten. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The myofilaments are arranged in the cells in small units called sarcomeres . </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Structure of Skeletal Muscle <ul><li>Neuromuscular junction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spot where the axon of a motor nerve nears the muscle fiber. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The axon terminal does not touch the muscle but comes close. The space between the axon and the muscle cell is called the synapse . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within the terminal end of the axon are small sacs filled with a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine . </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Muscle Contraction <ul><li>Sequence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical impulse travels down a motor neuron. When it reaches the end, acetylcholine (chemical) is released into the synapse. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acetylcholine bind to special receptors on the muscle cell and causes an electrical impulse to spread over the cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sarcomeres shorten and the muscle cell contracts. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Sarcomere Z Z Z Z Z Z I A A
  25. 27. Movement of Muscles <ul><li>Origin: the attachment of the muscle to the bone that remains stationary </li></ul><ul><li>Insertion: the attachment of the muscle to the bone that moves </li></ul><ul><li>Belly: the fleshy part of the muscle between the tendons of origin and/or insertion </li></ul>origin insertion belly
  26. 28. Movement of skeletal muscle <ul><li>These muscles move when the brain sends messages to the muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Always work in pairs </li></ul><ul><li>2 movements of skeletal muscle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contraction (shorten) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension (lengthen) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Categories of skeletal muscle actions <ul><li>Categories Actions </li></ul><ul><li>Extensor Increases the angle at a joint </li></ul><ul><li>Flexor Decreases the angle at a joint </li></ul><ul><li>Abductor Moves limb away from midline of body </li></ul><ul><li>Adductor Moves limb toward midline of body </li></ul><ul><li>Levator Moves insertion upward </li></ul><ul><li>Depressor Moves insertion downward </li></ul><ul><li>Rotator Rotates a bone along its axis </li></ul><ul><li>Sphincter Constricts an opening </li></ul>
  28. 31. Practice these Movements <ul><li>Bend arm </li></ul><ul><li>- biceps  contract </li></ul><ul><li>- triceps  extend </li></ul><ul><li>2. Straighten arm </li></ul><ul><li>- biceps  extend </li></ul><ul><li>- triceps  contract </li></ul><ul><li>3. Bend knee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- quadriceps  extend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- hamstrings  contract </li></ul></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>4. Straighten knee </li></ul><ul><li> - quadriceps  contract </li></ul><ul><li> - hamstrings  extend </li></ul><ul><li>5. Crunches </li></ul><ul><li>- abdomen  contract </li></ul><ul><li>- back muscles  extend </li></ul><ul><li>Point toes </li></ul><ul><li>- calf muscle  contract </li></ul><ul><li>- shin muscle  extend </li></ul>More Movements
  30. 33. Naming Skeletal Muscles <ul><li>Location of the muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Shape of the muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Relative Size of the muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Direction/Orientation of the muscle fibers/cells </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Origins </li></ul><ul><li>Location of the Attachments </li></ul><ul><li>Action of the muscle </li></ul>
  31. 34. Muscles Named by Location <ul><li>Epicranius </li></ul><ul><li>(around cranium) </li></ul><ul><li>Tibialis anterior (front of tibia) </li></ul>tibialis anterior
  32. 35. Naming Skeletal Muscles <ul><li>Shape: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deltoid (triangle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trapezius (trapezoid, 2 parallel sides) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>serratus (saw-toothed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rhomboideus (rhomboid, 4 parallel sides) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>orbicularis and sphincters (circular) </li></ul></ul>Rhomboideus major Trapezius Deltoid Serratus anterior
  33. 36. <ul><li>maximus (largest) </li></ul><ul><li>minimis (smallest) </li></ul><ul><li>longus (longest) </li></ul><ul><li>brevis (short) </li></ul><ul><li>major (large) </li></ul><ul><li>minor (small) </li></ul>Muscles Named by Size Psoas major Psoas minor
  34. 37. Muscles Named by Direction of Fibers <ul><li>Rectus (straight) </li></ul><ul><li>– parallel to long axis </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse </li></ul><ul><li>Oblique </li></ul>Rectus abdominis External oblique
  35. 38. <ul><li>Biceps (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Triceps (3) </li></ul><ul><li>Quadriceps (4) </li></ul>Muscles Named for Number of Origins Biceps brachii
  36. 39. Muscles Named for Origin and Insertion <ul><li>Sternocleidomastoid originates from sternum and clavicle and inserts on mastoid process of temporal bone </li></ul>origins insertion
  37. 40. Muscles Named for Action <ul><li>Flexor carpi radialis (extensor carpi radialis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– flexes wrist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abductor pollicis brevis (adductor pollicis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– flexes thumb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abductor magnus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– abducts thigh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extensor digitorum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– extends fingers </li></ul></ul>Adductor magnus
  38. 41. Arrangement of Fascicles <ul><li>Parallel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strap-like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: sartorius </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fusiform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spindle shaped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: biceps femoris </li></ul></ul>
  39. 42. Arrangement of Fascicles <ul><li>Pennate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;feather shaped” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unipennate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: extensor digitorum longus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bipennate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: rectus femoris </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multipennate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: deltoid </li></ul></ul>
  40. 43. Arrangement of Fascicles <ul><li>Convergent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: pectoralis major </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sphincters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: orbicularis oris </li></ul></ul>
  41. 44. There are about 60 muscles in the face. <ul><li>Smiling is easier than frowning . </li></ul><ul><li>It takes 20 muscles to smile and over 40 to frown. </li></ul>Smile and make someone happy .