By

    Dr. Noura El Tahawy

http://www.slideshare.net/nmohmed
Functions
 Support
 Protection
 Assistance in movement
 Mineral homeostasis
 Blood cell production
 Triglycerides storage
Functions of bones
1. Bones form the skeleton which is the framework of the body.
2. The skeleton supports the softer tiss...
Components
 Skull
 Vertebral column
 Auditory ossicles
 Hyoid
 Ribs
 Sternum
Components
 Upper limb bones
 Pectoral (shoulder) girdle
 Lower limb bones
 Hip girdle
Types of bones
 Long bone
 Short bone
 Flat bone
 Irregular bone
 Seasamoid bone
Types of bones
Long bone
 Greater length than width
 Mostly compact bone tissue
 Curved
 Vary in size
 Includes:
        Femur         Ul...
Long bone: Femur
Forms of bone
Short bones
 Cube shaped
 Equal lenghth and width
 Mostly spongy, except on surface it is compact
 Includes:
         carp...
Flat bones
 Thin
 2 layers of compact surrounding a spongy layer
 Large areas for muscle attachment
 Includes:
          C...
Irregular bones
 Complex shape
 Amount of spongy and compact varies
 Includes:
          Vertebrae
          Hip bone
    ...
Sesamoid bones
 Develop in certain muscles tendons
 Protect the tendons from excessive wear
Structure of bone
 Diaphysis
 Epiphysis
 Metaphysis
 Articular cartilage
 Periosteum
 Medullary cavity
 Endosteum
Structure of
bone:
Spongy bone tissue
Types of ossification
          By
  DR. Noura El Tahawy
Bone formation
   Intramembranous ossification
(flat bones)
   Endochondral ossification
(long bones)
Bone Growth & Remodeling
Growth
Appositional Growth = widening of bone
      Bone tissue added on surface by osteoblasts o...
Endochondral ossification
Endochondral ossification

Endochondral ossification is the gradual replacement of
cartilage by bone during development. T...
Intramembranous ossification
Intramembranous ossification is the transformation of the
mesenchyme, embryonic cells, into b...
Most bones arise from a combination of intramembranous
and endochondral ossification. Mesenchyme cells develop
into chondr...
Vertebral Column
Vertebral Column
Vertebra
Typical vertebra
Skull
Skull
Ribs
Sternum
Upper limb bones
 Humerus
 Ulna and radius
 Carpal bones
             1- Scaphoid     2- Lunate
             3- Triquetrum...
Pectoral girdle
 Clavicle
 Scapulae
Bones of the upper
      limb
Lower limb bones
 Femur
 Tibia
 Fibula
 Tarsal bones
           1- Talus              2- Calcaneum
           3- Navicular...
Hip girdle
 Hip bone
        1- ilium
        2- pubis
        3- sacrum
Bones of the lower limb
Bones of the lower limb
Bones of the foot
Bones of the foot
Thanks

http://www.slideshare.net/nmohmed
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
Skeletal system dr. noura
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Skeletal system dr. noura

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Lectures for faculty of Nursing by Dr. Noura El Tahawy

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Skeletal system dr. noura

  1. 1. By Dr. Noura El Tahawy http://www.slideshare.net/nmohmed
  2. 2. Functions Support Protection Assistance in movement Mineral homeostasis Blood cell production Triglycerides storage
  3. 3. Functions of bones 1. Bones form the skeleton which is the framework of the body. 2. The skeleton supports the softer tissues and provides points of attachment for most skeletal muscles. 3. The skeleton provides mechanical protection for many of the body's internal organs, reducing risk of injury to them. It forms boundaries of cranial, thoracic and pelvic cavities. Thus it protects the brain, lungs, heart etc. 4. Bones permit movement of the body as a whole or part of the body, by formation of joints, which are moved by muscles. 5. Bone tissues store several minerals, including calcium and phosphorus. When required, bone releases minerals into the blood facilitating and maintaining the balance of minerals in the body. 6. Bone contains red bone marrow in which blood cells develop. 7. Bone acts as an important chemical reserve. With advancing age, some bone marrow changes from red bone marrow to yellow bone marrow which consists mainly of adipose cells and a few blood cells.
  4. 4. Components Skull Vertebral column Auditory ossicles Hyoid Ribs Sternum
  5. 5. Components Upper limb bones Pectoral (shoulder) girdle Lower limb bones Hip girdle
  6. 6. Types of bones Long bone Short bone Flat bone Irregular bone Seasamoid bone
  7. 7. Types of bones
  8. 8. Long bone Greater length than width Mostly compact bone tissue Curved Vary in size Includes: Femur Ulna Tibia Radius Fibula Phalanges Humerus
  9. 9. Long bone: Femur
  10. 10. Forms of bone
  11. 11. Short bones Cube shaped Equal lenghth and width Mostly spongy, except on surface it is compact Includes: carpal bone (except pisiform) tarsal bones (except calcaneus)
  12. 12. Flat bones Thin 2 layers of compact surrounding a spongy layer Large areas for muscle attachment Includes: Cranial bones Sternum Ribs Scapulae
  13. 13. Irregular bones Complex shape Amount of spongy and compact varies Includes: Vertebrae Hip bone Certain facial bones Calcaneus
  14. 14. Sesamoid bones Develop in certain muscles tendons Protect the tendons from excessive wear
  15. 15. Structure of bone Diaphysis Epiphysis Metaphysis Articular cartilage Periosteum Medullary cavity Endosteum
  16. 16. Structure of bone:
  17. 17. Spongy bone tissue
  18. 18. Types of ossification By DR. Noura El Tahawy
  19. 19. Bone formation Intramembranous ossification (flat bones) Endochondral ossification (long bones)
  20. 20. Bone Growth & Remodeling Growth Appositional Growth = widening of bone Bone tissue added on surface by osteoblasts of the periosteum Medullary cavity maintained by osteoclasts Lengthening of Bone Epiphyseal plates enlarge by chondroblasts Matrix calcifies (chondrocytes die and disintegrate) Bone tissue replaces cartilage on diaphysis side
  21. 21. Endochondral ossification
  22. 22. Endochondral ossification Endochondral ossification is the gradual replacement of cartilage by bone during development. This is responsible for formation of most of the skeleton. Osteoblasts arise in regions of cartilage called ossification centers. They develop into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells, embedded in the calcified (hardened) part of the bone known as the matrix.
  23. 23. Intramembranous ossification Intramembranous ossification is the transformation of the mesenchyme, embryonic cells, into bone. During early development, the embryo consists of three primary cell layers, ectoderm on the outside, mesoderm in the middle and endoderm on the inside. Mesenchyme cells constitute part of the embryo's mesoderm and develop into connective tissue such as bone and blood. The bones of the skull derive directly from mesenchyme cells by intramembranous ossification.
  24. 24. Most bones arise from a combination of intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Mesenchyme cells develop into chondroblasts and increase in number by cell division. Chondroblasts enlarge and excrete a matrix which hardens due to presence of inorganic minerals. Chambers form within the matrix and osteoblasts and blood-forming cells enter these chambers. The osteoblasts then secret minerals to form the bone matrix.
  25. 25. Vertebral Column
  26. 26. Vertebral Column
  27. 27. Vertebra
  28. 28. Typical vertebra
  29. 29. Skull
  30. 30. Skull
  31. 31. Ribs Sternum
  32. 32. Upper limb bones Humerus Ulna and radius Carpal bones 1- Scaphoid 2- Lunate 3- Triquetrum 4- Pisiform 5- Trapezium 6- Trapezoid 7- Capitate 8- Hamate Metacapals phalanges
  33. 33. Pectoral girdle Clavicle Scapulae
  34. 34. Bones of the upper limb
  35. 35. Lower limb bones Femur Tibia Fibula Tarsal bones 1- Talus 2- Calcaneum 3- Navicular 4- Cuboid 5- Medial cuniform 6- Intermediate cuniform 7- Distal cuniform Metatarasals Phalanges
  36. 36. Hip girdle Hip bone 1- ilium 2- pubis 3- sacrum
  37. 37. Bones of the lower limb
  38. 38. Bones of the lower limb
  39. 39. Bones of the foot
  40. 40. Bones of the foot
  41. 41. Thanks http://www.slideshare.net/nmohmed

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