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Literacy in History/Social Studies: Strategies for Middle and
High School Classrooms
+ Welcome and Introductions

Liz Howald
Consultant for Global Programs
Primary Source
+

Today’s Session
 Goals:

Overview of Common Core & Literacy for Social Studies
 Provide examples and strategies of li...
+

Primary Source
We are a non-profit, global education organization
that educates K-12 teachers about world histories,
cu...
+

Experience with the Literacy in Social
Studies/History ELA Common Core
 Scale

1

of 1 – 5

The Common
Core? What’s
th...
+

Social Studies/History and the
Common Core
 No

Common Core Standards for Social
Studies/History Content

 Standards
...
+

Anchor Standards for Reading
Key Ideas and Details
1.
2.
3.

Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly an...
+ Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies
Key Ideas and Details
1. Cite specific textual evidence to supp...
+

Reading in History/Social Studies
Different types of texts





Primary Source: Historical letters, journals, docume...
+

Selecting Sources
 Text
 Not

Complexity

all texts require close reading

 Excerpts

that support overall understan...
+

Adapting Sources for Accessibility


Focusing





Ellipses
200 – 300 words

Simplification




Conventional synt...
+

Close Reading:
The Core of Common Core
Literacy
The first thing I notice
is the document. It’s
typed in blue. The
type doesn’t look like
a computer. Was it
typed on a
typ...
What else do I know
about the text that
doesn’t show up here?
The title of the
document was listed as
Franklin Roosevelt’s...
Next I look at the top
where it says “Message to
Congress 1941”. Who
delivers a message to
Congress? I know the
President ...
I picture Franklin
Roosevelt
standing in front
of Congress. I’ve
seen pictures of
him in front of
Congress so in
my mind I...
Why does he use the
term “unprecedented”?
What’s going on at the
time? Is it really the
biggest threat to the
United State...
There – he mentions the
Civil War. My prediction
was right. He’s
supporting his use of the
word “unprecedented”
by admitti...
Which two wars?
Prior to 1914,
maybe he means
War of 1812 and
Spanish-American
War.
He’s using “serious
threat” to show
th...
I wonder what was crossed
out? It looks like “the door.”
This is different from today
where I erase text on my
computer. I...
What do I know after
reading the first two
pages? Franklin
Roosevelt is telling
Congress that the U.S. is
facing an
unprec...
+

What specific things did I model?


Prediction



Sourcing



Contextualization



Corroboration



Questioning

...
+

Sentence Starters

Key Ideas and Details
•I predict…
•I expect the next thing to be…
•My prediction was…
•I’m confused ...
+

Other Ways to Examine This Text
1.

Close Reading
1.

Reading 3 times w/ Text-Dependent
Questions

2.

Language and Rhe...
+

Other Ways to Examine This Text
+

Things to Keep in Mind
1.

Use short excerpts

2.

“Chunk” text and number each section

3.

Allow enough space on the ...
+

Other Great Texts for Close
Reading


Kennan Memorandum: Latin America and the Cold War



Japan’s Peace Constitution...
+

Integration of Knowledge and
Ideas:
Multiple Sources of Information
+

I see 2 bars, so this must
be comparing 2 things.
I think I remember
reading about the 28th
parallel, but I need to
fin...
+

I see 4 bars, so we must be comparing different information.
The date is different, too. About 60 years separates the d...
+

My prediction was right; there’s a
hunger crisis. This might be what
has affected growth. The date
on this article is 2...
+
+

Op
inio
n

http://resources.primarysource.o
rg/koreachallengeshopes
+ Other Great Topics/Resources for
Integrating Knowledge Across Sources


India Energy Consumption Graphs: Environment

...
+

Text Dependent Questions
+

Text-Dependent Questions
 Questions
 Not

that require answers from the text

just recall questions

 Use

text evid...
+

Text-Dependent Questions

Key Ideas and
Details

Craft and
Structure
Integration of
Knowledge
and Ideas

general unders...
+

The Chinese Exclusion Act



What do you want
students to consider and
know from a reading of
this document?
+

Non-example/Example
NOT Text-Dependent


How did Chinese
immigrants feel
with the passing of
the Chinese
Exclusion Act...
+

TDQ: Key Ideas and Details


Who was the author/creator of this source?



When was this act approved?



Who was im...
+


TDQ: Craft and Structure
The term “Chinese laborer” is used throughout the text. How is
this term defined in the docu...
+

TDQ: Integration of Knowledge
and Ideas


Why was this Act created? Use evidence from the text to support
your answer....
+

Supporting Document

• Identify all of the
pieces of information
included in this
certificate that were
outlined in the...
+

Writing
+

Anchor Standards for Writing
Text Types and Purposes
1.
2.
3.

Write Arguments to support claims in an analysis of subs...
+ Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies
Text Types and Purposes
1.
2.
3.

Write arguments focused on di...
+

Good Writing Starts
with Great Questions


Different kinds of questions lead to different kinds of

writing. Decide wh...
+

Roosevelt Speech


Was it appropriate for Roosevelt to group “Freedom
from Want,” and “Freedom from Fear” with “Freedo...
+

Korea Graphs & Documents


Should the United States continue food aid to North
Korea, and if so, under what conditions...
+

Chinese Exclusion Act


What did the Chinese Exclusion Act suggest about how
Americans viewed Chinese immigrants in th...
+

Questions?
elizabeth@primarysource.org


Watch other Primary Source Webinars:
 Teaching Chinese History with Primary ...
Literacy in History/Social Studies:  Strategies for Middle and High School Classrooms
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Literacy in History/Social Studies: Strategies for Middle and High School Classrooms

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PPT from Primary Source webinar for Shrewsbury teachers, January 21, 2013. Common Core Literacy in History/Social Studies: Strategies for Middle and High School Classrooms

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Literacy in History/Social Studies: Strategies for Middle and High School Classrooms

  1. 1. + Literacy in History/Social Studies: Strategies for Middle and High School Classrooms
  2. 2. + Welcome and Introductions Liz Howald Consultant for Global Programs Primary Source
  3. 3. + Today’s Session  Goals: Overview of Common Core & Literacy for Social Studies  Provide examples and strategies of literacy in social studies   Agenda: Model Close Reading with FDR’s Four Freedoms Speech  Model integration of various sources using Korea text and graphs  Provide examples of text-dependent questions using Chinese Exclusion Act  Provide sample writing prompts for each source 
  4. 4. + Primary Source We are a non-profit, global education organization that educates K-12 teachers about world histories, cultures, and global issues.  Courses and Workshops  International study tours  Classroom-ready resources  www.primarysource.org
  5. 5. + Experience with the Literacy in Social Studies/History ELA Common Core  Scale 1 of 1 – 5 The Common Core? What’s that? 2 3 4 5 I integrate Common Core ELA Standards into my lessons every day. I’m just at the program today because I love professional development.
  6. 6. + Social Studies/History and the Common Core  No Common Core Standards for Social Studies/History Content  Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects, Grades 6-12  Integrated within 2011 Massachusetts Curriculum Framework for English Language Arts and Literacy
  7. 7. + Anchor Standards for Reading Key Ideas and Details 1. 2. 3. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. Craft and Structure 4. 5. 6. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text relate to each other and the whole. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. 8. 9. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
  8. 8. + Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies Key Ideas and Details 1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. 2. Determine central idea of primary/secondary source and summarize. 3. Identify, Analyze, and evaluate events/actions (cause/effect) using textual evidence. Craft and Structure 4. Determine meaning of words in texts. 5. Analyze structure of primary/secondary source. 6. Identify, Compare, and evaluate multiple points of view. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. Integrate multiple sources of information in diverse formats (e.g., visuals, quantitative data, etc.). 8. Evaluate evidence and claims. 9. Evaluate multiple sources on the same topic. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
  9. 9. + Reading in History/Social Studies Different types of texts    Primary Source: Historical letters, journals, documents, newspapers, artifacts Secondary source: narrative, informational/explanatory  Texts created in or describing events from the past.  Sourcing (author perspective, author bias)  Contextualization (what was going on at the time)  Corroboration (how does the document relate to other sources/texts)  Interpretation/Evaluation  Vocabulary   obsolete/non-contemporary words or spelling (e.g. “the Gilded Age”) Metaphors (e.g., “Black Thursday”)
  10. 10. + Selecting Sources  Text  Not Complexity all texts require close reading  Excerpts that support overall understanding, key ideas, key terms (short but complex)  Understanding what makes the text complex  Knowledge of the text
  11. 11. + Adapting Sources for Accessibility  Focusing    Ellipses 200 – 300 words Simplification   Conventional syntax, spelling, punctuation Presentation  16 pt font  White space Wineburg, S., & Martin, D. (2009). “Tampering with history: Adapting Primary Sources for Struggling Readers.” Social Education, 73(5), 212 – 216.
  12. 12. + Close Reading: The Core of Common Core Literacy
  13. 13. The first thing I notice is the document. It’s typed in blue. The type doesn’t look like a computer. Was it typed on a typewriter? The paper has marks on it and looks old. I wonder how it was used?
  14. 14. What else do I know about the text that doesn’t show up here? The title of the document was listed as Franklin Roosevelt’s Annual Address to Congress on January 6, 1941 (Four Freedoms). That means FDR gave the speech. I think I’ve heard of the Four Freedoms but I need to read more of the text to figure out what Four Freedoms means.
  15. 15. Next I look at the top where it says “Message to Congress 1941”. Who delivers a message to Congress? I know the President of the United States can. I assume the speech was given in 1941 because of the date. What happened in 1941? I need to find out what day the speech was given to know if it was before or after the US entered WWII. The document title said January 6, 1941. That would be a year before the US entered WWII.
  16. 16. I picture Franklin Roosevelt standing in front of Congress. I’ve seen pictures of him in front of Congress so in my mind I see that image.
  17. 17. Why does he use the term “unprecedented”? What’s going on at the time? Is it really the biggest threat to the United States? What about the War of 1812? The Civil War? (Well, the Civil War was a threat from within and not “without”.) Or WWI? I think this speech is near the start of WWII.
  18. 18. There – he mentions the Civil War. My prediction was right. He’s supporting his use of the word “unprecedented” by admitting there were other wars. I think the difference is a foreign enemy. Roosevelt mentioned that previous crises were domestic.
  19. 19. Which two wars? Prior to 1914, maybe he means War of 1812 and Spanish-American War. He’s using “serious threat” to show that 1941 is different from the past. I think this is important. FDR is stating that the US opposes isolation. He uses the metaphor of an “ancient Chinese wall” to illustrate US will not just stay inside the US. Does this speech signify a break in US policy?
  20. 20. I wonder what was crossed out? It looks like “the door.” This is different from today where I erase text on my computer. I wonder who’s handwriting that is? Was it FDR’s?
  21. 21. What do I know after reading the first two pages? Franklin Roosevelt is telling Congress that the U.S. is facing an unprecedented serious threat from other countries. And he doesn’t want the U.S. to be isolationist. Where else have I seen the word “isolationist”? When we studied WWI and some Americans did not want the United States to get involved in the war. Maybe some people don’t want the U.S. to get involved in the war in Europe in 1941.
  22. 22. + What specific things did I model?  Prediction  Sourcing  Contextualization  Corroboration  Questioning  Text-to-self connections  Building on prior knowledge  Using context clues to define new vocabulary  Summary
  23. 23. + Sentence Starters Key Ideas and Details •I predict… •I expect the next thing to be… •My prediction was… •I’m confused by… •I don’t know what [this word] means. Based on the clues in the text, I think it means… •At this point, I understand… •The argument up to here is… •A one-sentence summary of this passage is… •This author probably believes… •The evidence that the author uses to support his/her argument is… •The audience for this text is most likely … •This section reminds me of… •I don’t understand why the author … •One claim that the author makes is… •This statement is (the same as/different from) a statement this author made (elsewhere in the text/in a different text). I think the author… •I think the author wrote this … •The author does not include … •I know from other sources that [this event or movement] was happening at the time this source was created. This makes me think… •I (agree/disagree) with this statement because… •This account is the (the same as/different from) … •Based on what I know from other sources, I think… •I need to read [another source] to find out… •When the author was alive, many people thought… •I wonder… •This makes me think about… •This text was written (before/after) the other text which might mean… Craft and Structure •I wonder why the author… •I think the author used this (word/phrase) because… •The author uses this (word/phrase) multiple times, which makes me think… •I think the author used [this word/phrase] to make the (reader/audience) feel… Integration of Knowledge and Ideas •I (agree/disagree) with this statement because… •This is (the same as/different from) what we studied in history class because… •This text claims … whereas our textbook states…
  24. 24. + Other Ways to Examine This Text 1. Close Reading 1. Reading 3 times w/ Text-Dependent Questions 2. Language and Rhetoric (“freedom of” and “freedom from”) 3. Audio of the Speech 1. 4. http://docs.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/real/4free do1.rm Related Images (integration of knowledge from different types of sources)
  25. 25. + Other Ways to Examine This Text
  26. 26. + Things to Keep in Mind 1. Use short excerpts 2. “Chunk” text and number each section 3. Allow enough space on the page for students to write on the document 4. Start off by focusing on one or two skills and then add-on
  27. 27. + Other Great Texts for Close Reading  Kennan Memorandum: Latin America and the Cold War  Japan’s Peace Constitution: World War II  Ho Chi Minh Speeches: Vietnam War  Tawakkol Karman Nobel Speech: Middle East/Women in ME  Coal Mining Legislation in India: Human Rights/Environment Lessons based on each at www.primarysource.org/primarysourceworld
  28. 28. + Integration of Knowledge and Ideas: Multiple Sources of Information
  29. 29. + I see 2 bars, so this must be comparing 2 things. I think I remember reading about the 28th parallel, but I need to find out exactly what its significance is. The date says 1939, so this is before WWII and the Korean War. What accounts for height differences? Nutrition? Genetics?
  30. 30. + I see 4 bars, so we must be comparing different information. The date is different, too. About 60 years separates the data in these graphs. N Koreans are no longer taller on average; they are quite a bit shorter. What might account for this? What happened? Korean War…Division of Peninsula… Famine?
  31. 31. + My prediction was right; there’s a hunger crisis. This might be what has affected growth. The date on this article is 2009, which means the problem still exists. I wonder what’s caused the crisis? What is food aid? How is the U.S. involved? What does “truculent ward” mean? Why does North Korea call the hunger crisis an “eating problem” rather than a famine? http://resources.primarysource.o rg/koreachallengeshopes
  32. 32. +
  33. 33. + Op inio n http://resources.primarysource.o rg/koreachallengeshopes
  34. 34. + Other Great Topics/Resources for Integrating Knowledge Across Sources  India Energy Consumption Graphs: Environment  “En Eso Llego Fidel” & “Latin America in the Cold War” text  “Once Upon a Time in Afghanistan” photo essay, “Power Shifts in Afghanistan History” map essay, and “No Story is Simple” text  Vietnam Oral History Interviews & “The Vietnam War through Vietnamese Eyes” text  Chinese Propaganda Posters & “Women’s Roles in China” text  UN’s “Impact of Armed Conflict on Children” & Children’s Testimonies Lessons based on each at www.primarysource.org/primarysourceworld
  35. 35. + Text Dependent Questions
  36. 36. + Text-Dependent Questions  Questions  Not that require answers from the text just recall questions  Use text evidence to make inferences beyond what is written in text  Progression from explicit text to implicit meanings from the text(s)  Can also include prompts for discussion and writing  Questions that help students understand the key historical significance and understandings of the text
  37. 37. + Text-Dependent Questions Key Ideas and Details Craft and Structure Integration of Knowledge and Ideas general understandings, key details, who, what, where, when, why, how, themes, central ideas vocabulary, text structures, syntax, meanings, language, organization Inferences, arguments, opinions, intertextual connections
  38. 38. + The Chinese Exclusion Act  What do you want students to consider and know from a reading of this document?
  39. 39. + Non-example/Example NOT Text-Dependent  How did Chinese immigrants feel with the passing of the Chinese Exclusion Act? Text-Dependent  What specific restrictions did the Chinese Exclusion Act place on Chinese immigrants once it was passed in 1882?
  40. 40. + TDQ: Key Ideas and Details  Who was the author/creator of this source?  When was this act approved?  Who was impacted by this act?  What rules does this act establish for Chinese immigrants?  What is significant about November 17, 1880 in relation to this document?  As a result of this act, what did Chinese immigrants need to produce when leaving or entering the United States at this time?  What does this document decry about American citizenship for Chinese immigrants at this time?  What punishments did people face if they disobeyed this act?
  41. 41. +  TDQ: Craft and Structure The term “Chinese laborer” is used throughout the text. How is this term defined in the document?  What does the term suggest about why Chinese immigrants came to the United States in the late 19th century?  What are the text features of this Congressional Act? How is the document organized?  This document is known as the Chinese Exclusion Act. What does “exclusion” mean?  Where does the word appear in the text?  What other words or phrases are used as a substitute for “exclusion”?
  42. 42. + TDQ: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas  Why was this Act created? Use evidence from the text to support your answer.  Based on your reading of the text, discuss with a partner what impact this act might have had on Chinese immigration to the United States once the act was passed.
  43. 43. + Supporting Document • Identify all of the pieces of information included in this certificate that were outlined in the Chinese Exclusion Act. Annotate both texts. http://imgzoom.cdlib.org/Fullscreen.ics?ark=ark:/13030/kt7w10224t/z1&&brand=calisphere#
  44. 44. + Writing
  45. 45. + Anchor Standards for Writing Text Types and Purposes 1. 2. 3. Write Arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences. Production and Distribution of Writing 4. 5. 6. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. Use technology, including the internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others. Research to Build and Present Knowledge 7. 8. 9. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. Range of Writing 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
  46. 46. + Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies Text Types and Purposes 1. 2. 3. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content (e.g., claims, counterclaims, evidence). Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes. Incorporate narrative accounts into historical analysis.* Production and Distribution of Writing 4. 5. 6. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach for a specific audience. Use technology, including the internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing and revise to incorporate new information. Research to Build and Present Knowledge 7. 8. 9. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively, assess each source, integrate information selectively, avoid plagiarism, and follow standard format for citations. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. Range of Writing 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
  47. 47. + Good Writing Starts with Great Questions  Different kinds of questions lead to different kinds of writing. Decide what kind of writing you want your students to do (argument, explanatory, narrative) and craft your question with that in mind.  Evaluative questions compel students to make a claim and cite evidence to support it.  Logical Structure Follows:  Claim—background information—argument (subclaims, evidence, reasoning)—counter argument— refutation
  48. 48. + Roosevelt Speech  Was it appropriate for Roosevelt to group “Freedom from Want,” and “Freedom from Fear” with “Freedom of Speech” and “Freedom of Worship” in the Four Freedoms Speech?     Listen to the audio of the speech. Write how hearing the speech affects your answer to the question. Look at the Norman Rockwell paintings. Write how he might answer the question. Have a debate on the question in which students must present their claims, cite evidence, and refute opposing positions. Write a research paper that supports your argument with other primary and secondary sources.
  49. 49. + Korea Graphs & Documents  Should the United States continue food aid to North Korea, and if so, under what conditions?     Watch 60 minutes special on Shin Dong-hyuk, escapee from a North Korean prison camp, and write how hearing his story affects your answer. Have students write a letter to their state representatives advocating for or against food aid to North Korea, citing specific evidence for their argument. Have a debate on the question in which students must present their claims, cite evidence, and refute opposing positions. Write a research paper that supports your argument with other primary and secondary sources.
  50. 50. + Chinese Exclusion Act  What did the Chinese Exclusion Act suggest about how Americans viewed Chinese immigrants in the 1880s?   Explore the Poetic Waves/Angel Island website and read some of the poetry written by Asian immigrants. Write the effects of the Chinese Exclusion Act on immigrants citing specific information from the Chinese Exclusion Act and Angel Island Poetry. Conduct research on current immigration policy in the U.S. Write an explanation of how immigration policy has evolved since the 1880s.
  51. 51. + Questions? elizabeth@primarysource.org  Watch other Primary Source Webinars:  Teaching Chinese History with Primary Sources  Teaching Japan: New Online Resources from Primary Source  Teaching India: Literature and Online Resources for the Secondary Classroom  Online Resources for Teaching the History, Politics, and Culture of Korea  http://www.youtube.com/primarysourceinc  THANK YOU!

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