1. COSMETICS USED FOR NAIL
NAIL POLISH REMOVER
Dr. Prashant L. Pingale
Dept. of Pharmaceutics,
GES’s Sir Dr. M. S. Gosavi College of
Pharm. Edu. and Research,
• Nail polish or nail varnish is a preparation
that is applied to the nails of both the
fingers and toes, usually cosmetically, but
also as protection for the nails.
• to decorate nails of fingers & toes which
gives clean & pink nail as well as elegant
and healthy look.
Harmless to skin,
Convenient & easy to apply,
Stable on storage,
Should form satisfactorily film on nails,
Proper viscosity (film formed is even so good wetting & flow
Good adhesive properties,
Good gloss , which implies a very smooth surface
Sufficient flexibilities to avoid brittleness & cracking
Satisfactory drying properties
Maintenance of properties for 1 week
Pigment Suspending agents
Nail Lacquer System
Lacquer base Coloring agents Other formulating agent
6. FILM FORMER
• Cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butylate, ethyl cellulose, vinyl
polymer & other polymer of methacrylate
– Available in solution of different viscosity,
– Film produced: hard & water-proof & abrasion resistance
– If used alone: poor gloss, tendency to shrink.
– Available in 2 standards: RS & SS
• RS : 11.2 to 12.8% nitrogen & soluble in esters, ketones, glycol ether
• SS : 10.7 to 11.2 % nitrogen & soluble in alcohol & toluene.
– Selection of other ings. important, instability may cause severe
discoloration of nails of the users.
7. Used to impart adhesion and improve gloss
Helps in dispersing insoluble pigments & lakes
e.g. shellac, benzoin, ester gums, vinyl resin like PVA
Sulphonamide - formaldehyde resins are presently used most.
Santolite MHP: harder the nitrocellulose film & impart gloss
Santolite MS 80%: flexibility, high gloss, good flow property
These Santolites are claimed to increase the moisture resistance.
• Used to avoid brittle film formed by nitrocellulose
• Used to impart flexibility & adhesive property to film
• Two types:
– Solvent plasticizers: compatible with nitrocellulose
– Non-solvent plasticizers: non-compatible with nitrocellulose
– Used in combination, proportion is usually 1:1.
• Dibutyl phthalate, Butyl glycollate, Butyl stearate, Camphor,
Castor oil, Dibutyl tartrate
– Glycollate plasticizers: better hardness, better feel, good adhesion on
9. • Solvent & non-solvent plasticizers:
• Solvent: solvents for nitrocellulose, high M.W., high B.P.
& low volatility
– e.g. butyl acetyl ricenoleate.
• Non-solvent: cant use alone, if used after evaporation of
solvent they often form droplets on the film.
– e.g. castor oil
• Evaporation is important but not rapid as it causes uneven & streaky
• Blushing: dull film & unattractive finish due to rapid cooling
• Low BP solvents: (range: 35 to 800c)
– Ethyl ether, Pet. ether, Acetone, Ethanol, Propanol
• Medium BP solvents: (range: 115 to 1400c)
– Amyl acetate, Xylol, Butyl alcohol.
• High BP solvents: (range: 150 to 2050c)
– Ethyl lactate, Carbitol.
11. • Active solvent:
– Esters, ketones, glycol ethers
– May be fast, medium & slow evaporating
– Non- solvent for nitrocellulose
– Used to increase the strength of solvent
– Used to stabilize viscosity,
– Form subsequent coat of enamel applied to nail
– Ethanol, IPA, Butanol
– Compatible with other ingredients,
– Moderately exposed to light
• Color used mentioned in Schedule Q of D & C rules.
• Titanium dioxide, Yellow iron oxide, Red iron oxide, Iron
blue, Iron black, Ultramarine black,
13. SUSPENDING AGENTS
• Insoluble pigments have tendency to settle
• Suspending agents: avoid sedimentation
• Bentone 0.5 to 2%
• Orthophosphoric acid may used to increase the
• Used to mask the odor of other ingredients
• Not used in high conc.
• Strong perfumes avoided
• Generally synthetic perfumes are preferred but causes
destabilization of the color or product.
15. Steps in nail lacquer
Add 75%of solvent & whole of diluent in a mixture.
Add nitrocellulose while agitation
Add resin and plasticizer & remaining of solvent
Stir till dissolved
Clarify by filtration
Add color Uniform product
18. Formula & Procedure
• Nitrocellulose 15
• Eudragit RS 100 2.5
• Di butyl Phthalate 4.5
• Alcohol + Acetone (40:60) 10
• Ethyl Acetate 30
• Butyl Acetate 5
• Toluene 30
• Pigment 3
• Take the weighed quantity of nitrocellulose in a glass bottle (vial) and add ethyl
acetate and butyl acetate.
• Allow it to swell.
• Add the other ingredients like diluent and pigment and shake well.
• Pack in a stopper bottle and label.
21. Non volatile content
Sample of 1/0.5 gms place in a dish
Sample is spread over dish
Place in an oven at 1050C
Skin formed is broken up with the wire
Again place in an oven at 1050C for 1hr
Weighed loss value calculating the impurity
22. Drying time
• apply film of 0.006 on glass or melamine coated
• temp &humidity condition 250C & 50% RH
• note time required to form dry to touch film
0.006 inches cast on glass plate
Dried for 48 hrs at 250C
Followed by 2 hrs at 700C
Film scratch with thumb
24. Smoothness of film
• Nail lacquer applied o smooth surface
• Film studied microscopically
• Applied on surface & trying to remove film
mechanically & measure force required to
remove the film.
25. Abrasive Effect
– Applied on surface & apply the mechanical abrasive
– Surface characteristics of film studied before &
– Brookefield viscometer
26. Water resistance
– Measures resistance of the water permeability of film
– Apply on surface & immerse or deep in water
– Before & after wt. taken & calculated
– More the increase in wt. lower the water resistance
27. NAIL LACQUER REMOVER
• Preparations generally used to remove the nail lacquer
• Contains fats in small amount
• Available in liquid form but some creams are available in
• Solvents like acetone, ethyl acetate, toluene are used.
• More volatile solvent are avoided as they cause
dehydration & remove fats form nails.
• May be avoided by using blended solvents or castor oil.
• Not too be volatile,
• Non-irritating to surrounding skin,
• Not leave fats from nail,
• Non- sticky,
• Not have unpleasant odor
29. • Other oils used are:
– Almond oil,
– Olive oil,
– Cottonseed oil etc.
• Some fatty additives are used are:
– Dibutyl phthalate,
– Butyl stearate &
– Lanolin derivatives
– Butyl stearate 3%
– Ethyl acetate 15%
– Butyl acetate 25%
– Acetone 27%
– Toluene 30%
• Add perfume to avoid the objectionable odor & upto 3%.
– Water 10%
– Ethyl acetate 90%
• This is non-smearing type of nail lacquer remover
• Do not dissolve enamel but loosely disintegrate it.
• Prepared with water & water miscible solvents.