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Hair conditioner


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Hair conditioner

  1. 1. HairConditioners By : Dr. Hemat Elgohary Email :
  2. 2. Benefits•Reduce the forcesassociated withbrushing of the hair•Provides colorretention benefits forcolor-treated hair•The reduction orprevention of flyaway specially by cationichair conditioners
  3. 3. •Increasing the ease ofbrushing•Repair of damaged hair•Strengthening of hair•Repair of split ends• Increase in hair shine•Feel softer•Vitamin
  4. 4. HAIR FIBER central cortexresponsible for thetensile properties of thehair “cuticle.”8 to 10 layers of overlapping cellshair feelshine comb ability
  5. 5. No conditionerWith conditioner
  6. 6. Virgin Hair Surfaces Hair that has not been chemically treated mix of hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity As a result of its protein structure the hair surface has an isoelectric point near 3.67 as a result of a layer which insures that the surface of fatty acids will contain negatively charged covalently bound to hydrophilic sites at the the outermost ordinary pH levels of hair caresurface of the cuticle products
  7. 7. cystine In the hair cystine S-sulfonate UV cysteic acidThe tip portions of the hair, beingolder than the root portions - - - -therefore be more hydrophilicaffecting the nature of species thatcan bind to these sites.
  8. 8. greater combing damagethe surface friction of hair tips is higher This eventually results indestruction of the covalently the tip ends of hair require bound lipid layer more and a feeling of dryness at conditioning than the rest of the tips the fiber Without sufficient conditioning, the cuticle layer is eventually lost, resulting in a split end
  9. 9. Chemically Treated Hair Surfacespermingbleachingpermanent dyeingsignificant damage to the hair fiber tensile damage modify the surface of the hair Introducing negative charges oxidation of cystine to cysteic acid transformation of the fiber surface from a hydrophobic to hydrophilic
  10. 10. treated hair generally requires more conditioning than virgin hair conditioner, can prolong the health of the hair fiber
  11. 11. COMMERCIAL CONDITIONERS Forms:•thick Vaseline pomades•creams•gels• mousses•lotions• spray mists.
  12. 12. Classes :regular rinseoff conditionersintensive treatment conditionersleave-in products
  13. 13. regular rinse-off conditionersnormally applied after shampoofollowed by a rinsing stepThis is the most common form ofconditioner sold.
  14. 14. Intensive treatment conditionersNot for daily application. They are used for intensive treatmentcontain a higher level of active ingredients that are kept on the hair for a longer period of timesold as thicker creams to provide the perception of higher conditioning.
  15. 15. Leave-in productslighter and can potentially provide more significantbenefits than rinse-off products everything applied stays on the hair until the nextshampoo.come in various forms, such as detanglers, leave-inlotions, and sprays.They are marketed either for single application ormultiple applications during the day. What about me?? !!!
  16. 16. KEY INGREDIENTS OF HAIR CONDITIONERS  Cationic Surfactants  Lipophilic Conditioners  Polymers  Silicones  Auxiliary Ingredients
  17. 17. Cationic Surfactantsthe most widely used agents incommercial productsBenefits ExamplesEffectiveness stearalkonium chlorideVersatility Cetrimonium chlorideAvailability dicetyldimonium chloridelow cost
  18. 18.  counter anions•chloride•bromide•MethosulfateBecause of the positive charge•they are substantive to hair and bind tonegative sites on the hair surface.
  19. 19. The Results•hydrophobic coating on the fiber thatrender the hair softer and easier to comb• Buildup of static charge (flyaway) is also greatlyreduced as a result of this surface modification• deposition increases withincreasing negative charge on thehair surface
  20. 20. Are you sure ??!!
  21. 21. deposition and degree of penetration into the hair fiber interaction between cationic conditioners andthe hair fiber mainly occurs at the surface low–molecular weight materials maypenetrate the interior via intercellular diffusion Cetrimonium bromide (CETAB)can penetrate the cuticular sheath as well as cortex
  22. 22. Conditioner Properties and Hydrophobicity•Binding of Stearalkonium Chloride to Human Hair Type of hair Quat deposition at Quat deposition at tips roots (mg/g hair) (mg/g hair) Virgin hair 0.649 0.789 Bleached 1.62 1.83 hair more hydrophobic leads to increased deposition on hair
  23. 23. Cetrimonium Laurtrimonium chloride chloride deposits on hair tricetylmonium chloride dicetyldimonium chloride monocetyl quat
  24. 24. tricetylmonium cetrimonium chlorides chloridedicetyldimonium provide Provides heavier light to conditioning medium conditioning
  25. 25. Detangling and wet combing, in particular,improve significantly from monocetyl todicetyl to tricetyl quatsNote that on some types of hair, the greatersubstantivity of higher conditioning quats canlead to buildup with repeated use and result inlimp, unmanageable hair.e.gA tricetyl quat might beused, in an intensiveconditioner meant only foroccasional use.
  26. 26. commercial conditioners and shampoos The quaternium compounds normally used incommercial conditioners are not generallyfound in shampoosbecause of its incompatibility withcommon anionic detergents & conditioner
  27. 27. Example “Ethoquats.”•polyethylene glycol (PEG)•cocomonium chlorideBoth of these quats are compatible withtypical anionic detergentsIntroducing hydrophilic groupsdecreases the conditioning efficacysuitable only in light conditioning Formulationsconditioning shampoos based on ethoquats wouldnot be expected to be very effective as a result of lowdeposition of the detergent-soluble ethoquat complex
  28. 28. Other detergent-soluble quats :alkylamidopropyldihydroxypropyl dimonium chlorides lauryl methyl gluceth hydroxypropyl dimonium chloridehydrolyzed ginseng-saponin quaternary derivedfrom Korean ginseng saponinlow irritationthe same conditioning limitationsas the ethoquats.
  29. 29. Other Cationic Surfactants Behentrimonium(C22) (longer fatty chain) reduced eye and skin irritationsuperior conditioning and thickeningproperties Tallow octyl dimonium chloride provides high conditioning as a result of its twohydrophobic chains.soluble in water as a result of branchingeasier to formulate into a commercial product.
  30. 30. immidazoline-based quatsclaimed a softening effect on fabrics or hair. have also been disclosed led to the synthesis of ester quats that exhibitbiodegradability affect environmental safety Dipalmitoylethyl hydroxyethylmonium methosulfateGuerbet alcoholshydrolyzed keratinDistearyldimonium chloridesoy and wheat protein milk protein
  31. 31. Amines (with fatty chains) low pH protonation cationiccationicEmulsifiers and conditioning agentssuch as stearamidopropyl dimethylamine Different acids may have different effects on the viscosity of the final product.
  32. 32. Lipophilic Conditioners •long-chain fatty conditioners cetyl alcohols  stearyl alcohols FunctionBoost the conditioning effects ofthe quaternary compoundsReduced in wet combing forces on hairReduced surface friction.
  33. 33. cationic surfactants and fatty alcohols mixturesform lamellar liquid crystal mesophases and gel networksincrease viscosityconfer stability upon emulsionsmanufacturing solids at room temperature requiring heating to incorporate into a product the cooling rate is not so rapid
  34. 34. Other lipidsglycol distearatetriglyceridesfatty esterswaxes of triglyceridesliquid paraffin
  35. 35. Polymers (Cationic Polymers) improved wet combing reduced static chargeExamples:Polyquaternium - 6Polyquaternium-7Polyquaternium-10Polyquaternium-11Polyquaternium-16
  36. 36. cationic charge densitythe higher the charge density, the lower the weightof polymer needed to neutralize all of the negativechargeon the hair. multiple points of electrostatic attachment harder to removeCare must be taken, to avoid over-conditioning as aresult of buildup with continued usedeposition of polyquaterniums increases ontreated or damaged hair.
  37. 37. commercial conditioners and shampooscompatible to varying degrees with anionicsurfactantsused more in shampoos than in stand-aloneconditionersthey find some use in leave-in conditioners.
  38. 38. Polyquaternium-10 (PQ-10)polyquaternium-7 (PQ-7)•The most frequently used polymers in commercialshampoos.•Conditioning from shampoos is significantly less thanfrom stand-alone conditioners.polyquaternium association complexesformed with sodium lauryl sulfate resistremoval from hair•Buildup•heavy coated feel on the hair•they are should carefully formulated.
  39. 39.  some polyquaternium materials improve adhesion of the cuticle scales thereby increasing resistance to scale uplift when the hair is stressed because of Other Polymers cost, they are rare. amphiphilc polymers amphoteric polymers block copolymers graft polymers dendrimers use as  conditioning agents stabilizers, deposition agents
  40. 40. Silicones Conditioning effectsilicone quats,Amodimethiconedimethicone,Dimethicone copolyoldimethiconol, soluble insoluble may not be as must therefore be effective in rinse-off emulsified products
  41. 41. Silicone emulsions can vary in:1) charge (anionic, cationic, or nonionic),2) size (microemulsion or macroemulsion),3) how they are made (mechanical or emulsion polymerization)the smaller the size of the silicone particles, the morestable the product emulsionreducing the particle size improves conditioningperformance If a preformed heat  to control silicone emulsion is not used???? particle size of shear the silicone droplets
  42. 42. Conditioning Properties of Silicones  Lubricity  Spread easily on the hair surface  Ease of combing and imparts a smooth, soft feel to the hair without greasiness. Dimethicone lowered frictional coefficients and surface energy of virgin hair to a greater extent than a series of cationic surfactants, including distearydimonium chloride, a very effective conditioning agent.
  43. 43. Measure conditioning effect on Experiment slightly bleached European hair 1Dimethiconol gums more effective in reducing dry combing forces.Dimethicone fluids wet combing was roughly the same
  44. 44. Exposure to Experiment silicone solutions 2 for 30 seconds followed by drying without rinsing  presence of tricetylmonium chloride (quat) double deposition of all siliconesReduction in combing forces was also roughlydoubled Synergistic Effect
  45. 45. Effects of a series of silicone Experiment emulsions on bleached and 3 virgin hairSilicones dimethicones or amodimethiconesEmulsions anionic neutral cationicEmulsions were applied directly to thehair and combing forces measured bothbefore and after rinsing
  46. 46. Before rinsingreduction of combing forces by most emulsions wasgreater than 80%.After rinsingthe least change in ease of combing was found for cationicemulsions,especially those containing amodimethiconeCombing forces on virgin hair increased less than onbleached hair after rinsing The silicones were more substantive to virgin hair
  47. 47. Effects of Amodimethicones Experiment 3 Deposition on hair was found to increase with increasing amine content in the silicone Microemulsion in the test series that provided high conditioning was also shown to significantly reduce the color fading caused by shampoo of temporarily dyed hair
  48. 48. Other SiliconesCyclomethiconevolatile and will not remain on dry hair, especially after blow-dryingIt helps other conditioning agents to disperse helps improve wet combing and provides transient shine widely used as a solvent to reduce the viscosity of silicone gums with much higher molecular weights.
  49. 49. phenyl trimethiconehigh refractive index, close to thatof hair,commonly used in leave-inconditioners to enhance the shine ofhair fibersdimethicone copolyol phosphatesanionic functional siliconesable to complex with tertiary amines of cationichair conditioners and form effective emulsifiersand conditioners
  50. 50. fluorocarbon-modified organosiliconesvery hydrophobic like dimethicone; however, they areclaimed to have a lighter and more lubricious feel silicone blendsblends of these materialshaving different molecular weightsdifferent functional groups silicones with other hydrophobic oilsimprove overall conditioning benefits
  51. 51. 2-in-1 Shampoos Silicones find important application as the primaryconditioning agents in 2-in-1 conditioningshampoos the shampoo emulsion breaks, releasing the siliconefor deposition on hair.Dimethicone The conditioning agent used mostfrequently in 2-in-1 shampoos provide good performance in shampooformulations without excessive buildup on &the hair conditioner
  52. 52. Newer formulationsDimethicone emulsionsAmodimethiconesDimethiconols,CopolyolsCombinations of these different typesThe level of conditioning from 2-in-1 shampoosis lower than that from stand-alone conditionersMany 2-in-1 products contain polyquats, whichmight be expected to increase conditioning ondamaged hair
  53. 53. Polyquat performance on treated hair may be nobetter than Dimethicone as a result of formation ofthe negatively charged polymer complexesin 2-in-1 shampoos Dimethicone Amodimethi Dimethicone cone copolyolscombing Similar Similar Lawconditioning Similar Similar Lawfoam volume reduced minimal effect minimal effect soluble dimethicone copolyols did not perform well
  54. 54. Auxiliary IngredientsPreservativesThickenersHumectants OthersEmulsifiers Fragrances Dyes pearlizers herbal extracts vitamins
  55. 55. Preservativesinsure the microbiological integrityIf the product contains high concentrations of ethylalcohol (generally 20% or above), additionalpreservatives are not needed and the product isdescribed as self-preserving.Most of the preservatives used inpersonal care products are described inthe Cosmetic PreservativesEncyclopedia
  56. 56. Thickeners Cationic conditioning polymers can also act as thickeners Hydroxyethylcellulosea nonionic cellulose ether compatible with cationicsurfactants and stable over a wide pH rangethe most common thickening agent added toconditioning productsincreased viscosity, this material stabilizes viscosityover time
  57. 57. Polyamidescan be used to emulsify and thicken lotion orcream conditionersPolyacrylate-based thickeners such as carbopol in the past these thickeners have not alwaysbeen compatible with cationic surfactantsRecently, new thickeners based on polyacrylatechemistry have been commercialized to address thisissue.
  58. 58. Humectantspurpose is to attract moistureExamplespropylene glycolGlycerinHoneyChitosanhyaluronic acidNot expected to be very effective in rinse-off products.
  59. 59. EmulsifiersMost emulsifiers used in conditioners arenonionic including:Ethoxylated fatty alcoholsEthoxylated fatty estersEthoxylated sorbitan fatty esters.
  60. 60. To be …………healthy & beautiful