• STRUCTURE OF SKIN
• CLASSIFICATION OF SKIN COSMETICS
• Cosmetics arise from a Greek word kosmeticos which
• If any material used for beautification or improvement of
appearance is known as cosmetics.
• In the last 3-4 decades the use of cosmetics has
increased in among in females and males The cosmetics
are external preparation are meant to be applied to
external parts of the body .
• In other words they may be applied to skin, hair and nails
for the purpose of covering colouring, softening,
cleansing , nourishing ,and protection.
• Skin is the external barrier of the body,
both physical and immunological
• skin is the largest organ of the body, it
constitutes about 16% of body weight
• its total surface area is about 1.2-2.2 m2
protection, sensory reception, excretion
The skin is the outer most layer of the body. It is
constituted of 2 layers :
Stratum corneum : It consist of epidermal cells
lipophilic nature The membrane provides about 10
-15 layers of flattened keratinized dead cells It is 10
um when it is dry.
But It can take up moisture up to 15 -20 % When
occlusive dressing / cream applied over the skin
prevent the evaporation of water It plays a role in
controlling the percutaneous absorption of chemical
• Stratum lucidum: It is thin translucent layer .
• Stratum granulosum : It is consist of keratin
• Stratum spinosum : It consist of flattened
• Stratum germinativum : It consist of
Dermis /corium It consist of dense network of
structural protein fibres .It is about 0.2-0.3mm
thickness It contains blood vessels,lymphatic
vessels, nerve ending
• Sebaceous gland
Oil is produced in the sebaceous gland , this production is
stimulated by hormones. Oil flows into the hair follicle then onto the
• Epidermis barrier
– Protect from UV
– Sweat glands
– Blood vessels
– Nerve endings
Some common disorders of skin
• Hyper pigmentation: This disorder due to abnormal
pigmentation or increased local synthesis of melanin in
the epidermis . This can be further stimulated by
exposure to UV radiation.
• Hypopigmentation: This disorder due to less
pigmentation of melanin . which is called as vitiligo.
Acne( pimples)& prickly heat (miliaria) Malfunction of
sebaceous gland and sweat gland Skin scaling is caused
by dandruff and psoriasis
• Psoriasis: It is formation of scaly red
patches particularly on the extensor surface
of the body.
• Dandruff : Flaking of s.corneum and mostly
occurs on scalp due to microbial infection .
• Effects of aging of the skin: Aging affects
the character and function of the skin .
cosmetics are used to partially repair , mask
or overcome such changes Decrease in
elasticity of the skin cause wrinkles due to
less blood supply.
1.CLENSING AND BESWAX-BORAX 1.FACE POWDER 1.LIPSTICK 2.ROUGES 1.SUNSCREEN
COLD CREAM. LIQUEFYING 2.COMPACT 2.PALLIATIVE
2.FOUNDATION AND 3.BODY POWDER 3.SIMULATIVE
3.HAND AND BODY
• Creams are semisolid emulsions containing
mixture of oil and water. There consistency
varies between liquids and solids.
They are used for the purpose of removing makeup, remove
the dirt on the skin and to clean the secretion
of skin form the face and neck respectively.
They should be easy to apply.
They should be spread easily on the skin.
They should have a nice appealing appearance.
They should not cause irritation to skin.
They should not melt or liquefy when applied on to skin.
They should form an emollient film on the skin.
They should not make the skin dry.
They should remove chemicals of facial make-up effectively.
They should help in softening, lubricating and protecting skin apart form
• How to apply?
– They are applied on face and neck with the help
of finger tips. Then the fingers are rotated upward
on the skin for spreading purpose. Tissue paper
or cotton wool is used to remove the residue of
• Cleansing cream are of two types:
– Bees wax-borax type/emulsified type.
– Liquefying type
Bees wax-borax type/emulsified
• It is an oil-water type of emulsion, containing high
percentage of mineral oil. This mineral oil helps in
imparting cleansing property.
Mineral oil(lubricant) 28g
Isopropyle myristate(lubricant & emmollient) 14g
Petroleum jelly(lubricant) 7.5g
• This type of creams consist of a mixture of
oil and water which are translucent in
nature. They are anhydrous creams with
thixotropic character i.e. they liquefy when
applied on the skin.
Mineral oil(lubricant) 80g
Petrolatum(protective agent) 15g
Ozokerite wax(humectant) 5g
These type of creams are water-in-oil
type of emulsions. They produce cooling sensation by
the evaporation of water, after their application on to the
skin, hence known as cold creams. They should
possess emollient action and the layer left on the skin
after application should be non-occlusive.
White beeswax(emollient) 20g
Mineral oil(lubricant) 50g
Distilled water(vehicle) 28.8g
VANISHING AND FOUNDATION
These creams are also referred to
as “day cream” as they are applied
during day time. These cream provide
emollient as well as protective action to
the skin against environmental
condition by forming a semi-occlusive
residual film. This film is neither greasy
They are oil in water type of emulsion. When applied
on the surface of the skin, they spread as a thin oil less
film which is not visible to naked eye. Hence, they are
called vanishing creams. They are used to hold powder on
the skin as well as to improve adhesion.
1.It should have high melting point.
2. It should be pure white in color.
3. It should possess very little
Stearic acid(lubricant) 17g
Sodium carbonate 0.5g
Potassium hydroxide(softening agent) 0.5g
• Foundation creams vary widely in viscosity
and are available in the form of pourable
lotions to thicker creams. These creams
are prepared by incorporating powders
like titanium dioxide, kaolin, bentonite and
1.They provide emollient base or foundation to skin.
They are applied before applying face powder or
other make-up preparation.
2.They should be easily spread on the skin.
3.They should be non-greasy in nature.
4.They should be capable of leaving a non-occlusive
film on skim after application.
They are of two types:
1-Pigmented foundation creams.
2-Unpigmented foundation cream.
5.HAND AND BODY CREAM
Due to repeated exposure of skin to water,
soap and detergents many times a
day leads to removal of lipids and
other secretions from the skin. Cold
and dry winds are responsible for
chapping of the skin. Chapping
occurs due to loss of moisture from
The skin, which is also associated with
cracking. Water is sufficient to treat the dryness of the
skin but evaporation of water takes place which
makes the skin dry again and no emollient effect is
1.They should be easy to apply.
2.They helps in softening or imparting
emollient effect to hands.
3.They should not leave behind sticky film
after their application.
4.They should not interfere with perspiration
of the skin as it may reduce its bio availability.
5.Perfume and color should be added in
cream preparation for pleasant smell and
6.NIGHT AND MASSAGE CREAMS
• Night cream are the preparation which are
applied during night time and removed in the
morning where as massage cream are the
preparation which are gently applied and
rubbed on the skin through massage
technique. These creams exhibit moisturizing
and emollient action and thus prevent dryness
• Why does skin becomes dry?
when stratum corneum is exposed to low
humidity, excessive loss of water takes place
with attributes to dryness of skin.
When the lower layer of epidermis does not
when the skin is in contact with soap or
solution of detergent for long time.
1.These creams are formulated with fatty
substance which helps in their easy spreading
on the skin.
2.These creams help in providing occlusive
layer to the skin, which reduce the rate of
water loss from the transepidermal layer. The
occlusive layer is also responsible for
providing moisturizing effect on the skin.
• These creams are used by sportspersons
and also by people who do outdoor activities,
hence called as sports creams.
1.They are oily in nature but non-greasy.
2.They provide protective film to the skin.
3.They make the rough surface of the skin
4.When applied in more quantity:
5.When applied in less quantity:
• Tensile strength tester :- For determining the tensile property
of the excised stratum corneum of the skin.
• Hargan’s gas bearing electro dynamometer(GBE) :- Helpful in
determining and monitoring the viscoelastic behaviour of the
•Gravimetric analytical method:- Helps in establishing
relationship between water content present in stratum corneum
and relative humidity.
• Thermal analytical method:- Various methods like DSC, TMA
and TGA are used in order to provide information about the
effect of temperature which cause changes in stratum corneum
1) Transpirometry :-Helps in measuring trans
epidermal water loss of the skin which helps in
providing information on moisturizing potential.
2) Scanning electron microscopy :- Skin replicas
are used in this method to know the effects of
topical preparations on the skin condition i.e dry
and rough skin.
3) Sensitivity test :-These test are performed in
order to measure the irritancy, sensitization
potential and phototoxicity of the skin.
• The main property of face powder is to impart
smooth finish to the skin, masking of minor
visible imperfection, masking of shine due to
moisture or grease.
• Powder are considered as one of the important
products of skin care preparation.
• The a widely used by both men and women
It should possess good covering powder in
order to hide blemishes present on the skin.
It should remain on the skin for a long
period of time.
It should be able to impart peach like
appearance to the skin.
It should possess good absorbent property.
It should remove the shine present on the
skin as well as around the nose.
It should be able to produce transparency
1.It should not be hard in nature.
2.It should have less solubility in water and
mixtures of fat.
3.It should be non-toxic in nature.
4.It should not be irritant to the skin.
5.It should be chemically stable.
These powder have the ability to complement the
skin colour by providing velvety finish to it
1. It should impart smooth finish to the skin.
2. It should mask minor imperfection on the skin.
3. It should last for a long period of time.
4. It should serve as a vehicle perfumes so that
particles of perfumes may spread easily.
5. It should be resistant to the secretion of the skin.
There are three type of face powder:
• Loose powder or dry powder are
compressed in form of cake along with
binders by compaction process, in order to
form compact powders.
• Compact powder are applied with the help
of powder puff.
• The pressure is used for the compaction
Process which is very important
In this type of formulation.
BODY POWDER/TALCUM POWDER/DUST
These powder are widely used preparation for
multiple purposes. They contain covering material,
adhesives, absorbents, slip materials, antiseptics
1.They should provide good slip character to the
2. They should provide cooling and lubrication effect
to the skin.
3. They should be able to prevent irritation of the
skin, which is produced due to chaffing.
• shade test- The variation of colour shade is determined and
• colour dispersion test- with the help of magnifying glass,
segregation or bleeding of colour is observed.
• Pay-off test- check the adhesive property of powder with the
puff, mainly used for compact powder.
• Flow property test- Measured by measuring the angle of
repose. Mainly for body powder.
• Particle size determination- with the help of microscope or seive
• Abrasive character
• Moisture content-can be determine by using this formula,
Moisture content(%)= weight of water in sample X 5 weight of
Rouge are one of the form of skin colorants or
beauty aid. They help in altering the appearance
of the skin which in turn enhance attractiveness
They are available in various shades of
colours,texture and lustre.
They should not damage the skin.
2.Evenly distributed colour
3.Good covering power
4.Ease of application
5.Perfect blending on skin
7.Ease of removal without residual stain
8.Well formed cake which will not flake,
crack or crumble or be too hard.
Powder and compact rouges
• They are marketed in form of loose
powders which contain pigments and
lakes in dry form. The contain 5.20%ofthe
powder mass used in the formulation
Zinc stearate(adhesive char) 8.3g
Rice starch(absorbent material) 14,5g
Talc(slip char) 55g
Anhydrous cream rouges
• They are also known as wax-base rouges
because the base used is of was type. They
are similar to lipstick but are larger.
• The melting point of which ranges between
Petroleum jelly(lubricant) 4g
Castor oil(adhesive) 54g
Paraffin oil(lubricant) 11g
Perfume, pigment q.s
• They are one of the widely used popular
preparations as they are easy to apply and are
available in the form of cold cream or
• This type of preparation contain solution of
1-easy to apply.
2-produce good effect on skin.
4-should not cause an harm to the skin.
Propylene glycol 20g
Ethyl alcohol 10g
Rose water 69.5g
• Melting point- It is determined by capillary tube
• Colour dispersion test- It is checked under
microscope and no particle, above 50µ, should
• Stability test- product is kept at over 40o
c for a
one month period noting the changes
• Compatibility with container- Compatibility of the
product with the plastic is to be checked.
• Sedimentation rate test
Lipstick may be defined as dispersion of
the colouring matter In a base consisting of a suitable
blend of oils, fats and waxes with suitable perfumes
and flavors, moulded in form of sticks to impart
attractive gloss and colour, when applied on lips.
Lipstick provide moist appearance to lips
accentuating them and disguising their defects.
• It should efficiently cover lips with colour and
impart a gloss which would last long.
• It should show a smear proof colouring
• It should not be gritty.
• It should dry easily.
• The stick should not dry.
• It should be safe and non irritating.
• It should adhere firmly to the lip
• Melting point-The determination of melting point is done
in order to determine the storage characteristics of the
• Breaking point-To determine the strength and hardness
of the lipstick.
• Determination of thixotropic character-to determine the
uniform viscosity of base.
• Microbiological tests
• Test for rancidity-:- Can be done by using hydrogen
peroxide and determining its peroxide number.
• Test for application force
• Determination of surface characteristics
• Determination of colour dispersion. 58
• Exposure to sunrays produce both beneficial
and harmful effects. Cosmetic products which
prevent the skin from the deleterious effects of
sun like sunburns and sun tan are collectively
called sunburn products.
• Beneficial effects:
– When exposed to a moderate period of time,
it helps in stimulating of the blood circulation
and formation of hemoglobin.
– It also helps in the formation of vitamin D by
– Vit-D helps in absorption of calcium form
• Harmful effects:
IN ONE HOUR
IN 5-9 DAYS
TRUE TANNING WITHIN 2DAYS
• They provide protection to the skin in form of a layer.
This layer helps in preventing sun rays reaching the skin
either by absorbing or reflecting.
• They help in filtering the sun rays. Tis is done by
absorbing rays which have wave length range of 289mµ-
320mµ. UV rays and higher wavelength rays are allowed
• The products containing biological substances,
histamines ect. prevent the symptoms of inflammation
caused by sun rays.
• The products containing dioxyacetone,8-
methoxypsoralene(10-20mg internally)ect.,help in
accelerating the process of tanning
• Different type of sunburn product are:
– Sunscreen product
– Palliative product
– Simulative/artificial suntan product
They are considered as one of the important
preparation of cosmetics. They provide
protection against sunburn . They also help in
absorbing the portion of erythema on the skin
caused by sun's radiant energy
In winter high proportion of UV rays are
reflected than summer.
•They should be able to absorbing light, which
has wavelength in range 280-320mµ.
•They should be stable in order to withstand
heat, light and perspiration.
•They should be non=toxic and neutral in
•They should not cause any irritation.
These products help in treating irritation and
other problem such as steam burn ect.
-They should be antiseptic in nature in order to
treat bacterial infection, which is secondary effect
-they should be aqueous solution or
-They should provide both protective and cooling
-They should be non-greasy and non-oily
• These preparation help in producing
suntan by staining the skin. They
contain enhanced colour in order to
prevent the damage caused by
• These preparation usually contain
synthetic staining materials.
• These preparation are done by two
• Systemic suntan: These substance produce
suntan by increasing the rate of pigmentation in the
Eg: psoralen, alkoxy psoralen,8-methoxy psoralen
ect.8-methoxy psoralen is also available in tablet
form i.e 10-20mg is taken orally which increases the
rate of pigmentation within 2-4hrs after the skin has
been exposed to sunlight.
• Stain produced by chemical: Even chemical
substance are capable of staining the skin and
producing artificial suntan. These chemical produce
a stain which is semi-permanent
Eg; Dihydroxyacetone, juglone, lawsone, erythrulose,
EVALUATION• Spectrophotometric evaluation :-To evaluate the
u.v absorption ability of the sun screen lotion
• Erythemal dosage :- To estimate the
erythemally effective radiation, transmitted by
• In-vivo skin testing :- this is a direct test on
animal skin particularly rabbit, the site used is
either abdomen or backside, as these sites have
• Sunscreen index test.
M SKIN BLEACH
These impart colour to the skin, the
most Important role is played
by pigments, carotenes and
Most commonly used skin bleach agents are:
-catechol and its derivatives(3%)
-ascorbic acid and its derivatives(3%-5%)
-oxidizing agent(not proved)
-opaque covering agents(talc, kaolin, zinc oxide)
Hydrogen peroxide 8.0%
Hydrogen quinoline 0.1%
Propylene glycol 5.0%
Water To make 100%
FACE PACK AND MASK
They are used by women from early
times. It may be in liquid form or paste
form and are allowed to dry.
-They should form a smooth paste and
should have pleasant odour.
-It should get dried quickly
-Should be non-toxic to the skin.
-Should remove dirt and oil.
-Should be easily washable. 74
• Bath preparation are formulated for different
purposes. A bath preparation may serve
severs or all the following purposes:
• To give the user refreshing felling.
• To soften hard water.
• To impart pleasing effect to bath, by addition
of colour and perfume.
• To clean the body of dirt and colour.
• There are two main type of bath salts;
-those which primarily impart colour &
perfume to the bath.
-Those which soften hard water facilitating
cleansing in addition to imparting colour
and perfume to the bath.
Sodium chloride 97.5%
• Bath powder can be prepared either form
sodium carbonate(dry) or sodium
sesquicarbonate. A small amount of alkyl
sulphate salt or borax can also be included in
Sodium carbonate(dried) 90%
Sodium alkyl sulphate 10%
Perfume & colour q.s
• Foam bath or bubble bath are the most
popular bath preparations. The purpose of
such preparation is to fill the bath tub with
light and frothy lather.
-The bubble bath should foam easily
without requiring execssive
-Foam should be stable irrespective.
-The product should not form a ring around the
-Should be non irritating. 79
• Dry skin affects both young and old. Mild drying
causes rough skin and its scaling. In old age
cutaneous and subcutaneous layers becomes thin
due to atrophic changes.
• Sebaceous and sweat glands also slow down there
by making the skin more dry and flaky.
• Bath oil is classified into four main categories:
– Floating orspreading type bath oil.
– Dispersible type bath oil
– Soluble type bath oil
– Foaming type bath oil.
• Hand book on cosmetics by S.K Singh,pg-201-220.
• Cosmetics-formulation, manufacturing & quality contral
by PP Sharma, ed2005,pg-131-291.
• Cosmetic technology bySanju nanda, Arun nanda, Roop
k khar, ed-2011,pg-238-306.
• A seminar on SKIN CARE PRODUCTS. By:- V arun M
• A seminar by K.Senthil.(ppt).