HAIR TONICS• For Oily Scalps: To correct the oily condition……• For Dry scalps: to supplement oily character…..
Ingredients• Industrial methylated spirit diluted with water : common vehicle.• 10-95% alcohol act as a solvent for the removal of fatty acid – protein complex from the hair.• 2-5% glycerin : emollient and lubricating effect and act as a co solvent.
• Rubifacient drugs to stimulate hair growth.Eg: cantharides, pilocarpine, quinine, ammonia, rosemary oil…• Vitamins like Vit F, VitK , biotin, pantothenic acid protein hydrolisation pdt and nucleic acid.• Anti dandruff material like sulphur, cationic surfactants,selinium and cadmium sulphide etc.
1. Resorcinol :• Power full antiseptic property .• Less than 1% is used in hair tonics..• Large dose is toxic due to the production of methamoglobin.2. Beta naphthol:• Powerful antiseptic (0.1%)• Slightly soluble in water, boric acid increases its solubility.
3. Quinine :Keep the scalps sterile and stimulate it by friction.4. Capsicum:• Tincture of capsicum is used.5. Cantharides:• Irritating stimulant properties on the scalps.6.Vitamins and unsaturated acid:• Used in conjugation for their hair growing property.
Hair conditioner• Hair conditioner alter the texture and appearance of human hair and to improve damaged hair.• Used after shampoo, to render the hair shinier, easy to comb, and free from static electricity when dry.• Conditioners are usually based on cationic detergents and fatty materials like lanolin or mineral oil.
Ingredients1. Moisturizers.• Whose role is to hold moisture in the hair. Usually these contain high proportions of humectants.2. Re constructors.• Usually containing hydrolyzed protein.• Their role is to penetrate the hair and strengthen its structure through polymer cross linking.3. Detanglers.• Which modify the hair surface by pH as acidifiers, and/or by coating it with polymers, as glossers.
4. Acidifiers.• Acidity regulators which maintain the conditioners pH at about 2.5–3.55.Thermal protectors.• Usually heat-absorbing polymers, shielding the hair against excessive heate.g., blow-drying or curling irons or hot rollers.
6. Surfactants.• Hair consists of approximately 97% of a protein called keratin, it contains negatively-charged amino acids• Hair conditioners therefore usually contain cationic surfactants, which dont wash out completely, because their hydrophilic ends strongly bind to keratin.• The hydrophobic ends of the surfactant molecules then act as the new hair surface.
7. Oils (EFAs). Which can help dry/porous hair become more soft and pliable.8. Sequestrants. The scalp produce natural oil called sebum. EFAs are the closest thing to natural sebum.9. Lubricants. Such as fatty alcohols, panthenol, dimethicone, etc for better function in hard water.
Hair oil• For nourishment and care of hair.• Either in the form of pure oil or some ingredients are dissolved in it.
In vitro anti microbiological tests against some specific organisms using liquid or solid medium Antiseptic property EVALUATION Stability Sensitivity test testEffect of heat, light etc on the Antiseptics,may cause irritation, sensitizationstability.Accelerated stability study or photosensitization of the skin. This can beis done for determining stability. done by patch test, either open or occlusive.
HAIR REMOVERSDEPILATORIES EPILATORIES Mechanical Chemical For removing unwanted hairs. Several methods like waxing threading etc… Other various methods are electrolysis and diathermy.
Depilatories• For degradation of superficial hair chemically without affecting the skin.• Act by degrading the hair keratin.• Contain alkaline solutions and reducing agents.• Which cause swelling of hair fiber and breakdown of cystine bridges between adjacent polypeptide chains.
Ingredients1. Inorganic Sulphides :a) Sodium sulphide: (2%) at pH 12 (not used due to strong action on skin)b) Barium sulphide: highly toxicc) Calcium sulphide: less toxic, less effective.d) Strontium sulphide: better choice.(25-50%) action within 3 min.Disadv: unpleasent odour (formation of hydrogen sulphide)
2.Thioglycolates : Most widely used active ingredient are substituted mercaptans Used in conjugation with alkali 2.5 – 4% of calcium thioglycolate in conjugn with CaOH at pH 11-12 take 5-15 min for hair removal. Less toxic and less odour than sulphides.3. Stannites : Sodium stannite is commonly used In presence of water it produces strong reducing and alkaline effect
4. Enzymes : Keratinase enzyme have depilatory action Non irritant and odourless 3-4%is used and optimum pH is 7-85. Other additives :Humectant : prevent quick dryingEg: Glycerin, SorbitolThickening Agent: Starch, Methylcellulose, Mucin. PEG used to form film. Fat used for skin protection & conditioning.
EPILATORIES• Plucking the hair either by tweezers, threading or by waxing.• Rosin and wax are the main ingredient.• Local anesthetic benzocain.• Camphor, Hexachlorophane is also added.
EVALUATION•Estimation of hairremoving agent.•Instrumental analysis •Rabbit test. CHEMICAL TOXICITY ANALYSIS TEST •Microscopical study STABILITY RHEOLOGY TESTAccelarated stability Viscometer study
HAIR COLORENTS /DYES• Ideal hair dye should have certain properties……• Imprtant charecterestic to be considered are, Molecular size and pH• Doesn’t permit molecules larger than ethylene glycol.• Higher pH greater absorption but damage the hair.
Common ingredients in hair dyes:In general, hair dyes include DYES• The dye chemicals are usually amino compounds.• Metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and iron oxide, are often used as pigments. MODIFIERS• They stabilize the dye pigments or otherwise act to modify the shade.• One commonly used - resorcinol.
Alkalizers• Alkalizers are added to change the pH of the dye formula, because the dyes work best in a highly alkaline composition.• Ammonium hydroxide is a common alkalizer. Antioxidants• Antioxidants protect the dye from oxidizing with air. Most commonly used is sodium sulfite.
Ammonia: used to open hair shaft for dye penetration. Agents which make the dye more or less permanent. Soaps, wetting agents, fragrance, softening agents.
Temporary ColorThese dyes or colorants impart color to the hair for ashort time.Absorption of the dye stuff takes place only on haircuticle not penetrate in to the cortex and medulla.pH of the solution is adjusted at about 5.
Semitransparent ColorantsThese colorants give stronger coloration to the hair, and canwithstand up to six to eight shampooing.Mainly based on basic dye stuff of nitro amino dyes. These areusually red or yellow.A mixture anionic and / or non ionic surfactant with a cationactive dye is used to get semitransparent coloring.Formation of anion cation colour complex.
Permanent colorants• These are either vegetable origin or salts of heavy metals.• The main ingredients of the formulations are1. Base: Solution, emulsion , Gel, Powder, Shampoo.2. Dye: Oxidation Base3. Alkali: Ammonia.4. Antioxidants: Ammonium Thioglycolate.
Hair lighteners and bleaches• Bleaching, also referred to as hair lightening or decolorizing• Destruction of melanin by chemical reaction.• Hydrogen peroxide (3-5%) and ammonium hydroxide are frequently used.• EDTA – sequestering agent
SHAVING PPREPARATION• Preparation used before shaving• Preparation used after shaving
Preparation used before shaving1. For shaving with razor blade.classified in to ,I. Shaving soaps: solids and creamsII. Brushless shaving cream.III.Aerosol preparation.
2. For electric shaving. For lubrication: Talc, Magnesiumstearate To absorb perspiration: Kaolin, Magnesium Carbonate For drying the skin : Alcohol Astringent And Antiseptics
Preparation used after shaving• To cool and refresh the skin.• Used in the form of lotions, creams and powders.• Contain antiseptics, emollient etc.• Also contain menthol, glycerin, boric acid, alum and chloroform.
evaluation• For shaving preparation:1. Determination of free caustic alkali.2. Determination of potash soap.3. Determination of total free acid.4. Determination of total fatty material5. Foam formation6. Skin sensitization.7. Stability of the cream
• For after shave lotion:1. Antiseptic property.2. Determination of alcohol content3. Dermatological test.