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BIS2C: Lecture 27: Having a Diploblast

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Diploblasts

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BIS2C: Lecture 27: Having a Diploblast

  1. 1. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Lecture 27: Having a Diploblast BIS 002C Biodiversity & the Tree of Life Spring 2016 Prof. Jonathan Eisen 1
  2. 2. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Where we are going and where we have been… 2 •Previous lecture: •26: Animals and Sponges •Current Lecture: •27: Diploblasts •Next Lecture: •28: Triploblasts
  3. 3. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Animal Diversity Topics • Major Groups • Diversity within Groups • Key Features of Groups !Body Plans, Forms and Symmetry !Reproduction and Life Cycles !Mobility !Feeding • Examples 3
  4. 4. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Key Topics • Monoblasts vs. diploblasts vs. triploblasts • Ctenophore features • Placozoan features • Cnidarian features • Cnidarian examples !Coral !Box jellies 4
  5. 5. Where we are … !5Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Filasterea Ichthyosporea
  6. 6. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Animal Diversity 6
  7. 7. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Animal Diversity 7 Diploblasts Triploblasts Monoblasts
  8. 8. !8Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 In the diplontic life cycle, the organism is diploid and the gametes are the only haploid stage. HAPLOID (n) DIPLOID (2n) Zygote (2n) Mature organism (2n) Gametes Male (n) Female (n) FertilizationMeiosis Animal Life Cycle
  9. 9. Animal Life Cycle !9Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 HAPLOID (n) DIPLOID (2n) Zygote (2n) Mature organism (2n) Gametes Male (n) Female (n) Fertilization Meiosis Monoblasts (1) 3 2 1
  10. 10. Animal Life Cycle !9Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 HAPLOID (n) DIPLOID (2n) Zygote (2n) Mature organism (2n) Gametes Male (n) Female (n) Fertilization Meiosis Diploblasts (2) 3 2 1
  11. 11. Animal Life Cycle !9Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 HAPLOID (n) DIPLOID (2n) Zygote (2n) Mature organism (2n) Gametes Male (n) Female (n) Fertilization Meiosis Triploblasts (3) 3 2 1 In the diplontic life cycle, the organism is diploid and the gametes are the only haploid stage.
  12. 12. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Diploblasts 10
  13. 13. Ctenophores: Comb Jellies !11Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  14. 14. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 12
  15. 15. !13Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ctenophores: Comb Jellies
  16. 16. Ctenophores: Comb Jellies !14Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • ~ 100 species, all marine, some in very deep environments. • Radial symmetry, diploblastic • The two cell layers are separated by a gelatinous mesoglea. • Ctenes: comb like rows of cilia (for swimming & feeding) • Very similar in outward appearance to cnidarians. • Sticky, but not stinging, cells; called ‘lasso’ cells. • 1 mm to 1.5 m in size
  17. 17. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 15
  18. 18. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 17
  19. 19. Placozoans !18Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  20. 20. Chapter 31 Opener Did Placozoans Diverge at the Root of the Animal Tree? !19Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  21. 21. Figure 31.17 Placozoan Simplicity !20Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  22. 22. Figure 31.17 Placozoan Simplicity !21Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Small (2-3mm), diploblastic*, benthic, marine animals. • 1 described species, asymmetrical • No tissues, few specialized cells. • Feed by phagocytosis • Motile larvae •Their relative ‘absence’ of morphological features may be secondarily derived.
  23. 23. Cnidarians !22Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  24. 24. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Cnidarians: Some Key Features • ~ 11,000 species • Most are marine (salt water), a few aquatic (fresh water) • Features !Gastrovascular cavity !Cnidae; specialized collection of cells (prey capture, defense) !Muscle fibers and nerve nets for movement !Two stage adult life cycle !Specialized nematocysts !Many species have microbial symbionts 24
  25. 25. Anthozoans: Sea anemones & sea pens !25Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  26. 26. Anthozoans: Corals !26Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  27. 27. Scyphozoan (Jellyfish) and Hydrozoan !27Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  28. 28. Cnidaria: Cubozoa (box jellies) !28Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  29. 29. The Life Cycle of Most Cnidarians Has Two Stages !29Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Planula: free swimming larvae • Polyp: sessile. Produces medusa by budding • Medusa stage: free- swimming; produce gametes.
  30. 30. !30Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  31. 31. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  32. 32. Feature I: Nematocysts Are Potent Weapons !32Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Tentacles have specialized cells with organelles called nematocysts (a form of cnidae) that inject toxins into prey organisms.
  33. 33. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Cnidarian Example I: Corals 33
  34. 34. Anthozoans: Corals !34Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  35. 35. Anthozoans: Corals • Colonial. • Polyps secrete matrix of organic molecules on which they deposit calcium carbonate, which forms a skeleton. • Living polyps form a layer on top of a growing mass of skeletal remains, which forms coral reefs and islands. • Many grow in clear, nutrient-poor tropical waters. !35Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  36. 36. Coral Symbiosis with Dinoflagellates !37Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Corals contain symbiotic dinoflagellates (algae) called zooxanthellae
  37. 37. Clicker What are dinoflagellates? !38Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  38. 38. Clicker What are dinoflagellates? A. Eukaryotes in the Alveolate lineage B. Eukaryotes in the Plantae lineage C. A type of cyanobacteria D. Small dinosaurs E. The sister group to animals !40Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  39. 39. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 •Most are marine and are important photoautotrophic primary producers •Mixture of pigments give them a golden brown color. •Have two flagella, one in an equatorial groove, the other in a longitudinal groove. Alveolates: Dinoflagellates 41 Certium tenue Coral symbiont
  40. 40. Clicker What is the minimum number of symbiotic events in the history of the Dinoflagellate chloroplast? A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3 E. 4 !42Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  41. 41. Clicker What is the minimum number of symbiotic events in the history of the Dinoflagellate chloroplast? A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3 E. 4 !43Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  42. 42. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 N M N M C 44 Secondary Endosymbiosis
  43. 43. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Dinoflagellate Kryptoperidinium foliaceum http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1550-7408.2007.00245.x/full 45
  44. 44. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 N M Tertiary Endosymbiosis 46 N M N M C
  45. 45. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 N M 47 N M N M C Host Symbiont After a tertiary symbiosis
  46. 46. Cnidarians: Major Groups !48Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Anthozoa Hydrozoa Scyphozoa Cubozoa • ~ 11,000 species • Most are marine (salt water), a few aquatic (fresh water)
  47. 47. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Quaternary? 49 N M N M N M N M C Host Symbiont
  48. 48. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Symbiodinium in coral polyp (Porites porites) 50https://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/File:Hosttissuesection.png
  49. 49. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 51
  50. 50. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Classes of symbiosis Organism Class of symbiosis A B Mutualism + + Commensalism + 0 Parasitism + - 52
  51. 51. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Classes of symbiosis Organism Class of symbiosis A B Mutualism + + Commensalism + 0 Parasitism + - 53
  52. 52. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  53. 53. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Cnidaria Example II: Cubozoa - Box Jellies 55
  54. 54. Cnidaria: Cubozoa !56 Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Also called box jellies or sea wasps. • Sting is very toxic, may cause death in humans. • Some species with well-developed eyes.
  55. 55. Lecture 26: Cnidaria, Ctenophora • Previous lecture: ! Bis2B ! 
 !57 Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  56. 56. Another Cnidarian Symbiosis !58 Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Some anemones form mutualisms with clownfish; why do they not get stung? They have a protective coating that prevents the nematocysts from firing.
  57. 57. !59Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016

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