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BIS2C: Lecture 24: Opisthokonts

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BIS2C: Lecture 24: Opisthokonts

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BIS2C: Lecture 24: Opisthokonts

  1. 1. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Lecture 24: Introduction to Opisthokonts BIS 002C Biodiversity & the Tree of Life Spring 2016 Prof. Jonathan Eisen 1
  2. 2. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Where we are going and where we have been… 2 •Previous lecture: •23: Botanical Conservatory •Current Lecture: •24: Intro to Opisthokonts •Next Lecture: •25: Sponges
  3. 3. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Key Topics • Opisthokonts - major groups • Shared traits of opisthokonts • Derived traits of major opisthokont groups • Evolution of multicellularity • Choanoflagellates and their relevance to animals 3
  4. 4. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 44 Eukaryote Diversity
  5. 5. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 55 Opisthokonts
  6. 6. Opisthokonts !6Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates
  7. 7. It is ALWAYS more complicated … !7Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Ichthyosporea
  8. 8. Ich !8Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  9. 9. It is ALWAYS more complicated … !9Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Filasterea Ichthyosporea
  10. 10. Filasterea examples !10Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ministeria Capsaspora
  11. 11. It’s Always More Complicated II !11Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Filasterea Ichthyosporea
  12. 12. !12 Filasterea Ichthyosporea Microsporidi Chytrids Zygospore Arbuscular Sacfungi Clubfungi Dik It’s Always More Complicated III Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  13. 13. Opisthokonts !13Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates
  14. 14. Opisthokonts !14Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Shared derived traits of clade?
  15. 15. Opisthokonts !15Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Flagellum, if presence, single and posterior, Greek: opísthios = "rear" + (kontós) = "pole"
  16. 16. Opisthokonts !16Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Multiple other features Greek: opísthios = "rear" + (kontós) = "pole"
  17. 17. Opisthokonts !17Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Why care about these?
  18. 18. Anti fungal drugs !18Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 http://www.slideshare.net/drjankiborkar/antifungals-14155209
  19. 19. !19Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 The development of antifungal agents has lagged behind that of antibacterial agents. This is a predictable consequence of the cellular structure of the organisms involved. Bacteria are prokaryotic and hence offer numerous structural and metabolic targets that differ from those of the human host. Fungi, in contrast, are eukaryotes, and consequently most agents toxic to fungi are also toxic to the host. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8263/
  20. 20. Figure 30.2 Yeasts !20Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Saccharomyces cerevisiae 5 µm
  21. 21. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Human Disease Genes w/ Yeast Homologs I 21 Defect in adenylcyclase regulation; osteodystrophy Ascorbic acid biosynthesis defect Biotin-responsive carboxylase deficiency; ataxia Lactic acidosis; neurodisorders Williams syndrome; brain development Lactic acidosis; "maple syrup" urine disease Homocystinuria; psychotic symptoms Mevalonicaciduria; variety of symptoms Mental retardation and keratocunjunctivis Tumor metastatic process Insulin resistance Hyperornithinemia; atrophy of choroid and retina Hyperammonemia in males Peroxisomal biogenesis disorder; neuropathy Hemolytic blood disorder (venous thrombosis) Glycogen storage disease; muscle cramps Myopathy Cholesterol esterification defects; cornea lipid deposits Acute intermittent porphyria Hyperglycinemia; intolerance to proteins Variegate porphyria; light sensitive dermatis Immunodeficiency; neurodisorders Lactic acidosis; death Lactic acidosis; ataxia Non spherocytic anemia Retinitis pigmentosa Peroxisomal biogenesis disorder Hypertension-associated gene Hyperoxaluria; urolithiase; nephrocalcinosis Hereditary spherocytosis Cerebral cholesterinosis Flavoprotein subunit defect; Leigh syndrome Mental retardation and ataxia Sucrose intolerance ABC transporters; immunodeficiency Vitamin E deficiency; ataxia Chronic hemolytic anemia and neuromuscular disorders Tyrosinemia Porphyria, cutanea tarda Porphyria, congenital erythropoietic Mental/psychomotor retardation DNA helicase; TFIIH complex;subunit; photosensitivity; cancer DNA helicase; TFIIH complex subunit; photosensitivity; cancer Structure specific endonuclease; photosensitivity; cancer Zinc finger damaged DNA binding protein; photosensitivity; cancer 125 kDa ssDNA binding protein; photosensitivity; cancer DNA helicase; transcription-coupled repair;progressive neurological dysfunction;photose WD-repeat protein; same phenotype as above Membrane Ser/Thr protein kinase ABC transporter; neurodegenerative disease Superoxide dismutase Phosphatidylinositol kinase-related protein Unknown function; cardioskeletal myopathy RecQ DNA helicase-related protein; growth defect; predisposition to all types of cancer Unknown function; "Beige" protein; decreased pigmentation; immunodeficiency Component A of RAB geranylgeranyltransferase ABC transporter; impaired clearance in a variety of organs Sulfate transporter; undersulfation of proteoglycans Kidney chloride channel; nephrolithiasis Dideadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase; cancer Unknown function; neurodegenerative disease Hyperglycerolemia; poor growth; mental retardation Mismatch-repair ; hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer Mismatch repair ; hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer
  22. 22. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 22 Subunit of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase Inositol polyphosphate 5 phosphatase-related protein; cataracts and glaucoma Copper-transporting ATPase; neurodegenerative disease and death Calcium channel; familial hemiplegic migraine and episodic ataxia Acetyltransferase; erythrophagocytosis Related to transmembrane receptors with a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain Ser/thr protein kinase; neurodegenerative disease Probable tyrosine phosphatase; muscle specific disease Homologue of Drosophila patched; nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome GTPase-activating protein Fatal neurovisceral disorder Defect in development of multiple organ systems RCC1-related protein; progressive retinal degeneration Muscle chloride channel; myotonic disorders DNA helicase Q-related protein; premature aging and strong predisposition to cancer Zinc finger protein; nephroblastoma Copper transporting ATPase; toxic accumulation of copper in liver and brain Effector for CDC42H GTPase; immunodeficiency Metabolic acidosis Hemolytic blood disorder (venous thrombosis) Urolithiasis Immunodeficiency Peroxisomal biogenesis disorder; neuropathy Hemolytic anemia Hypermethioninemia; mental and motor retardation Purine nucleotide biosynthesis defect; autism features Delayed oxidation of acetaldehyde; acute alcohol intoxication Hepatic porphyria Spherocytic anemia Neonatal infantile chronic hyperammonemia Argininemia; severe psychomotor retardation Hypokalaemic alkalosis with hypercalciura Hyperammonemia Galactosialidosis Lipid metabolism defect; cardiomyopathy Acatalasia Coproporphyria; psychiatric symptoms Homocystinuria Lactic acidosis; "maple syrup" urine disease Protoporphyria, erythropoietic Fumaric aciduria; encephalopathy Hemolytic anemia Glycogen storage disease; familial cirrhosis Glycogen storage disease; hepatomegaly Lysosomal storage disease; cardiomyopathy; skeletal muscular hypotonia Hyperglycemia; diabetes Glutathionuria Hemolytic anemia Non ketotic hyperglycinemia; lethargy; severe mental retardation Glycogen storage disease; skeletal muscle weakness Human Disease Genes w/ Yeast Homologs II
  23. 23. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 23 Nobel Prizes for Fungal Work
  24. 24. Opisthokonts !24Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Derived Features of Fungi
  25. 25. Opisthokonts !25Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Absorptive heterotrophy
  26. 26. Clicker !26Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  27. 27. Clicker Which of the following best describes a heterotroph? A. Gets carbon from organic compounds B. Gets electrons from organic compounds C. Gets energy from organic compounds D. Gets carbon and electrons from organic compounds E. All of the above !27Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  28. 28. Clicker Which of the following best describes a heterotroph? A. Gets carbon from organic compounds B. Gets electrons from organic compounds C. Gets energy from organic compounds D. Gets carbon and electrons from organic compounds E. All of the above !28Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  29. 29. Component Different Forms Energy source Light Photo Chemical Chemo Electron source (reducing equivalent) Inorganic Litho Organic Organo Carbon source Carbon from C1 compounds Auto Carbon from organics Hetero Forms of nutrition (trophy) • Three main components to “trophy” Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  30. 30. Opisthokonts !30Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Absorptive heterotrophy
  31. 31. Photo 30.3 Hardwood log being “recycled” by saprobic brown rot fungi; central Illinois. !31Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  32. 32. Opisthokonts !32Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Absorptive heterotrophy; Chitin in cell walls
  33. 33. Fungal Cell Walls !33Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  34. 34. Figure 30.10 A Phylogeny of the Fungi !34Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Microsporidia Chytrids Zygosporefungi (Zygomycota) Arbuscularmycorrhizalfungi (Glomeromycota) Sacfungi (Ascomycota) Clubfungi (Basidiomycota) Dikarya
  35. 35. Opisthokonts !35Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates
  36. 36. Animal Shared Derived Traits !36Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates • Internal digestion • Muscle & movement • Extracellular matrix molecules such as collagen • Unique cell junctions • Multicellularity
  37. 37. Animal Shared Derived Traits !37Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates • Internal digestion • Muscle & movement • Extracellular matrix molecules such as collagen • Unique cell junctions • Multicellularity • More on this starting Friday
  38. 38. Opisthokonts !38Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Choanoflagellate & Animal Derived Traits
  39. 39. Opisthokonts !39Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Why Care About These?
  40. 40. Opisthokonts !40Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Multicellularity Origins?
  41. 41. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Multicellularity vs. Colonial Aggregates • Multicellular: having many cells of the same genotype, in which there is some level of morphological differentiation and division of labour among cell types • Colonial: aggregates of morphologically identical cells of the same genotype • There is a continuum of loosely integrated colonies to fully integrated multicellular organisms. 41
  42. 42. Opisthokonts !42Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Multicellularity Origins? M M
  43. 43. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 4343 Opisthokont Multicellularity
  44. 44. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 4444 Opisthokont Multicellularity
  45. 45. Figure 28.3 Red Algae !45Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  46. 46. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 4646 Red Algal Multicellularity
  47. 47. Figure 28.4 Chlorophytes !47Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  48. 48. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 4848 Chlorophyte Multicellularity
  49. 49. Figure 28.5 Charophytes !49Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  50. 50. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 5050 Charophyte Multicellularity
  51. 51. Land Plants !51Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  52. 52. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 5252 Land Plant Multicellularity
  53. 53. Figure 27.9 Brown Algae !53Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  54. 54. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 5454 Brown Algal Multicellularity
  55. 55. Figure 27.17 A Plasmodial Slime Mold !55Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  56. 56. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 5656 Plasmodial Slime Mold Multicellularity
  57. 57. Figure 27.18 A Cellular Slime Mold !57Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  58. 58. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 5858 Cellular Slime Mold Multicellularity
  59. 59. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 5959 Convergent Evolution of Multicellularity
  60. 60. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Clicker 60
  61. 61. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Clicker • The multiple origins of multicellularity is a form of • A. Homology • B. Heteroplasy • C. Synapomorphy • D. Homoplasy • E. Homospory 61
  62. 62. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Clicker • The multiple origins of multicellularity is a form of • A. Homology • B. Heteroplasy • C. Synapomorphy • D. Homoplasy • E. Homospory 62
  63. 63. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 History has often repeated itself: Multicellular organisms independently originated at least 25 times from unicellular ancestors 63
  64. 64. Animal Multicellularity !64Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Key Point in Studying Animal Multicellularity & Biology M
  65. 65. Choanoflagellates !65Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates M
  66. 66. Choanoflagellates !66Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates M From Greek Khoanē = “funnel" (i.e collar) And Latin “flagellum" (i.e. , the flagella)
  67. 67. Figure 31.2 Choanoflagellate !67Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Choanoflagellate protists Stalk Flagellum Single cell
  68. 68. !68Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/14/science/14creatures.html?_r=0
  69. 69. !69Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  70. 70. Figure 31.2 Choanocytes in Sponges Resemble Choanoflagellate Protists (Part 1) !70Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Choanoflagellate protists Stalk Flagellum Single cell
  71. 71. S. rosetta capture and phagocytosis !71Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 DIC timelapse movie of S. rosetta thecate cell showing capture and phagocytosis of bacteria. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0095577
  72. 72. S. rosetta capture and phagocytosis !71Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 DIC timelapse movie of S. rosetta thecate cell showing capture and phagocytosis of bacteria. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0095577
  73. 73. !72Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Timelapse movie of S. rosetta thecate cell showing egestion of material, transported from the food vacuole to the inside base of the collar, exiting the cell between the collar and flagellum, and carried away by the current. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0095577 S. rosetta egestion
  74. 74. !72Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Timelapse movie of S. rosetta thecate cell showing egestion of material, transported from the food vacuole to the inside base of the collar, exiting the cell between the collar and flagellum, and carried away by the current. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0095577 S. rosetta egestion
  75. 75. !73Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0095577 Phase microscopy timelapse movie showing the arrival of an S. rosetta thecate cell and subsequent accumulation of bacteria on coverslip surface in the region surrounding the cell. S. rosetta collecting food …
  76. 76. !73Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0095577 Phase microscopy timelapse movie showing the arrival of an S. rosetta thecate cell and subsequent accumulation of bacteria on coverslip surface in the region surrounding the cell. S. rosetta collecting food …
  77. 77. Sponges !74Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Sponges Bilaterians (protostomes and deuterostomes) Ctenophores Cnidarians Placozoans
  78. 78. Figure 31.15 Sponge Diversity !75Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Euplectella aspergillum Xestospongia testudinaria Spicules Sycon sp.
  79. 79. Figure 31.2 Choanocytes in Sponges !76Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Choanocyte Pore Osculum Water out via osculum Atrium Spicule Water and food particles in via pores Spicules Flagellum
  80. 80. !77 Figure 31.2 Choanocytes in Sponges Resemble Choanoflagellate Protists Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  81. 81. !78Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/14/science/14creatures.html?_r=0
  82. 82. Animal Multicellularity !79Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Colonial M Flagellum Collar
  83. 83. Choanoflagellate aggregation !80Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Nicole King, Professor, UC Berkeley HHMI Professor MacArthur “Genius” Prize Winner
  84. 84. Many morphologies in cultures !81Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Fig. 1. Five distinct cell morphologies observed in S. rosetta cultures. (A) Cells in rosette colonies orient in a sphere around a central focus, with their apical flagella and collars oriented radially outward. (B) Cells in chain colonies attach to one another laterally to form linear arrays of cells. (C,D) Thecate cells have long (~ 4 µm) collars surrounding apical flagella and attach to substrates via a goblet-shaped theca. (E,F) Slow swimmers have similar morphology to thecate cells, but lack thecae. (G,H) Fast swimmers have no theca and either no collar or a truncated collar (arrowheads), and are often covered in small filopodia . Key: f: flagellum, C: collar, T: theca, S: skirt, Fp: filopodia, B: bacteria. Scale bars = 5 µm. (A,B,C,E,G: DIC microscopy, D,F,H: Scanning Electron Microscopy).
  85. 85. Life history of a model Choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta !82Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012160611009924
  86. 86. Life history of a model Choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta !83Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012160611009924
  87. 87. !84Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Timelapse microscopy of a fast swimmer building a new theca. Although fast swimmers normally attach to environmental substrates, an unusual case of attachment to an empty theca is presented here because the added elevation from the substrate affords a better view of the attachment process. A fast swimmer uses long filopodia to attach to an empty theca. Those filopodia in contact with the empty theca become more refractile and coalesce to form the base of a new stalk projecting from the base of the cell. The coalesced filopodia form a highly refractile stalk which extends from the cell base. The refractile material is replaced by a stable stalk, after which the cell becomes more spherical and secretes the theca cup from its sides, leaving a ~ 1 µm gap between the theca and cell base. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2011.06.003
  88. 88. !84Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Timelapse microscopy of a fast swimmer building a new theca. Although fast swimmers normally attach to environmental substrates, an unusual case of attachment to an empty theca is presented here because the added elevation from the substrate affords a better view of the attachment process. A fast swimmer uses long filopodia to attach to an empty theca. Those filopodia in contact with the empty theca become more refractile and coalesce to form the base of a new stalk projecting from the base of the cell. The coalesced filopodia form a highly refractile stalk which extends from the cell base. The refractile material is replaced by a stable stalk, after which the cell becomes more spherical and secretes the theca cup from its sides, leaving a ~ 1 µm gap between the theca and cell base. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2011.06.003
  89. 89. !85Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Top view of two fast swimmers attaching to substrate. Cells attach via long filopodia, and move several microns across substrates before building thecae.
  90. 90. !85Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Top view of two fast swimmers attaching to substrate. Cells attach via long filopodia, and move several microns across substrates before building thecae.
  91. 91. Life history of a model Choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta !86Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012160611009924
  92. 92. !87Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Timecourse of three cells releasing from their thecae. As cells begin to leave thecae, multiple filopodia extend from sides of cell maintaining contact with edge of theca cup (clearest in middle cell at 1:02:10–1:30:00, and left cell at 1:01:30). Change in angle of filopodia as it releases from theca in left cell (from 01:01:20 to 01:01:30) shows that these are filopodia and not retraction fibers. As cells release, collar retracts (clearest in right cell at 0:12:30). Times shown in Hours:Minutes:Seconds
  93. 93. !87Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Timecourse of three cells releasing from their thecae. As cells begin to leave thecae, multiple filopodia extend from sides of cell maintaining contact with edge of theca cup (clearest in middle cell at 1:02:10–1:30:00, and left cell at 1:01:30). Change in angle of filopodia as it releases from theca in left cell (from 01:01:20 to 01:01:30) shows that these are filopodia and not retraction fibers. As cells release, collar retracts (clearest in right cell at 0:12:30). Times shown in Hours:Minutes:Seconds
  94. 94. !88Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Thecate cell division showing that one daughter cell leaves while the other remains in the theca.
  95. 95. !88Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Thecate cell division showing that one daughter cell leaves while the other remains in the theca.
  96. 96. Life history of a model Choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta !89Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012160611009924
  97. 97. !90Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Tilt series through an intercellular bridge shows that the cell membrane is continuous across the bridge.
  98. 98. !90Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Tilt series through an intercellular bridge shows that the cell membrane is continuous across the bridge.
  99. 99. !91Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016Rosette colony ejects minute cells that adhere to the coverslip.
  100. 100. !91Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016Rosette colony ejects minute cells that adhere to the coverslip.
  101. 101. !92Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 S. rosetta rosette colonies reproduce by fission
  102. 102. !92Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 S. rosetta rosette colonies reproduce by fission
  103. 103. Life history of a model Choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta !93Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 A model of S. rosetta life history. S. rosetta cells can differentiate between at least five different forms. Arrows depict observed and inferred transitions that are described in the main text and in Fig. S9. Fast swimmers can settle to produce thecate cells that then produce swimming cells either through cell division or theca abandonment. Under rapid growth conditions, slow swimmer cells proliferate but remain attached via intercellular bridges and ECM to produce chain colonies, or, in the presence of A. machipongonensis bacteria (denoted by ‘⁎’), rosette colonies that have intercellular bridges, ECM and filopodia. caption http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012160611009924
  104. 104. Choanoflagellate Genome !94Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Nicole King Dan Rokhsar
  105. 105. Choanoflagellate Genome !95Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  106. 106. Animal Multicellularity !96Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates • Colonial • Single flagellum • Collar • Cell adhesion M
  107. 107. !97Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  108. 108. Nicole King !98Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  109. 109. !99Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/nicole-king-part-1.html http://www.ibiology.org/ibioseminars/nicole-king-part-2.html
  110. 110. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Single cell -> aggregation -> multicellular 100
  111. 111. It is ALWAYS more complicated … !101Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Opisthokonts Fungi Animals Choanoflagellates Filasterea Ichthyosporea
  112. 112. Filasterea also colonial !102Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01287
  113. 113. Filasterea also colonial !102Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01287
  114. 114. Filasterea aggregation !103Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01287
  115. 115. Filasterea aggregation !103Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01287
  116. 116. !104Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Filasterea aggregation http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01287
  117. 117. !104Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Filasterea aggregation http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01287
  118. 118. Animal (Metazoan) Diversity !105Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  119. 119. Fungal Diversity !106Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Microsporidia Chytrids Zygosporefungi (Zygomycota) Arbuscularmycorrhizalfungi (Glomeromycota) Sacfungi (Ascomycota) Clubfungi (Basidiomycota) Dikarya

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