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BIS2C. Biodiversity and the Tree of Life. 2014. L14. Fungi

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Lecture 14.
Fungi

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BIS2C. Biodiversity and the Tree of Life. 2014. L14. Fungi

  1. 1. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Lecture 14 ! Lecture 14 ! Fungi ! ! BIS 002C Biodiversity & the Tree of Life Spring 2014 ! Prof. Jonathan Eisen 1
  2. 2. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Where we are going and where we have been • Previous Lecture: !13: Fungi • Current Lecture: !14: Fungi and Symbioses • Next Lecture: !15: Fungi and humans 2
  3. 3. Lecture 22 Outline • What are Fungi? • Diversity of form • Phylogenetic diversity • Symbioses !3
  4. 4. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 4 Microsporidia
  5. 5. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Microsporidia Microsporidia are unicellular fungi, obligate intracellular parasites of animals; 1,500 species. Among the smallest eukaryotes known. 5
  6. 6. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Microsporidia • Host cell is penetrated by a polar tube of the microsporidian spore, and contents of spore are injected into host. • The sporoplasm replicates in the host cell and produces new infective spores. • The life cycle of some species is complex and involves multiple hosts. • Microsporidia have cell walls with chitin, and lack true mitochondria; they have reduced structures called mitosomes. • Misclassified as protists for many years. 6
  7. 7. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 7 Chytrids
  8. 8. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Chytridiomycosis: Batrachochytrium dendrobatides 8
  9. 9. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Chytrids: Only Fungi with Swimming Spores 9
  10. 10. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Chytrids 10 • General !Mostly aquatic; <1,000 species. !May be parasitic or saprobic !Some are unicellular, others have rhizoids, still others are coenocytic. !Multicellular diploid stage of some includes a structure that can withstand freezing and drying. • Reproduction !Flagellated spores and gametes. !Have alternation of generations, but haploid stage produces independent male and female gametes. !Reproduce both sexually and asexually. !The cytoplasms of individuals of different mating types fuse (plasmogamy) before their nuclei fuse (karyogamy). • Evolution !May be polyphyletic. !Once classed as protists.
  11. 11. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Figure 30.14 Sexual Life Cycles of Chytrids & Zygospore Fungi 11
  12. 12. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Figure 30.14 Sexual Life Cycles of Chytrids 12 Study this life cycle
  13. 13. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Figure 30.14 Sexual Life Cycles of Chytrids 13 Flagellated spores Flagellated gametes
  14. 14. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 14 Zygospore fungi (Zygomycota):
  15. 15. Animation 30.1 Life Cycle of a Zygospore Fungus
  16. 16. Animation 30.1 Life Cycle of a Zygospore Fungus
  17. 17. Animation 30.1 Life Cycle of a Zygospore Fungus
  18. 18. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Zygospore fungi (Zygomycota): 16
  19. 19. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Figure 30.14 Sexual Life Cycles of Zygospore Fungi 17 Study this life cycle
  20. 20. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Zygospore fungi (Zygomycota): 18 • General !>1000 species described; includes Rhizopus stolonifer, black bread mold. !Terrestrial fungi—saprobes on soils, parasites of insects & spiders, mutualists w/ other fungi and invertebrates. !Reproduction !Zygospore can be dormant for months, then the nuclei undergo meiosis to form haploid spores which disperse. !Hyphae of different mating types release pheromones, which cause them to grow toward each other. !Zygote is the only diploid cell. • Evolution !Likely paraphyletic.
  21. 21. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 19 Glomeromycota
  22. 22. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Figure 30.11 Mycorrhizal Associations (B) 20
  23. 23. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Glomeromycota • General !Mutualistic symbiosis with plant roots. !<200 species, but 80 to 90 percent of plants have associations with them !Glucose from plant partner is primary energy source for fungus. !Essential to almost all vascular plants to increase water and mineral uptake. !Hyphae are coenocytic. !Enter root and penetrate cell walls, but not the plasma membrane. !As in ectomycorrhizae, the fungus forms a vast web of hyphae in the surrounding soil and increases surface area for water and mineral uptake. !Only asexual reproduction • Evolution !Evolution of mycorrhizal associations may have been an important step for plants to colonize land. !Seen in some liverworts 21
  24. 24. Taylor et al. 1995 - mycorrhizal fungi in Rhynie Chert! Hyphae, vesicles, arbuscules
  25. 25. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 23 Dikarya
  26. 26. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Dikarya 24
  27. 27. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Figure 30.16 Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya 25
  28. 28. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Dikaryon 26 • Dikaryon—hypha with two haploid nuclei. • Also called a heterokaryon (n + n). • Karyogamy (fusion of nuclei) occurs long after plasmogamy (fusion of cytoplasm), so that two genetically different haploid nuclei coexist and divide within the same hypha.
  29. 29. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Dikaryon continued • Unusual aspects of dikaryon life cycle: ! No gamete cells, only gamete nuclei ! No true diploid tissue; zygote is the only true diploid ! Hypha is neither diploid (2n) nor haploid (n); rather, it is dikaryotic (n + n) • Duration spent in dikaryon varies ! Short lived in sac fungi ! In club fungi it may last months or years— opportunity for more than two mating types to fuse, and more genetic recombination. 27
  30. 30. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Ascomycota - Sac Fungi • Marine, freshwater, and terrestrial. • 64,000 species, half as lichens • Produce sacs called asci (singular ascus), which contain sexually produced haploid ascospores • Hyphae are septate, pores in septa allow movement of cytoplasm and organelles 28
  31. 31. Figure 30.16A Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya HAPLOID (n) Sac fungi (Ascomycota) Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type
  32. 32. Figure 30.16A Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya HAPLOID (n) Sac fungi (Ascomycota) Mating structure Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type
  33. 33. Figure 30.16A Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya HAPLOID (n) Sac fungi (Ascomycota) Mating structure Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type
  34. 34. Figure 30.16A Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) Plasmogamy Sac fungi (Ascomycota) Mating structure Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type
  35. 35. Figure 30.16A Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) Plasmogamy Sac fungi (Ascomycota) Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type
  36. 36. Figure 30.16A Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) Plasmogamy Sac fungi (Ascomycota) Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Haploid hyphae (n) Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type
  37. 37. Figure 30.16A Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Sac fungi (Ascomycota) Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Haploid hyphae (n) Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type
  38. 38. Figure 30.16A Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Sac fungi (Ascomycota) Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Haploid hyphae (n) Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type
  39. 39. Figure 30.16A Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) DIPLOID (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Karyogamy Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Sac fungi (Ascomycota) FERTILIZATION Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Haploid hyphae (n) Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type
  40. 40. Figure 30.16A Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) DIPLOID (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Karyogamy Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Sac fungi (Ascomycota) FERTILIZATION Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Haploid hyphae (n) Fused nuclei Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type
  41. 41. Figure 30.16A Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) DIPLOID (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Karyogamy Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Sac fungi (Ascomycota) MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Haploid hyphae (n) Fused nuclei Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type
  42. 42. Figure 30.16A Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) DIPLOID (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Karyogamy Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Sac fungi (Ascomycota) MEIOSIS MITOSIS FERTILIZATION Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Haploid hyphae (n) Fused nuclei Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type
  43. 43. Figure 30.16A Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) DIPLOID (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Karyogamy Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Sac fungi (Ascomycota) MEIOSIS MITOSIS FERTILIZATION Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Haploid hyphae (n) Fused nuclei Ascus Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type
  44. 44. Figure 30.16A Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) DIPLOID (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Karyogamy Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Sac fungi (Ascomycota) Ascospores MEIOSIS MITOSIS FERTILIZATION Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Haploid hyphae (n) Fused nuclei Ascus Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type
  45. 45. Figure 30.16A Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) DIPLOID (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Karyogamy Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Sac fungi (Ascomycota) Ascospores MEIOSIS MITOSIS FERTILIZATION Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Haploid hyphae (n) Fused nuclei Ascus Ascus Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type
  46. 46. Figure 30.16A Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) DIPLOID (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Karyogamy Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Sac fungi (Ascomycota) Ascospores Ascospores (n) MEIOSIS MITOSIS FERTILIZATION Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Haploid hyphae (n) Fused nuclei Ascus Ascus Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type
  47. 47. Figure 30.16A Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) DIPLOID (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Karyogamy Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Sac fungi (Ascomycota) Ascospores Ascospores (n) Germinating ascospores (n) MEIOSIS MITOSIS FERTILIZATION Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Haploid hyphae (n) Fused nuclei Ascus Ascus Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type
  48. 48. Figure 30.16A Sexual Life Cycles among the Dikarya HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) DIPLOID (2n) Plasmogamy Ascoma (fruiting structure) Karyogamy Dikaryotic asci (n + n) Sac fungi (Ascomycota) Ascospores Ascospores (n) Germinating ascospores (n) MEIOSIS MITOSIS FERTILIZATION Mating structure Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Haploid hyphae (n) Fused nuclei Ascus Ascus Hyphae of – mating type Hyphae of + mating type
  49. 49. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Figure 30.16 Sexual Life Cycles of Ascomycota 30 Study this life cycle
  50. 50. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Yeasts 31 ! Saccharomyces cerevisiae is baker’s or brewer’s yeast. It metabolizes glucose to ethanol and CO2 by fermentation. ! Some yeasts live on fruits such as grapes and are important in wine making. ! Some live in the guts of insects and help break down cellulose. ! Reproduce asexually by budding ! Sexual reproduction—cells of different mating types fuse, zygote nucleus undergoes meiosis to form ascospores, the whole cell is the ascus. ! Lost the dikaryon stage.
  51. 51. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Cup Fungi Cup fungi • The inner surfaces of the cups are covered with specialized hyphae and asci, and produce huge numbers of spores. ! Many species are edible, including morels and truffles. 32
  52. 52. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Molds and Mildews ! Filamentous hyphae that do not form large ascomata ! Reproduce asexually by conidia which give molds characteristic colors. ! Sexual reproduction includes relatively brief dikaryon. ! Plant parasites (e.g, chestnut blight and Dutch elm disease) ! Many used in food production (Aspergillus tamarii for soy sauce; A. oryzae to brew sake) (Penicillium camembertii and P. roquefortii in Camembert and Roquefort cheeses) ! Some Penicillium species produce the antibiotic, penicillin ! Aflotoxin form an Aspergillus 33
  53. 53. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Club fungi (Basidiomycota) • Fruiting structures are basidiomata • 30,000 species, includes mushrooms, puff balls, bracket fungi • Plant pathogens such as rusts and smuts infect cereal grains. • Other club fungi species are fungal partners in ectomycorrhizae. 34
  54. 54. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Figure 30.19 Club Fungus Basidiomata 35
  55. 55. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Figure 30.18 Club Fungus Fruiting Structures 36
  56. 56. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Puffballs 37
  57. 57. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 38 HAPLOID (n) Basidiomycota
  58. 58. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 38 Basidium HAPLOID (n) Basidiomycota
  59. 59. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 38 Basidiospores Basidium HAPLOID (n) Basidiomycota
  60. 60. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 38 Basidiospores Basidium Basidium50 µm HAPLOID (n) Basidiomycota
  61. 61. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 38 In club fungi, the products of meiosis are borne exposed on pedestals called basidia. Fruiting bodies consist solely of dikaryotic hyphae, and the dikaryotic phase can last a long time. Basidiospores Basidium Basidium50 µm HAPLOID (n) Basidiomycota
  62. 62. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 38 In club fungi, the products of meiosis are borne exposed on pedestals called basidia. Fruiting bodies consist solely of dikaryotic hyphae, and the dikaryotic phase can last a long time. Basidiospores Basidium Basidium50 µm HAPLOID (n) + Mating type – Mating type Basidiomycota
  63. 63. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 38 In club fungi, the products of meiosis are borne exposed on pedestals called basidia. Fruiting bodies consist solely of dikaryotic hyphae, and the dikaryotic phase can last a long time. Basidiospores Basidium Basidium50 µm HAPLOID (n) + Mating type – Mating type Mycelial hyphae Basidiomycota
  64. 64. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 38 In club fungi, the products of meiosis are borne exposed on pedestals called basidia. Fruiting bodies consist solely of dikaryotic hyphae, and the dikaryotic phase can last a long time. Basidiospores Basidium Basidium50 µm HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) + Mating type – Mating type Mycelial hyphae Plasmogamy Basidiomycota
  65. 65. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 38 In club fungi, the products of meiosis are borne exposed on pedestals called basidia. Fruiting bodies consist solely of dikaryotic hyphae, and the dikaryotic phase can last a long time. Basidiospores Basidium Basidium50 µm HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) + Mating type – Mating type Mycelial hyphae Plasmogamy Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Basidiomycota
  66. 66. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 38 In club fungi, the products of meiosis are borne exposed on pedestals called basidia. Fruiting bodies consist solely of dikaryotic hyphae, and the dikaryotic phase can last a long time. Basidiospores Basidium Basidium50 µm HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) + Mating type – Mating type Mycelial hyphae Plasmogamy Basidioma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Basidiomycota
  67. 67. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 38 In club fungi, the products of meiosis are borne exposed on pedestals called basidia. Fruiting bodies consist solely of dikaryotic hyphae, and the dikaryotic phase can last a long time. Basidiospores Basidium Basidium50 µm HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) + Mating type – Mating type Mycelial hyphae Plasmogamy Basidioma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Gills Basidiomycota
  68. 68. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 38 In club fungi, the products of meiosis are borne exposed on pedestals called basidia. Fruiting bodies consist solely of dikaryotic hyphae, and the dikaryotic phase can last a long time. Basidiospores Basidium Basidium50 µm HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) + Mating type – Mating type Mycelial hyphae Plasmogamy Basidioma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Gills Gills lined with basidia Basidiomycota
  69. 69. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 38 In club fungi, the products of meiosis are borne exposed on pedestals called basidia. Fruiting bodies consist solely of dikaryotic hyphae, and the dikaryotic phase can last a long time. Basidiospores Basidium Basidium50 µm HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) + Mating type – Mating type Mycelial hyphae Plasmogamy Basidioma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Gills Developing basidium (n + n) Gills lined with basidia Basidiomycota
  70. 70. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 38 In club fungi, the products of meiosis are borne exposed on pedestals called basidia. Fruiting bodies consist solely of dikaryotic hyphae, and the dikaryotic phase can last a long time. Basidiospores Basidium Basidium50 µm HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) + Mating type – Mating type Mycelial hyphae Plasmogamy Basidioma (fruiting structure) Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Gills Developing basidium (n + n) Gills lined with basidia Nuclei Basidiomycota
  71. 71. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 38 In club fungi, the products of meiosis are borne exposed on pedestals called basidia. Fruiting bodies consist solely of dikaryotic hyphae, and the dikaryotic phase can last a long time. Basidiospores Basidium Basidium50 µm HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) DIPLOID (2n) + Mating type – Mating type Mycelial hyphae Plasmogamy Basidioma (fruiting structure) Karyogamy Fertilization Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Gills Developing basidium (n + n) Gills lined with basidia Nuclei Basidiomycota
  72. 72. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 38 In club fungi, the products of meiosis are borne exposed on pedestals called basidia. Fruiting bodies consist solely of dikaryotic hyphae, and the dikaryotic phase can last a long time. Basidiospores Basidium Basidium50 µm HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) DIPLOID (2n) + Mating type – Mating type Mycelial hyphae Plasmogamy Basidioma (fruiting structure) Karyogamy Fertilization Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Gills Developing basidium (n + n) Fused nuclei Gills lined with basidia Nuclei Basidiomycota
  73. 73. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 38 In club fungi, the products of meiosis are borne exposed on pedestals called basidia. Fruiting bodies consist solely of dikaryotic hyphae, and the dikaryotic phase can last a long time. Basidiospores Basidium Basidium50 µm HAPLOID (n) DIKARYOTIC (n + n) DIPLOID (2n) + Mating type – Mating type Mycelial hyphae Plasmogamy Basidioma (fruiting structure) Karyogamy Fertilization Meiosis Dikaryotic mycelium (n + n) Gills Developing basidium (n + n) Fused nuclei Gills lined with basidia Nuclei Basidiomycota
  74. 74. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Basidiomycota 39 Study this life cycle
  75. 75. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Symbioses 40
  76. 76. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Parasites 41
  77. 77. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Zombie Ants 42
  78. 78. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 from @zombieantguy 43
  79. 79. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 44 Cordyceps species
  80. 80. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 45 Cordyceps sinensis
  81. 81. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 30.2 How Do Fungi Interact with Other Organisms? • Parasitic fungi • Mycologists recognize two classes: !Facultative—can grow on living organisms but also grow on their own !Obligate—grow only on specific host species • Insects and plants are the most common hosts. 46
  82. 82. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Example: Invading a Leaf • Fungal hyphae are well-suited to invade plant tissues through stomata, wounds, or by penetrating epidermal cell walls. • Some hyphae produce haustoria, projections that press into cells without breaking through the plasma membranes, and absorb nutrients. 47
  83. 83. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Example: Trichophyton rubrum • Ascomycota • Feeds on keratin 48 http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Trichophyton_rubrum
  84. 84. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Trichophyton rubrum • Causes ! Ringworm ! Jock itch ! Athlete’s foot ! Nail infections ! Many other irritating maladies 49
  85. 85. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Pathogenic Fungi • A major cause of death in people with compromised immune systems, such as AIDS patients. • Fungi cause other human diseases such as ringworm and athlete’s foot. • The worldwide decline of amphibian species has been linked to a chytrid fungus. • The chytrid is endemic to southern Africa and probably spread with exports of the African clawed frog. • Fungi are the most important pathogens in plants, causing crop losses amounting to billions of dollars. 50
  86. 86. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Stachybotrys chartarum • Ascomycota • Feeds on cellulose 51
  87. 87. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Stachybotrys chartarum • Likes wet building materials like drywall, floors, ceilings • Causes ! allallergic rhinitis (cold- like symptoms,) ! dermatitis (rashes,) ! sinusitis ! conjunctivitis ! aggravation of asthma. ! inability to concentrate ! fatigue. 52 Paper on wallboard
  88. 88. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 White Nose Syndrome 53 Geomyces destructans White Nose syndrome
  89. 89. !54
  90. 90. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Aspergillus flavus • Ascomycota • Feeds on lots of things 55
  91. 91. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Aspergillus flavus • Grows well on stored grains • Produces aflotoxin, which can cause short and long term problems (e.g., liver cancer) 56
  92. 92. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 The brown mold Aspergillus: • Aspergillus tamarii acts on soybeans to make soy sauce; A. oryzae is used to brew sake • Other Aspergillus species grow on grains and nuts and produce extremely carcinogenic aflatoxins • Aspergillus fumigatus was cause of the primary case in the steroid-injection outbreak 57
  93. 93. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Photo 30.15 Conidiophores with numerous conidia of Aspergillus 58
  94. 94. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Other fungal human pathogens • Cryptococcus species (Basidiomycota) (HIV associated) • Encephalitozoon cuniculi (Microsporidia) (HIV associated) • Enterocytozoon bieneusi (Microsporidia) (usually in pigs) • Pneumocystis carinii (Ascomycota) (HIV associated) • Candida albicans (Ascomycota) (yeast infections) • Coccidiodes immitis (Ascomycota) (Central Valley fever) 59Encephalitozoon cuniculiPneumocystis carinii Candida albicans
  95. 95. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Mutualisms 60
  96. 96. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Lichens 61
  97. 97. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Figure 30.7 Lichen Body Forms 62
  98. 98. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 30.2 How Do Fungi Interact with Other Organisms? Lichens: fungus + photosynthetic microorganism Together they can survive some of the harshest environments on Earth, such as Antarctica. About 30,000 “species” are named for the fungal component. 63
  99. 99. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Figure 30.8 Lichen Anatomy 64
  100. 100. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 Lichens for dyes 65 Human uses of lichens: dyes

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