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BIS2C: Lecture 34 Fungi

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BIS2C: Lecture 34 Fungi

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BIS2C: Lecture 34 Fungi

  1. 1. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 1
  2. 2. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2014 2
  3. 3. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Lecture 34: Fungi BIS 002C Biodiversity & the Tree of Life Spring 2016 Prof. Jonathan Eisen 3
  4. 4. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Where we are going and where we have been… 4 •Previous lecture: •33: Deuterostomes III: Chordates II •Current Lecture: •34: Fungi •Next Lecture: •35: Fungi, Wrap Up
  5. 5. Lecture 34 Outline • Fungal Evolution • Absorptive heterotrophy • Diversity of Form • Reproduction • Life Styles • Uses of Fungi !5Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  6. 6. Clicker !6Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  7. 7. Clicker • Which of the following groups is least closely related to fungi? • A: Animals • B: Choanoflagellates • C: Protostomes • D. Oomycetes • E. Deuterostomes !7Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  8. 8. Clicker • Which of the following groups is least closely related to fungi? • A: Animals • B: Choanoflagellates • C: Protostomes • D. Oomycetes • E. Deuterostomes !8Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  9. 9. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Fungi in Evolutionary Context 9
  10. 10. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Fungal Major Groups and Phylogeny 10
  11. 11. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Some ambiguity 11
  12. 12. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Absorptive heterotrophy: • digest food outside bodies by secreting digestive enzymes to break down large food molecules • then absorb the breakdown products. • many are saprobic living off dead or decaying organic matter(e.g., leaves, dead organisms) 12 Fungal Key Feature - Absorptive Heterotrophy
  13. 13. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Fungal Decomposition
  14. 14. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Fungal Diversity I: Form 14
  15. 15. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Many fungi live as single cells 15 Yeasts Microsporidia Chytrids
  16. 16. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Multicellular Fungi: Mycelia Made Up of Hyphae 16 Hyphae • Hyphae cell walls have chitin. • Some hyphae have incomplete cross walls or septa, and are called septate. • Hyphae without septa are called coenocytic. • Hyphae allow high surface area to volume ratio. Aids in absorption but susceptible to drying.
  17. 17. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Multicellular Fungi: Mycelia Made Up of Hyphae 17 Hyphae • Hyphae cell walls have chitin. • Hyphae allow high surface area to volume ratio. Aids in absorption but susceptible to drying. • Hyphae with incomplete cross walls are septate. • Hyphae without septa are coenocytic. • Collections of hyphae = mycelia
  18. 18. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Multicellular Fungi: Hyphae 18 Fruiting Body Vegetative mycelia
  19. 19. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Mushroom growth 19
  20. 20. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Convergent Evolution 20
  21. 21. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Phytophthora Potato Late Blight 21 Sudden Oak Death
  22. 22. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Stramenopiles: Oomcyetes Phytophthora Potato Late Blight • Non-photosynthetic. • Are absorptive heterotrophs • Once were classed as fungi, but are unrelated. 22 Sudden Oak Death
  23. 23. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 23
  24. 24. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 High-GC Gram Positives (Actinobacteria) • High G+C/A+T ratio in DNA • Elaborate branching • Some reproduce by forming chains of spores at tips of filaments • Most antibiotics are from this group • Causative agents of many diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy • Many originally misclassified as fungi 24
  25. 25. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 25
  26. 26. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Amoebozoans: Plasmodial Slime Molds • Individual motile cells can form single, multinucleate cell (plasmodium) • Ingest food by endocytosis • Form spores on stalks called fruiting bodies. • Found in cool, moist habitats 26
  27. 27. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Fungal reproduction 27
  28. 28. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Fungal Major Groups and Phylogeny 28
  29. 29. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Life Cycle of a Zygospore Fungus 29
  30. 30. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Life Cycle of a Zygospore Fungus 29
  31. 31. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Figure 30.14 Sexual Life Cycles of Zygospore Fungi 30 Fusion of nuclei Fusion of cells
  32. 32. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Puffballs 31
  33. 33. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Fungal Spores 32
  34. 34. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Fungal Life Styles 33
  35. 35. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Parasitic Fungi Organism Class of symbiosis A B Mutualism + + Commensalism + 0 Parasitism + - 34
  36. 36. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Parasitic Fungi Example I: Plant Pathogens 35
  37. 37. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Parasitic Fungi Example II: Microsporidia • Obligate intracellular parasites of animals; 1,500 species. • Infect many diverse hosts • Among the smallest eukaryotes known. • Misclassified as protists for many years. 36
  38. 38. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Parasitic Fungi Example III: Amphibian Die Off from Chytrids 37
  39. 39. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Chytrids: Only Fungi with Swimming Spores 38
  40. 40. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Parasitic Fungi Example IV: Zombie Ants 39
  41. 41. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Clicker Which of the following best describes ant development? A. Triploblastic B. Diploblastic C. Monoblastic D. All of a-c E. None of a-c 40
  42. 42. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Clicker Which of the following best describes ant development? A. Triploblastic B. Diploblastic C. Monoblastic D. All of a-c E. None of a-c 41
  43. 43. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Arthropods 42
  44. 44. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ecdysozoans 43
  45. 45. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Animals 44 Diploblasts Triploblasts Monoblasts
  46. 46. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Predatory Fungi 45
  47. 47. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Clicker Which of the following best describes ant development? A. Triploblastic B. Diploblastic C. Monoblastic D. All of a-c E. None of a-c 46
  48. 48. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Clicker Which of the following best describes ant development? A. Triploblastic B. Diploblastic C. Monoblastic D. All of a-c E. None of a-c 47
  49. 49. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Nematodes 48
  50. 50. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ecdysozoans 49
  51. 51. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Mutualistic Fungi Organism Class of symbiosis A B Mutualism + + Commensalism + 0 Parasitism + - 50
  52. 52. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Mutualistic Fungi I - Mycorrhizae • Fungi associated with the roots of plants • Glucose from plant partner is primary energy source for fungus. • Provide plants w/ increased water and mineral uptake via massive increase in surface area 51 Ectomycorrhizae Arbuscular Mycorrhizae
  53. 53. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Fungal Major Groups and Phylogeny 52
  54. 54. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Mutualistic Fungi II - Lichens 53 • Composed of a fungus and photosynthetic microorganism(s) • Survive harsh environments • ~ 30,000 species
  55. 55. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Lichen Anatomy 54
  56. 56. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 55
  57. 57. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Classes of symbiosis Organism Class of symbiosis A B Mutualism + + Commensalism + 0 Parasitism + - 56
  58. 58. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Fungal Microbiome 57
  59. 59. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Fungi in Our Homes 58
  60. 60. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Uses of Fungi I: Food 59
  61. 61. Penicillium camemberti • Penicillium camemberti • Used in production of Brie and Camembert cheeses !60Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  62. 62. Penicillium roqueforti • Penicillium roqueforti • Used in production of blue cheeses !61Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  63. 63. Saccharomyces cerevisiae • Ascomycota • Grows naturally on many fruits (e.g., grapes) • Also known as Brewer’s yeast and budding yeast !62Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Sugars ---> Acetaldehyde + CO2 --> Ethanol
  64. 64. Other fungi used in food/ food production? !63Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  65. 65. Figure 30.20 Some Lichens Are Edible !64Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  66. 66. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 65
  67. 67. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Uses of Fungi II: Industry and Society 66
  68. 68. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Composting 67
  69. 69. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Biopulping 68
  70. 70. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Biofuels 69
  71. 71. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Industrial Mycology- enzymes, alcohol, citric acid 70
  72. 72. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 UC Davis Phaff Yeast Collection 71 Kyria Boundy-Mills
  73. 73. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Novozymes in Davis 72
  74. 74. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Lichens for dyes 73 Human uses of lichens: dyes
  75. 75. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Uses of Fungi III: Pharmaceuticals 74
  76. 76. Penicillium • Ascomycota • Ubiquitous in soil !75Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  77. 77. Alexander Fleming Penicillin !76Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Staphylococcus “lawn”
  78. 78. Alexander Fleming Penicillin !77Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Staphylococcus “lawn” Vacation Time: took off August 1928
  79. 79. Alexander Fleming Penicillin !78Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Staphylococcus “lawn” with mold growing on it. Bacteria around mold dead. Returned to lab September 3, 1928
  80. 80. Alexander Fleming Penicillin !79Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Penicillium notatum
  81. 81. Alexander Fleming Penicillin !80Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Mould juice aka Penicillin
  82. 82. Acremonium strictum: Cephalosporin !81Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  83. 83. Coming Soon … !82Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 We’re in deep trouble

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