Human Body Systems

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Human Body Systems

  1. 1. THE HUMAN BODY <ul><li>AN ORIENTATION </li></ul>
  2. 2. ANATOMY <ul><li>The study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationships to one another. </li></ul>
  3. 3. TYPES OF ANATOMY <ul><li>GROSS </li></ul><ul><li>MICROSCOPIC </li></ul>
  4. 4. GROSS ANATOMY <ul><li>Whenever we look at our own body or study large body structures such as the heart or bones. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Microscopic Anatomy <ul><li>If a microscope or magnifying instrument is used to see very small structures in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The cells and tissues of the human body can only be seen through a microscope. </li></ul>
  6. 6. PHYSIOLOGY <ul><li>The study of how the body and its parts work or function. </li></ul><ul><li>Like anatomy it has subdivisions </li></ul>
  7. 7. NEUROPHYSIOLOGY <ul><li>Explains the workings of the nervous system </li></ul>
  8. 8. CARDIAC PHYSIOLOGY <ul><li>Studies the function of the heart, which acts as a muscular pump to keep the blood flowing throughout the body. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Relationship between Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>The parts of your body are combined and arranged to form a well-organized unit, and each of those parts has a job to do to make the body operate as a whole. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Levels of Structural Organization <ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Organ </li></ul><ul><li>Organ System </li></ul><ul><li>Organism </li></ul>
  11. 11. CHEMICAL LEVEL <ul><li>Atoms combine to form molecules </li></ul>
  12. 12. CELLULAR LEVEL <ul><li>CELLS ARE MADE UP OF MOLECULES </li></ul>
  13. 13. TISSUE LEVEL <ul><li>TISSUES CONSIST OF SIMILAR TYPES OF CELLS </li></ul>
  14. 14. ORGAN LEVEL <ul><li>ORGANS ARE MADE UP OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF TISSUES </li></ul>
  15. 15. ORGAN SYSTEM LEVEL <ul><li>ORGAN SYTEMS CONSIST OF DIFFERENT ORGANS THAT WORK TOGETHER CLOSELY </li></ul>
  16. 16. ORGANISM LEVEL <ul><li>ORGANISMS ARE MADE UP OF MANY ORGAN SYSTEMS </li></ul>
  17. 17. Organ System Overview <ul><li>Integumentary </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine </li></ul><ul><li>Circulatory </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive </li></ul>
  18. 18. INTEGUMENTARY <ul><li>The external covering of the body. It waterproofs the body and cushions and protects the deeper tissues from injury. </li></ul><ul><li>It also excretes salts and water in sweat. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates body temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature, pressure, and pain receptors located in the skin alert us to what is happening at the body surface. </li></ul>
  19. 19. SKELETAL <ul><li>Consists of bones, cartilages, ligaments and joints. </li></ul><ul><li>It supports the body and provides a framework that skeletal muscles can use to cause movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Protects major organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Stores excess minerals </li></ul>
  20. 20. MUSCULAR <ul><li>Skeletal muscles of the body have one function- to contract and shorten. When this happens, movement occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>These muscles are distinct from muscles of the heart and of other hollow organs which move fluids(blood,urine) or other substances(food) along definite pathways within the body. </li></ul>
  21. 21. NERVOUS <ul><li>It is the bodies fast-acting control system. </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>The body must be able to detect stimuli on the inside and outside of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>This is done via electrical signals called nerve impulses. </li></ul>
  22. 22. ENDOCRINE <ul><li>Produces chemical molecules called hormones and release them into the blood to travel to relatively distant target organs. </li></ul><ul><li>The pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, thymus, pancreas, pineal, ovaries(female), and testes(male) all produce hormones that control body functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth, reproduction, and food use by cells are all controlled using hormones. </li></ul>
  23. 23. CIRCULATORY <ul><li>It is the transport and delivery system of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary organs of the cardiovascular system are the heart and blood vessels. </li></ul>
  24. 24. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM <ul><li>ENABLES YOU TO BREATHE. </li></ul><ul><li>THE LUNGS ARE THE MAIN ORGANS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. </li></ul>
  25. 25. UPPER RESPIRATORY <ul><li>UPPER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>NOSE </li></ul><ul><li>PHARYNX </li></ul><ul><li>LARYNX </li></ul><ul><li>TRACHEA </li></ul><ul><li>BRONCHI </li></ul>
  26. 26. EXTERNAL RESPIRATION <ul><li>GAS EXCHANGE BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND RESPIRATORY ORGANS </li></ul>
  27. 27. INTERNAL RESPIRATION <ul><li>GAS EXCHANGE BETWEEN CELLS AND THE BLOOD </li></ul>
  28. 28. CELLULAR RESPIRATION <ul><li>THE PROCESS OF BREAKING DOWN FOOD, USING OXYGEN TO MAKE ENERGY FOR THE CELLS. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Respiration <ul><li>SUPPLY CELLS WITH OXYGEN </li></ul><ul><li>REMOVE CARBON DIOXIDE </li></ul>
  30. 30. WHEN YOU INHALE <ul><li>OXYGEN GOES FROM THE </li></ul><ul><li>ALVEOLI </li></ul><ul><li>INTERSTITIAL FLUID (LUNGS) </li></ul><ul><li>BLOOD </li></ul>
  31. 31. WHEN YOU EXHALE <ul><li>Co2 GOES FROM THE BLOOD </li></ul><ul><li>INTERSTITIAL FLUID (LUNGS) </li></ul><ul><li>ALVEOLI </li></ul><ul><li>NOSE / MOUTH </li></ul>
  32. 32. Pressure Gradient <ul><li>Before you take a breath the air pressure inside your lungs is equal to the pressure in the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>When you inhale the pressure is less than in the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>When you exhale the pressure is greater than in the atmosphere. </li></ul>
  33. 33. TRACHEA <ul><li>TUBULAR PASSAGE FOR AIR </li></ul>
  34. 34. EXTERNAL NOSE <ul><li>Made of bone and pliable cartilage, and covered with skin and lined with mucous membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Blood vessels WARMS AIR BEFORE ENTERING THE LUNGS </li></ul><ul><li>FILTERING PARTICLES FROM THE AIR BEFORE IT ENTERS THE LUNGS </li></ul>
  35. 35. PHARYNX <ul><li>NASOPHARYNX </li></ul><ul><li>OROPHARYNX </li></ul><ul><li>LARYGOPHARYNX: Connects with the larynx(voice box) and the esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>EPIGLOTTIS: Valve at the top of the throat that closes when you swallow to keep food from entering the lower airway causing you to choke. </li></ul>
  36. 36. LUNGS <ul><li>Divided into 2 parts. </li></ul><ul><li>The broad lower half is called the base. It is concave and fits onto the convex portion of the diaphragm. </li></ul><ul><li>The narrow upper part is called the apex </li></ul>
  37. 37. LUNGS <ul><li>THE RIGHT SIDE HAS 3 LOBES AND THE LEFT SIDE HAS 2 BECAUSE IT SHARES SPACE WITH THE HEART. </li></ul>
  38. 38. LUNGS <ul><li>Primary breathing organ </li></ul><ul><li>Two cone-shaped organs in the thoracic cavity. </li></ul><ul><li>Protected by the pleural membrane </li></ul>
  39. 39. TRACHEA <ul><li>LEFT Primary Bronchus leads to the left lung. </li></ul><ul><li>Right Primary Bronchus leads to the right lung. </li></ul><ul><li>After entering the lung each primary bronchus divides into smaller and smaller BRONCHI, which are called Bronchioles. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Alveoli <ul><li>Small air-filled sacs </li></ul><ul><li>The ending of the bronchioles. </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of them together make up our lungs. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Pleural Membrane <ul><li>Surrounds and protects the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Those membranes are connected. </li></ul><ul><li>They are separated by a microscopic layer of water that allows them to slide against each other without pain or discomfort. </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation of this lining will cause major discomfort. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Maintaining Life: Necessary Life Functions <ul><li>Maintaining boundaries, move, respond to environmental changes, take in and digest nutrients, carry out metabolism, dispose of waste, reproduction, and growth. </li></ul>
  43. 43. LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION <ul><li>Name the levels of structure that make up the human body and explain how they are related. </li></ul><ul><li>Name the organ systems of the body and briefly state the major functions of each system. </li></ul><ul><li>Classify by organ system all organs discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the organs shown on a diagram. </li></ul>
  44. 44. THE WORK OF THE HEART <ul><li>THE MUSCLE THAT ACTS AS A PUMP FOR THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM.( HEART) </li></ul>
  45. 45. BLOOD PRESSURE <ul><li>THE FORCE OF THE BLOOD PUSHING AGAINST THE WALLS OF THE BLOOD VESSELS. </li></ul><ul><li>SYSTOLIC: the pressure when your heart contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Diastolic: the pressure when your heart relaxes </li></ul>
  46. 46. PARTS OF THE BLOOD <ul><li>PLASMA: MADE OF 92% H20; TRANSPORT BLOOD CELLS AND DISSOLVE FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>RED BLOOD CELLS: CARRIES O2 TO THE OTHER CELLS OF THE BODY AND CARRIES AWAY SOME WASTE. </li></ul><ul><li>WHITE BLOOD CELLS: DESTROYS DISEASE CAUSING GERMS. </li></ul><ul><li>PLATELETS: HELPS YOUR BLOOD CLOT </li></ul>
  47. 47. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM <ul><li>Energy is your key to life </li></ul><ul><li>Your body uses food as energy </li></ul><ul><li>Food is converted into energy </li></ul><ul><li>Food helps the body grow tissue and produce new cells </li></ul><ul><li>Your body breaks down food through the digestive system </li></ul>
  48. 48. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM <ul><li>The process of breaking down food is called digestion </li></ul><ul><li>The digestive system is an open system( 2 openings; in/out) </li></ul>
  49. 49. Gastrointestinal Tract <ul><li>Organs of the G.I. tract include: </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Small intestines </li></ul><ul><li>Large intestines </li></ul>
  50. 50. Accessory Structures of the Digestive System <ul><li>Teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Salivary Glands </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Gall Bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul>
  51. 51. Digestion Terminology <ul><li>Ingestion: The voluntary action of placing food in your mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion: the breakdown of food by chemical and mechanical processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Peristalsis: The movement of food along the digestive tract </li></ul>
  52. 52. Digestion Terminology <ul><li>Absorption: the passage of digested food from the digestive tract into the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Defecation: the elimination of indigestible substances from the body </li></ul>
  53. 53. The Stomach <ul><li>Food is broken down into a substance called Chyme(processed food) that looks like heavy cream. </li></ul><ul><li>Located on the left side of your body behind your liver and diaphragm </li></ul><ul><li>Gastric juices and hydrochloric acid are secreted by your stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Chyme travels to the small intestine via the pyloric sphincter </li></ul>
  54. 54. Stomach Emptying Rate <ul><li>High volume of chyme in the small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Acidic pH in the small intestine </li></ul><ul><li>High volume of fat in the small intestine </li></ul>
  55. 55. Small Intestines <ul><li>Divided into 3 section </li></ul><ul><li>1. Duodenum: iron and calcium most actively absorbed </li></ul><ul><li>2. Jejunum: proteins and carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ileum: fats, bile salts, and vitamins </li></ul>
  56. 56. Small Intestine <ul><li>Secretes enzymes into food that helps break down solids so they can enter the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood carries food particles to all parts of the body. </li></ul>

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