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BIS2C: Lecture 33: Vertebrates

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BIS2C: Lecture 33: Vertebrates

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BIS2C: Lecture 33: Vertebrates

  1. 1. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Lecture 33: Deuterostomes III: Chordates II BIS 002C Biodiversity & the Tree of Life Spring 2016 Prof. Jonathan Eisen 1
  2. 2. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Where we are going and where we have been… 2 •Previous lecture: •32: Deuterostomes II: Chordates •Current Lecture: •33: Deuterostomes III: Chordates II •Next Lecture: •34: Fungi
  3. 3. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 SmartSite issues? How are the problems with SmartSite affecting you? A. Causing me lots of trouble B. Causing me some trouble C. Causing me no trouble D. Good riddance E. Both A and D 3
  4. 4. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 BIS2C Final Exam Section B 4 Date & Time: Saturday, June 4, 1:00 PM – 3:00 PM Please arrive early and bring: 1. Photo ID 2. Pen 3. #2 pencil LAST NAMES EXAM LOCATION A - J 1100 SOCIAL SCIENCES K - R 1003 GEIDT S - Z 176 Everson
  5. 5. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Lab Practical: May 31-June 2 Do NOT enter until instructed by your TA **Please show up 10 minutes in advance of your exam** The start time of your exam depends on where you usually attend lab. Most of you will be starting at your regular lab time, but see below for the ‘halfway’ start times. Regular lab location Exam is in Exam starts at 3079 SLB 3079 SLB usual start time 3085 SLB 3085 SLB usual start time 3088 SLB 3079 SLB halfway through period 3090 SLB 3085 SLB halfway through period Regardless of when your exam will begin, do not be late as there is no way for you to make up the questions that you missed. The times listed below are ONLY for the 3088 & 3090 SLB students with halfway start times: Usual lab time Lab practical starts at 7:30am 8:55am 9:00am 10:25am 11:00am 12:25pm 1:10pm 2:35pm 2:30pm 3:55pm 5:10pm 6:35pm 6:10pm 7:35pm 5
  6. 6. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Eisen Office Hours Friday 3:00 - 5:00 6
  7. 7. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Other Things • Study Guides will be posted over the next few days • Final is 2/3 about animals, 1/3 about rest of course • Review sessions to be scheduled 7
  8. 8. Vertebrate Origins !8Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ciliated larvae AmbulacrariansChordates Common ancestor (bilaterally symmetrical, pharyngeal slits present) Echinoderms Hemichordates Lancelets Tunicates Vertebrates Radial symmetry as adults, calcified internal plates, loss of pharyngeal slits Vertebral column, anterior skull, large brain, ventral heart Notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, post-anal tail Focus on Vertebrates
  9. 9. Phylogeny of the Living Vertebrates !9Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Amniotes Lampreys Hagfishes Lungfishes Amphibians Chondrichthyans Ray-finned fishes Coelacanths
  10. 10. Focus on Two Key Things !10Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Amniotes Lampreys Hagfishes Lungfishes Amphibians Chondrichthyans Ray-finned fishes Coelacanths Getting to Humans
  11. 11. In-Text Art, Ch. 33, p. 693 (1)
  12. 12. In-Text Art, Ch. 33, p. 707 !12Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Amniote ancestor Crocodilians REPTILES Tuataras Squamates Turtles Theropods, including birds Mammals MAMMALS
  13. 13. In-Text Art, Ch. 33, p. 696 !13Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Reptiles Eutherians Marsupials Prototherians
  14. 14. Figure 33.28 Major Groups of Eutherians Diversified as the Continents Drifted Apart !14Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Million years ago Africa Africa Africa Africa Africa South America SE Asia SE Asia Proto-Europe Proto-Europe Proto-Europe Laurasia Laurasia Laurasia Laurasia Laurasia Laurasia Madagascar, Africa Africa Africa Africa, Asia Africa, Middle East North, South America SE Asia SE Asia Tropics of Africa, Americas, Asia North America, Eurasia Worldwide Worldwide except Australasia Worldwide except Australasia Africa, southern Asia Worldwide except Australasia Worldwide except Australasia Worldwide Current native distribution Earliest FossilsGroup African insectivores Long-nosed insectivores Aardvarks Elephants Hyraxes Armadillos Colugos (“flying lemurs”) Tree shrews Primates Rabbits and pikas Rodents Shrews, moles, and relatives Bats Pangolins Odd-toed hoofed mammals Even-toed hoofed mammals
  15. 15. Figure 33.30 Phylogeny of the Primates !15Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Pleistocene Gibbons Orangutans African apes and humans Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene Pliocene Lemurs Prosimians Mid-to-late Cretaceous Anthropoids Lorises Tarsiers New World monkeys Old World monkeys
  16. 16. Figure 33.34 A Phylogenetic Tree of Hominins !16Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ardipithecine ancestors Paranthropus boisei Homo sapiens (now worldwide) Million years ago Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy) Australopithecus africanus Paranthropus aethiopicus Paranthropus robustus Homo floresiensis (extinct 17,000 years ago) Homo erectus (extinct 250,000 years ago) Homo ergaster Homo neanderthalensis (extinct 28,000 years ago) Homo habilis Africa only Expansion out of Africa
  17. 17. Vertebrate Evolution !17Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 How Do People Figure This All Out?
  18. 18. Get Samples of Diverse Organisms !18Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  19. 19. Gather Lots of Data !19Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  20. 20. Including Fossils !20Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  21. 21. Infer a Phylogenetic Tree !21Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  22. 22. Phylogeny of the Living Vertebrates !22Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Amniotes Lampreys Hagfishes Lungfishes Amphibians Chondrichthyans Ray-finned fishes Coelacanths
  23. 23. Major Innovations in Vertebrate Evolution !23Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Bony skeleton, swim bladder/lung Jawless fishes Lobe-limbed vertebrates Amniotes Gnatho-
 stomes (”jaw mouths”) Terrestrial limbs and digits Lobe fins Lampreys Internal nares Vertebrae Jaws, teeth, paired fins Hagfishes Amniote egg Lungfishes Amphibians Chondrichthyans Ray-finned fishes Coelacanths How Did People Figure This All Out?
  24. 24. Comparative Biology !24Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Post anal tail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Vertebrae No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Jaws No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Lobe Fins/ Limbs No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Terrestrial Limbs No No No No No No Yes Yes Other Amniotes Lampreys Hagfishes Lungfishes Amphibians Chondrichthyans Ray-finned fishes Coelacanths
  25. 25. Overlay Onto Tree !25Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Post anal tail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Vertebrae No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Jaws No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Lobe Fins/ Limbs No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Terrestrial Limbs No No No No No No Yes Yes Amniotes Lampreys Hagfishes Lungfishes Amphibians Chondrichthyans Ray-finned fishes Coelacanths
  26. 26. Infer Likely Ancestral and Derived Traitss !26Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Post anal tail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Vertebrae No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Jaws No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Lobe Fins/ Limbs No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Terrestrial Limbs No No No No No No Yes Yes Amniotes Lampreys Hagfishes Lungfishes Amphibians Chondrichthyans Ray-finned fishes Coelacanths
  27. 27. Major Innovations in Vertebrate Evolution !27Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Bony skeleton, swim bladder/lung Jawless fishes Lobe-limbed vertebrates Amniotes Gnatho-
 stomes (”jaw mouths”) Terrestrial limbs and digits Lobe fins Lampreys Internal nares Vertebrae Jaws, teeth, paired fins Hagfishes Amniote egg Lungfishes Amphibians Chondrichthyans Ray-finned fishes Coelacanths
  28. 28. The Vertebrate Body Plan (not in all …) !28Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Anterior skull enclosing a large brain A jointed, dorsal vertebral column replaces the notochord during early development. Internal Organs suspended in a coelom Well-developed circulatory system driven by a ventral heart Rigid Internal Skeleton
  29. 29. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Vertebrate Evolution • The structural features can support large, active animals. • Internal skeleton supports an extensive muscular system that gets oxygen from the circulatory system and is controlled by the nervous system. • These features allowed vertebrates to diversify widely. 29
  30. 30. Photo 33.105 Family Balaenopteridae: fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus); Baja California, Mexico. !30Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  31. 31. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Sister group for all other vertebrates 31 Hagfish
  32. 32. Photo 33.18 Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stouti).
  33. 33. You’ve Been Slimed
  34. 34. !34Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Anterior skull enclosing a large brain A jointed, dorsal vertebral column replaces the notochord during early development. Internal Organs suspended in a coelom Rigid Internal Skeleton Well-developed circulatory system driven by a ventral heart The Vertebrate Body Plan
  35. 35. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 35 Lampreys
  36. 36. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Lampreys 36 • Complete cranium and cartilaginous vertebrae. • Complete metamorphosis from filter-feeding larvae (ammocoetes), which are similar to lancelets. • No bone, no jaws, but cartilaginous vertebrae are present • Sucker- like mouth with rasping teeth • Many species are ectoparasites of fish
  37. 37. Photo 33.17 Anadromous lamprey (Petromyzon marinus); Rhode Island.
  38. 38. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 38 Vertebrae Evolution Lampreys have cartilaginous vertebrae so infer that vertebrae evolved here.
  39. 39. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Gnathostomes - Jaw Mouths 39 • Jaws evolved from gill arches late in the Ordovician. • Name from Greek gnathos (jaw) & stoma (mouth)
  40. 40. Figure 33.12 Jaws and Teeth Increased Feeding Efficiency !40Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  41. 41. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 33.3 What New Features Evolved in the Chordates? • Jaws improved feeding efficiency and prey capture. • Jawed fishes diversified rapidly and became dominant. • Teeth made feeding even more efficient. Chewing aids chemical digestion and improves extraction of nutrients from food. 41
  42. 42. Sling Jawed Wrasse • Previous lecture: ! Bis2B ! 
 !42Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  43. 43. Chondrichthyans (sharks, rays, skates, chimaeras): !43Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Skeletons of cartilage • Flexible, leathery skin • Sharks swim using lateral undulations of the body. • Skates and rays swim by flapping enlarged pectoral fins.
  44. 44. Chondrichthyans !44Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  45. 45. Megalodon !45Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • One of the largest vertebrate predators, 50-60ft • Largest known tooth ~8 inches • Extinct about 1.5 million years ago • Likely fed on whales and other large prey
  46. 46. Great White Shark !46Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Up to 20ft and 5,000 lbs; apex predator • Feeds on marine mammals, fish, and seabirds • Likely a close relative of Megalodon • Global distribution; migratory behavior (12,000 miles/ 9 months) Farallon Islands
  47. 47. Bones !47Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • One lineage of gnathostomes gave rise to the bony vertebrates with internal skeletons of calcified, rigid bone. • Some early bony fishes had gas-filled sacs that supplemented the gills in gas exchange.
  48. 48. Ray Finned Fishes !48Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • In ray-finned fishes, the sacs developed into swim bladders, organs of buoyancy. • Allows fish to maintain position at specific depths.
  49. 49. !49Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  50. 50. Ray Finned Fish- Actinopterygii • Largest group of bony fish; 30,000 described species • Both freshwater and marine, diverse feeding habits !50Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  51. 51. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Big Change Coming - Invasion of Land 51 • What features contributed to the invasion of and diversification on land?
  52. 52. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Where Else Have We Discussed Invasion of Land Which of the following is NOT considered to be a critical adaptation for the invasion of the land by eukaryotes? A. Pigments B. Mutualistic associations with fungi C. Hardened cuticle D. Waxy cuticle E. Jaws 52
  53. 53. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Where Else Have We Discussed Invasion of Land Which of the following is NOT considered to be a critical adaptation for the invasion of the land by eukaryotes? A. Pigments B. Mutualistic associations with fungi C. Hardened cuticle D. Waxy cuticle E. Jaws 53
  54. 54. Land Plants … !54Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Plantae Retention of egg in the parental organism; plasmodesmata; similarities in mitosis and cytokinesis Chloroplasts primary endo- symbiosis) Chlorophyll b; starch storage Protected embryo; cuticle; multicellular sporophyte; gametangia; thick-walled spores Branched apical growth Land plants (embryophytes) Stoneworts (“green algae”) Coleochaetophytes (“green algae”) Other “green algae” Chlorophytes (most “green algae”) Red algae Glaucophytes Green plants Streptophytes
  55. 55. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Arthropods 55
  56. 56. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Arthropod Key Feature: Exoskeleton • Exoskeleton is a thickened cuticle • Restricts movement and gas exchange • Requires ecdysis • Muscles attached to inside • Provides support for walking on land, prevents drying, and provides some protection from predators. • Aquatic arthropods were thus excellent candidates to invade land. 56
  57. 57. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Big Change Coming - Invasion of Land 57 • What features contributed to the invasion of and diversification on land?
  58. 58. Lungs / Swim Bladder !58Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Lung-like sacs likely evolved much before vertebrates invaded the land • Supplemented gills when in shallow water / water low in O2 • Evolved into swim bladders in many ray-finned fish
  59. 59. Lobe Fins !59Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Bony fish that lack bony spines (rays) as part of their fins • The more muscular fins are joined to the body by a single large bone • Changes in the structure of fins allowed some fish to support themselves in shallow water and later move onto land.
  60. 60. Coelacanths !60Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  61. 61. Coelocanths • Thought to have become extinct 65 mya, but living ones were found off South Africa in 1938. • They have a cartilaginous skeleton that is a derived feature. !61 Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  62. 62. More Fully Developed Lungs !62Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Elaboration on the lung like sacs into lungs
  63. 63. More Fully Developed Lungs !63Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  64. 64. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 64
  65. 65. Tetrapods !65Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Limbs capable of movement on land evolved from the short, muscular fins of aquatic ancestors. • The four resulting limbs give the tetrapods their name.
  66. 66. Fossils Also Important !68Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/great-transitions-interactive
  67. 67. Tetrapod Limbs Are Modified Fins !69Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  68. 68. Amphibians !70Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  69. 69. Amphibians !71Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 ~7,000 species Confined to moist habitats: lose water easily through the skin, and eggs dry out if exposed to air.
  70. 70. Amniotes !72Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Amniotes have several features that contribute to their success on dry land.

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