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BIS2C_2020. Lecture 22 Fungi Part 1

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Slides for BIS2C 2020 at UC Davis by Jonathan Eisen

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BIS2C_2020. Lecture 22 Fungi Part 1

  1. 1. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 BIS2C Biodiversity & the Tree of Life Spring 2020 Lecture 22: Fungi Part 1 Prof. Jonathan Eisen
  2. 2. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 YAHIMY - Yet another hummingbird in my yard
  3. 3. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Blue Grosbeak in rural Davis
  4. 4. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Tricolored blackbird (endangered) in Woodland
  5. 5. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Beaver at Yolo Bypass
  6. 6. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Pacific Slope Flycatcher at Yolo Bypass
  7. 7. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Copper butterfly at Yolo Bypass
  8. 8. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 River otter at Yolo Bypass
  9. 9. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Bullock’s Oriole at Yolo Bypass
  10. 10. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Swainson’s Hawk
  11. 11. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 White tailed Kite
  12. 12. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Something from the Lorax
  13. 13. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Baby Virginia Rails
  14. 14. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Baby Virginia Rails
  15. 15. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 !Lecture 21: Plants !Lecture 22: Fungi 1 !Lecture 23: Fungi 2 Lecture 22 Context
  16. 16. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2019 Learning Goals • Understand key innovations that distinguish fungi from other organisms and distinguish the groups of fungi from each other • Understand and be able to compare and contrast main features of growth, cellular structures and life cycles seen in fungi
  17. 17. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Lecture 22 Outline • Fungi !Introduction and general features !Phylogenetic diversity !Diversity of form !Diversity of life cycles
  18. 18. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Lecture 22 Outline • Fungi !Introduction and general features !Phylogenetic diversity !Diversity of form !Diversity of life cycles
  19. 19. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fungi Introduction Fungi are Diverse
  20. 20. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fungi: What are They?
  21. 21. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fungi are Eukaryotes Fungi: What are They?
  22. 22. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Opisthokonts Fungi are Opisthokonts Fungi: What are They?
  23. 23. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fungi: What are They?
  24. 24. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 More on Opisthokonts on Wednesday next week Fungi: What are They?
  25. 25. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 More on Opisthokonts on Wednesday next week Fungi: What are They?
  26. 26. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 More on Opisthokonts on Wednesday next week Fungi: What are They? Today, Tomorrow Focus on Fungi
  27. 27. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fungi Are Important
  28. 28. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Importance of Fungi I: Food
  29. 29. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Saccharomyces cerevisiae • Grows naturally on many fruits (e.g., grapes) • Also known as Brewer’s yeast and budding yeast Sugars ---> Acetaldehyde + CO2 --> Ethanol
  30. 30. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Penicillium camemberti • Penicillium camemberti • Used in production of Brie and Camembert cheeses
  31. 31. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Penicillium roqueforti • Penicillium roqueforti • Used in production of blue cheeses
  32. 32. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Other fungi used in food/ food production?
  33. 33. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fungal cultivation by animals Fungal cultivation by animals Termites Leaf cutter ants Snails Ambrosia beetles
  34. 34. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020
  35. 35. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Importance of Fungi II: Industry and Society
  36. 36. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Composting
  37. 37. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Biopulping
  38. 38. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Biofuels
  39. 39. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Industrial Mycology- enzymes, alcohol, citric acid
  40. 40. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 UC Davis Phaff Yeast Collection Kyria Boundy-Mills
  41. 41. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Novozymes in Davis
  42. 42. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Lichens for dyes Human uses of lichens: dyes
  43. 43. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Importance of Fungi III: Pharmaceuticals
  44. 44. Alexander Fleming Penicillin Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Staphylococcus “lawn”
  45. 45. Alexander Fleming Penicillin Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Staphylococcus “lawn” Vacation Time: took off August 1928
  46. 46. Alexander Fleming Penicillin Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Staphylococcus “lawn” with mold growing on it. Bacteria around mold dead. Returned to lab September 3, 1928
  47. 47. Alexander Fleming Penicillin Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Penicillium notatum
  48. 48. Alexander Fleming Penicillin Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Mould juice aka Penicillin
  49. 49. Acremonium strictum: Cephalosporin Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020
  50. 50. Coming Soon … Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 We need more antibiotics
  51. 51. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Importance of Fungi: Other
  52. 52. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Many Important Fungal Symbioses Organism Class of symbiosis A B Mutualism + + Commensalism + 0 Parasitism + -
  53. 53. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Many Important Fungal Symbioses Organism Class of symbiosis A B Mutualism + + Commensalism + 0 Parasitism + - Lecture 23
  54. 54. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fungal decomposition • Decomposition of organic matter driven largely by fungi • Major contributors to recycling nutrients in every ecosystem
  55. 55. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2019 Predatory Fungi
  56. 56. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fungal Key Features
  57. 57. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fungi Share Many Features in Common Fungal Key Innovations
  58. 58. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fungi Share Many Features in Common Fungal Key Innovations
  59. 59. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fungal Key Innovation 1 - Chitin in Cell Wall • Chitin is a long polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (a sugar similar to glucose) • Found in the cell walls of fungi • Also found in other taxa (i.e., not unique to fungi but the way it is used in the cell wall is) • Functions in cell walls of fungi in similar ways to peptidoglycan of bacteria - protects cells, provides rigid structure Chitin
  60. 60. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fungal Key Innovation 2 - Absorptive Heterotrophy • Digest food outside of self by secreting enzymes to break down large food molecules • Then absorb the breakdown products. • Many are saprobic living off dead or decaying organic matter (e.g., leaves, dead organisms) Absorptive heterotrophy
  61. 61. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fungal Decomposition
  62. 62. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Lecture 22 Outline • Fungi !Introduction and general features !Phylogenetic diversity !Diversity of form !Diversity of life cycles
  63. 63. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 A Phylogeny of the Fungi
  64. 64. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 A Phylogeny of the Fungi
  65. 65. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 A Phylogeny of the Fungi
  66. 66. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Lecture 22 Outline • Fungi !Introduction and general features !Phylogenetic diversity !Diversity of form !Diversity of life cycles
  67. 67. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Many fungi are single celled some or all of the time Yeasts Microsporidia Chytrids
  68. 68. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Many fungi are multicellular • Hyphae cell walls have chitin. • Hyphae allow high surface area to volume ratio. Aids in absorption but susceptible to drying. • Hyphae with incomplete cross walls are septate. • Hyphae without septa are coenocytic. • Collections of hyphae = mycelia Fruiting Body Vegetative mycelia Hyphae
  69. 69. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Mushroom growth
  70. 70. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Mycelia of single fungi can get very very very big 66
  71. 71. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Hyphae-like structures seen in many other taxa
  72. 72. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Stramenopiles: Oomcyetes Phytophthora Potato Late Blight • Non-photosynthetic. • Are absorptive heterotrophs • Once were classed as fungi, but are unrelated. Sudden Oak Death
  73. 73. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 High-GC Gram Positives (Actinobacteria) • High G+C/A+T ratio in DNA • Elaborate branching • Some reproduce by forming chains of spores at tips of filaments • Most antibiotics are from this group • Causative agents of many diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy • Many originally misclassified as fungi
  74. 74. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Amoebozoans: Plasmodial Slime Molds • Individual motile cells can form single, multinucleate cell (plasmodium) • Ingest food by endocytosis • Form spores on stalks called fruiting bodies. • Found in cool, moist habitats
  75. 75. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Lecture 22 Outline • Fungi !Introduction and general features !Phylogenetic diversity !Diversity of form !Diversity of life cycles
  76. 76. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fungal Groups Distinguished in part by Life Cycles
  77. 77. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020Slide by Brian Moore for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020
  78. 78. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020Slide by Brian Moore for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020
  79. 79. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020Slide by Brian Moore for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020
  80. 80. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020Slide by Brian Moore for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020
  81. 81. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020Slide by Brian Moore for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020
  82. 82. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Ic Slide by Brian Moore for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Diplontic
  83. 83. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020Slide by Brian Moore for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Haplontic
  84. 84. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Sporic
  85. 85. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 SporicAlternation of generations
  86. 86. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 What You Will Need to Know About Fungal Life Cycles
  87. 87. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 What You Will Need to Know About Fungal Life Cycles • What you will need to know about fungal life cycles: !Major differences between groups !Transitions between ploidy levels (n, 2n, n+n, other) !Multicellular stages !Possible advantages to life cycle innovations
  88. 88. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Chytrids
  89. 89. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Chytrids
  90. 90. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Chytrids
  91. 91. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Chytrids
  92. 92. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Chytrids Flagellated gametes
  93. 93. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Chytrids
  94. 94. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Chytrids
  95. 95. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Chytrids
  96. 96. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Chytrids Flagellated spores
  97. 97. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Chytrids
  98. 98. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Chytrids Flagellated spores Flagellated gametes Single celled chytrids skip the multicellular stages
  99. 99. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Chytrids: Flagellated Spores & Gametes Aid Dispersal
  100. 100. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Thought question The Chytrid Life cycle could be described as which of the following: A. Diplontic B. Haplontic C. Alternation of generations D. A or B E. B or C
  101. 101. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Thought question The Chytrid Life cycle could be described as which of the following: A. Diplontic B. Haplontic C. Alternation of generations D. A or B E. B or C
  102. 102. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 SporicAlternation of generations
  103. 103. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Innovation - Decoupling Plasmogamy & Karyogamy
  104. 104. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020Slide by Brian Moore for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020
  105. 105. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fertilization
  106. 106. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fertilization n n Haploid Gametes
  107. 107. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fertilization n n FertilizationHaploid Gametes
  108. 108. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fertilization n n Fertilization nn Haploid Gametes Diploid Zygote
  109. 109. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fertilization n n FertilizationHaploid Gametes Diploid Zygote 2n
  110. 110. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fertilization n FertilizationHaploid Gametes Diploid Zygote 2n Egg Sperm
  111. 111. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fertilization n n FertilizationHaploid Gametes Diploid Zygote 2n Mating Type A Mating Type B
  112. 112. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Fertilization Has Two Key Events
  113. 113. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 n n Haploid Gametes Fertilization Has Two Key Events
  114. 114. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 n n FertilizationHaploid Gametes Zygote Fertilization Has Two Key Events nn
  115. 115. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 n n Fertilization Fusion of cells Haploid Gametes Zygote Fertilization Has Two Key Events n n nn
  116. 116. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 n n Fertilization Fusion of cells Fusion of nuclei Haploid Gametes Zygote Fertilization Has Two Key Events n n nn
  117. 117. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 n n Fertilization Fusion of cells Fusion of nuclei Gamos: Greek for marriage Haploid Gametes Zygote Syngamy Fertilization Has Two Key Events n n nn
  118. 118. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 n n Fertilization Fusion of cells Fusion of nuclei Gamos: Greek for marriage Plasma (i.e., plasma membrane) Haploid Gametes Zygote Syngamy Fertilization Has Two Key Events n n nn Plasmogamy
  119. 119. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 n n Fertilization Fusion of cells Fusion of nuclei Gamos: Greek for marriage Plasma (i.e., plasma membrane) Karyo (i.e. eukaryote = nucleus) Haploid Gametes Zygote Syngamy Fertilization Has Two Key Events n n nn Plasmogamy Karyogamy
  120. 120. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 n n Fertilization Fusion of cells Fusion of nuclei Gamos: Greek for marriage Plasma (i.e., plasma membrane) Karyo (i.e. eukaryote = nucleus) Haploid Gametes Zygote Syngamy Fertilization Has Two Key Events n n nn Plasmogamy Karyogamy Key Fungal Innovation: Decoupling of Plasmogamy and Karyogamy
  121. 121. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Innovation - Decoupling Plasmogamy & Karyogamy
  122. 122. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 Life Cycle of a Zygospore Fungus
  123. 123. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2020 !Lecture 21: Plants !Lecture 22: Fungi 1 !Lecture 23: Fungi 2 Lecture 22 Context

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