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BIS2C: Lecture 30: Triploblasts: Protostomes: Ecdysozoans II

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BIS2C: Lecture 29: Triploblasts: Protostomes: Ecdysozoans I

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BIS2C: Lecture 30: Triploblasts: Protostomes: Ecdysozoans II

  1. 1. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Lecture 30: Triploblasts: Protostomes: Ecdysozoans II BIS 002C Biodiversity & the Tree of Life Spring 2016 Prof. Jonathan Eisen 1
  2. 2. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Where we are going and where we have been… 2 •Previous lecture: •29: Triploblasts: Protostomes: Ecdysozoans I •Current Lecture: •30: Triploblasts: Protostomes: Ecdysozoans II •Next Lecture: •31: Deuterosomes I: Echinoderms & Hemichordates
  3. 3. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Topics .. 3 • Arthropod Features • Arthropod Diversity & Major Groups • Trilobites • Crustacea • Myriapods • Chelicerate • Hexapoda • Blood and lots of blood
  4. 4. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Animal Diversity 4 Diploblasts Triploblasts Monoblasts
  5. 5. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Triploblasts 5 Triploblasts
  6. 6. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Protostomes 6
  7. 7. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Ecdysozoans 7
  8. 8. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Arthropods 8
  9. 9. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Arthropod Key Feature: Exoskeleton • Exoskeleton is a thickened cuticle • Restricts movement and gas exchange • Requires ecdysis • Muscles attached to inside • Provides support for walking on land, prevents drying, and provides some protection from predators. • Aquatic arthropods were thus excellent candidates to invade land. 9
  10. 10. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 10
  11. 11. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 10
  12. 12. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Arthropod Key Feature: Segmentation and Appendages • Segmentation - division of the body into repeated independently operated sections • Segments have independent muscles and pairs of jointed appendages • Appendages used for locomotion, food capture, gas exchange, copulation, and sensory perception. • Tagmatization = fusing of segments 11 segments head thorax abdomen tagmata
  13. 13. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Arthropod Key Feature: Compound Eyes 12 • Arthropods share an eye which is composed of separate light sensing organs called ommatidia. • Many arthropods can see into the UV.
  14. 14. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Metazoans: Numbers of Species Per Group 13 Numbers of described species among the major animal groups (from Wilson, 1992).
  15. 15. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Metazoans: Numbers of Species Per Group: Sponges • Previous lecture: !Bis2B !
 14 Sponges Numbers of described species among the major animal groups (from Wilson, 1992).
  16. 16. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Previous lecture: !Bis2B !
 15 Mollusca Numbers of described species among the major animal groups (from Wilson, 1992). Metazoans: Numbers of Species Per Group: Molluscs
  17. 17. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Previous lecture: !Bis2B !
 16 Annelida Numbers of described species among the major animal groups (from Wilson, 1992). Metazoans: Numbers of Species Per Group: Annelids
  18. 18. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Previous lecture: !Bis2B !
 17 Arthropods are everything else! Metazoans: Numbers of Species Per Group: Arthropods
  19. 19. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Arthropod Major Groups (Subphyla) 18 Myriapoda (Millipedes, Centipedes) Crustacea (Crabs, Shrimp, barnacles, copepods) Hexapoda (Insects,entognatha) Chelicerata (Spiders, Scorpions, Horseshoe crabs) Trilobites (Extinct)
  20. 20. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Trilobites 19 Myriapoda (Millipedes, Centipedes) Crustacea (Crabs, Shrimp, barnacles, copepods) Hexapoda (Insects,entognatha) Chelicerata (Spiders, Scorpions, Horseshoe crabs) Trilobites (Extinct)
  21. 21. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Figure 32.19 A Trilobite Fossil 20
  22. 22. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Trilobites • Trilobites flourished in Cambrian and Ordovician seas; went extinct (~250 mya) at the end of the Permian. • Left an abundant fossil record. Used to data samples. • Segmented, cephalized, many with well- developed eyes. • Jointed legs first appeared in trilobites. Some appendages were modified for different functions. 21
  23. 23. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 22
  24. 24. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 22
  25. 25. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Arthropod Major Groups (Subphyla) 23 Myriapoda (Millipedes, Centipedes) Crustacea (Crabs, Shrimp, barnacles, copepods) Hexapoda (Insects,entognatha) Chelicerata (Spiders, Scorpions, Horseshoe crabs) Trilobites (Extinct)
  26. 26. Crustacea !24Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Three tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen) • Two pairs of antennae • Dorsal carapace covers thorax & head • Nauplius larval stage • Appendages modified: - Swimming - Feeding - Walking - Sensory - Breathing - Sex and Brooding Thorax HeadAbdomenheadthoraxabdomen
  27. 27. Crustacean Diversity !25Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • 50,000 species, diverse feeding modes and ecology • Marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments • Three groups to know: 1. Copepoda 2. Cirripedia 3. Malacostraca
  28. 28. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  29. 29. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  30. 30. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Arthropod Major Groups (Subphyla) 27 Myriapoda (Millipedes, Centipedes) Crustacea (Crabs, Shrimp, barnacles, copepods) Hexapoda (Insects,entognatha) Chelicerata (Spiders, Scorpions, Horseshoe crabs) Trilobites (Extinct)
  31. 31. Chelicerates !28Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Two tagmata (cephalothorax, abdomen) • Head has two pairs of appendages modified into mouthparts (chelicerae) • Four pairs of walking legs and pedipalps • Predators, herbivores, parasites • Arachnida is the most diverse Araneae- Spiders Acari- Mites & Ticks Xiphosura- Horseshoe Crabs Scorpiones- Scorpions
  32. 32. A Few Summaries for Your Enjoyment After Hours !29Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  33. 33. Xiphosura- Horseshoe Crabs !30Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Few living species, but an extensive fossil record. • Body morphology is largely unchanged (stasis) for 400 my. • Common in shallow marine waters along eastern North America and Asia
  34. 34. Pycnogonida- Sea ‘Spiders’ !31Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Small marine predators with a resemblance to spiders. • Bizarre morphology and uncertain relationships make them enigmatic among arthropods.
  35. 35. Acari- Mites and Ticks !32Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Dominant arthropods in many ecosystems • Few body segments, chelicerae highly modified • Predators, herbivores, parasites Deer Tick (Lyme’s Disease)Chigger Mite
  36. 36. Scorpiones- Scorpions !33Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Telson with a sting and venom gland • Give birth to live young, maternal care • Extensive fossil record Chelicerae Telson Sting
  37. 37. Araneae- Spiders !34Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Two tagmata (cephalothorax, abdomen) • Spinnerets produce silk • Pedipalps modified as sperm delivery organs Chelicerae Spinnerets Pedipalps
  38. 38. Nicky Bay - photographer • http://www.wired.com/2013/07/weirdest-spiders-ever/ • Nicky Bay !35Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  39. 39. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 LONG HORNED ORB WEAVER 36
  40. 40. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 MIRROR SPIDER 37
  41. 41. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 BIRD DUNG SPIDER 38
  42. 42. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 TWIG SPIDER 39
  43. 43. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 LADYBIRD MIMIC 40
  44. 44. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 EIGHT-SPOTTED CRAB SPIDER 41
  45. 45. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 NET-CASTING/OGRE-FACE SPIDER 42
  46. 46. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 TWO-TAILED SPIDER 43
  47. 47. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 WRAP-AROUND SPIDER 44
  48. 48. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 TREE STUMP ORB WEAVER 45
  49. 49. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 HEAVY JUMPING SPIDER 46
  50. 50. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 BLACK ARMORED TRAPDOOR SPIDER 47
  51. 51. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 ANT MIMIC JUMPING SPIDER 48
  52. 52. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Arthropod Major Groups (Subphyla) 49 Myriapoda (Millipedes, Centipedes) Crustacea (Crabs, Shrimp, barnacles, copepods) Hexapoda (Insects,entognatha) Chelicerata (Spiders, Scorpions, Horseshoe crabs) Trilobites (Extinct)
  53. 53. Myriapoda- Millipedes and Centipedes !50Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Two major groups: Chilopoda (centipedes) and Diplopoda (millipedes) • All are terrestrial herbivores or predators
  54. 54. A Few Summaries for Your Enjoyment After Hours !51Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  55. 55. Chilopoda- Centipedes !52Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • One pair of legs per segment • First pair of appendages modified into poison claw (forcipules) • Small to large (2mm- 30cm), often with bright warning colors • All are predaceous Scutigera Scolopendra
  56. 56. Diplopoda- Millipedes !53Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Two pairs of legs per segment • Many different body morphologies • Some are bioluminescent and produce cyanide as defense • All are herbivores
  57. 57. Giant Millipede of Peru Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  58. 58. Giant Millipede of Peru Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  59. 59. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Arthropod Major Groups (Subphyla) 55 Myriapoda (Millipedes, Centipedes) Crustacea (Crabs, Shrimp, barnacles, copepods) Hexapoda (Insects,entognatha) Chelicerata (Spiders, Scorpions, Horseshoe crabs) Trilobites (Extinct)
  60. 60. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Previous lecture: !Bis2B !
 56 Arthropods are everything else! Metazoans: Numbers of Species Per Group
  61. 61. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Hexapods 57 Hexapoda
  62. 62. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Hexapods 58 Three orders of insects comprise more than 50% of described animal species
  63. 63. Hexapoda- Insects • Three tagmata (head, thorax, abdomen) • One pair of antennae • Three pairs of legs • Respiration by tracheae • Mouthparts with mandibles • Many can FLY FLY FLY • Many have complete metamorphosis (Holometabolous) !59Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  64. 64. A Few Summaries for Your Enjoyment After Hours !60Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  65. 65. Lepidoptera- butterflies and moths !61Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • 175,000 described species • Highly specialized and diverse lifestyles • Important pests and pollinators, plant coevolution • Many species sequester defensive chemicals from host plants Monarch Viceroy
  66. 66. Coleoptera- beetles !62Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • The most diverse insect lineage • One pair of wings modified into protective coverings; elytra • Amazing diversity in life history and ecology
  67. 67. Diptera- flies !63Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • 150,000 described species, many undescribed • One pair of wings modified into counterweights; halteres • Great diversity in life history; herbivores, predators, parasites, etc • Medical significance Bot fly larva & adult halteres
  68. 68. Hymenoptera- bees, wasps, ants !64Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • 130,000 described species • Two pairs of wings connected by hooks; hamuli • Females with ovipositor modified into a sting • Important pollinators in agriculture, many beneficial species • Great diversity in lifestyles; some are social
  69. 69. Insect Mouthparts !65Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Mandibles & modified mouthparts mandible (ancestral): biting- chewing piercing- sucking siphoning sponging http://www.entomology.umn.edu/cues/4015/morpology/
  70. 70. !66Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Mandibles & modified mouthparts mandible (ancestral): biting- chewing piercing- sucking siphoning sponging http://www.entomology.umn.edu/cues/4015/morpology/ Insect Mouthparts
  71. 71. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Mosquito Feeding 67
  72. 72. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Mosquito Feeding on Mouse … 68 http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2385937/What-REALLY-happens-mosquito-bites- Scientists-capture-parasite-bites-sucks-blood-gruesome-video.html
  73. 73. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Mosquito Feeding on Mouse … 68 http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2385937/What-REALLY-happens-mosquito-bites- Scientists-capture-parasite-bites-sucks-blood-gruesome-video.html
  74. 74. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Mosquito Feeding Video Details • See Ed Yong blog post • http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/ 2013/08/06/heres-what-happens-inside- you-when-a-mosquito-bites/ • Choumet V, Attout T, Chartier L, Khun H, Sautereau J, Robbe-Vincent A, et al. (2012) Visualizing Non Infectious and Infectious Anopheles gambiae Blood Feedings in Naive and Saliva-Immunized Mice. PLoS ONE 7(12): e50464. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0050464 69
  75. 75. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Mosquito 70
  76. 76. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Bed Bug 71
  77. 77. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Lice 72
  78. 78. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Vampire Moth 73
  79. 79. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Leech 74
  80. 80. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Tick 75
  81. 81. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 TseTse Fly 76
  82. 82. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Clickers Which of the following (shown on previous slides) is not an arthropod? A. Tsetse fly B. Mosquito C. Bedbug D. Tick E. Leech 77
  83. 83. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Clickers Which of the following (shown on previous slides) is not an arthropod? A. Tsetse fly B. Mosquito C. Bedbug D. Tick E. Leech 78
  84. 84. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Blood Feeding - Hematophagy • Found in many organisms • Most of them are Protostomes • Examples include !Bats !Annelids (e.g., leeches) !Nematodes !Arthropods !Birds (vampire finches) !Fish (e.g., lampreys) 79
  85. 85. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Adaptations of Blood Feeders? 80
  86. 86. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Adaptations of Blood Feeders? • Piercing • Sucking • Anticoagulation • Vasodilation • Movement and hiding 81
  87. 87. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Why Should We Care about Blood Feeding Animals? 82
  88. 88. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Why Should We Care about Blood Feeding Animals? 82
  89. 89. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Human Diseases Transmitted by Mosquitoes • Chikungunya • Dengue fever • Rift Valley fever • Yellow fever • Zika • Malaria • Japanese encephalitis • Lymphatic filariasis • West Nile fever 83
  90. 90. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Lots of Other Vector Borne Human Diseases • Leishmaniasis • Sandfly fever (phelebotomus fever) • Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever • Lyme disease • Relapsing fever (borreliosis) • Rickettsial diseases (spotted fever and Q fever) • Tick-borne encephalitis • Tularaemia • Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) • Sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis) • Plague (transmitted by fleas from rats to humans) • Rickettsiosis • Onchocerciasis (river blindness) • Schistosomiasis (bilharziasis) 84
  91. 91. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • Every year there are more than 1 billion cases and over 1 million deaths from vector-borne diseases 85
  92. 92. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Clicker Which of the following is NOT involved in circulation in plants? • A. Xylem • B. Phloem • C. Tracheids • D. Vessel elements • E. Carpals 86
  93. 93. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Clicker Which of the following is NOT involved in circulation in plants? • A. Xylem • B. Phloem • C. Tracheids • D. Vessel elements • E. Carpals 87
  94. 94. In-Text Art, Ch. 35, p. 735 !88Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  95. 95. What to do? • What can we do about all these arthropod borne diseases? !89Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  96. 96. !90Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016
  97. 97. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Eliminate Dengue 91 http://www.eliminatedengue.com/our-research
  98. 98. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Eliminate Dengue 91 http://www.eliminatedengue.com/our-research
  99. 99. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Zika and Wolbachia 92 http://www.voanews.com/content/infected-mosquitoes-enlisted-stop-zika-dengue-wolbachia/3187811.html
  100. 100. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Zika and Wolbachia 92 http://www.voanews.com/content/infected-mosquitoes-enlisted-stop-zika-dengue-wolbachia/3187811.html
  101. 101. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Clicker What other kind of organism did we discuss that has Wolbachia living in it? • A. Dinoflagellates • B. Nematodes • C. Coral • D. Cnidarians • E. Sponges 93
  102. 102. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 Clicker What other kind of organism did we discuss that has Wolbachia living in it? • A. Dinoflagellates • B. Nematodes • C. Coral • D. Cnidarians • E. Sponges 94
  103. 103. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 • http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/05/ science/zika-virus-moquitoes- microbe.html?_r=0 95
  104. 104. Slides by Jonathan Eisen for BIS2C at UC Davis Spring 2016 96 http://www.cnn.com/videos/world/2016/01/28/zika-mutant-male-mosquitos- mclaughlin-pkg.cnn/video/playlists/zika/

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