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History of criminology


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History and Recommendation in the field of criminology.

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History of criminology

  2. 2. • OBJECTIVES
  4. 4. “The study of making of laws, the breaking of laws and reactions to the breaking of law”
  5. 5. Criminology covers a many fields of study
  6. 6. Criminology creation dates back to the eighteenth century where two social theorists, Cesare Beccaria in Italy and Jeremy Bentham in England.
  7. 7. During 19th century the classical school of criminology wasn’t able to differentiate between the vary degrees of crimes. As even on stealing a slice of pizza, you can still go to prison. Cesare Lombroso believed that criminal was born not made.
  8. 8. In the early development of scientific criminology in the United States, there were Two Important Events •The National Conference on Criminal Law and Criminology held in Chicago, in 1909 •Establishment of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology Thereafter, criminology became a recognized subspecialty of study
  9. 9. The Revival of Sociological Criminology •In 1914, Robert Park joined the sociology department at the University of Chicago •Two other significant leaders in the revival of sociological criminology were Sutherland and Merton.
  10. 10. Criminology History in Karachi University and Pakistan: Dr. Muhammad Shoaib Suddle Masters a PhD in white collar crime from Cardiff University (Wales, London) met Benazir Bhutto who was the Prime Minister of that time. Benazir Bhutto recommended him that as a PhD holder in this subject (Criminology); he should start it as a discipline in Pakistan. The history can be trace back to 1995.
  11. 11. The Karachi University’s criminology department began in July 1996 as the Institute for Applied Criminological Studies Inauguration done by Dr Naseer A Shaikh Dr Fateh Burfat (Assistant Professor at that time)
  12. 12. Vision behind establishing Criminology as a discipline: ” talking to The Express Tribune” During the interview conducted by students of Bahria University , Dr Burfat explained the vision behind it this mission that years back they predicted the situation of crimes in Pakistan, and with that vision they thought of coming up the idea of Criminology discipline.
  13. 13. Curriculum of criminology BS & Ms . • Meeting held on 25-26 March 2003. • Karachi finalized the draft curriculum. • All participants were welcomed by Mr. Dholan Khiyani, Director HEC. • Dr. Fateh Muhammad Burfat was requested to Chair the meeting and Mr. Nabi Bux Narejo to be the Secretary. • After detailed discussion some of the topics were reviewed and updated and the curriculum was finalized. • Curricula for Master in Criminological Sciences Objectives included. OBJECTIVE 1. ACAGEMIC BASED 2. UNDERSTANDING ABOUT IMPOROTANT ISSUES 3. PROMOTE CRIMINOLOGY
  14. 14. The final meeting of National Curriculum Revision Committee on Criminology 1. Regional Centre, Lahore from April 19 ,20, 2012 to finalize the draft BS(4year) and MS in criminology curriculum. 2. Prof. Dr. Fateh Muhammad Burfat was requested to chair the meeting and Prof. Dr. Mian Ghulam Yasin to be the secretary, who were selected by the committee as a convener and secretary respectively in the last meeting held on December 21 23, 2011. 3. The committee during its deliberation considered the following objectives:
  15. 15. OBJECTIVES: 1. To finalize the curriculum in the discipline of Criminology and to bring it at par with international standards. 2. To incorporate latest reading & writing material against each course. 3. To bring uniformity and develop minimum baseline courses in each and every course of study. 4. To make recommendations for promotion/development of the discipline.
  16. 16. The Preliminary Meeting of HEC National Curriculum Revision Committee on Criminology, which met at Lahore last week with Prof. Dr. Fateh Muhammad Burfat, University of Karachi in the chair, unanimously approved the draft curricula of the B.S. (4-year program) and M.S. Criminology degree programs.
  17. 17. History of Criminology In University of Sindh, Jamshoro: Department of Criminology University of Sindh, Jamshoro was started in 1998
  18. 18. History of Criminology In Punjab University, Lahore: It was found in 1882 and is known to be one of the oldest governmental universities of Pakistan. Slowly Criminology as a field placed its foot in Punjab University too.
  19. 19. Institutes of criminology:
  20. 20. Cambridge University: UK, has a worldwide reputation for excellence in both research and teaching. The institute founded by SIR LEO RADZINOWICZ in 1959 was one of the first criminological institutes in Europe.
  21. 21. KENT UNIVERSITY: The MA was founded by the world famous criminologist the late Professor JOCK YOUNG. Criminology is the important part of the university. It is the four top institutions of its kind in the UK. First National Award for excellence in teaching criminology by the British Criminology society.
  22. 22. CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSIY: California state university was founded in 1949 The university is situated in the LOS ANGELES. The department of criminal justice aims to work collaboratively to investigate understand to solve problems related to the crime.
  23. 23. The Centre for Criminology - University of Oxford The Centre is dedicated to pursuing an innovative programed of criminological research and to delivering high-quality graduate education in criminology at both masters and doctoral level. Information about both the Centre’s research, the MSc degrees in Criminology and Criminal Justice, and doctoral study.
  24. 24. University of Punjab: University of Punjab is one of the oldest and well established universities of Pakistan. It is one of the top and leading universities. A large number of colleges are affiliated with Punjab University.
  25. 25. KARACHI UNIVERSITY: Karachi University has accorded approval of the establishment of Department of Criminology Prof Dr Fatah Baraft will be appointed as the head of this department. .
  26. 26. Universities Offering Courses:
  27. 27. University of York (Canada) Criminology: • The University of York's BA Criminology is an important development in British criminology. BA Criminology at York is built upon the investigation and analysis of the social, cultural, economic, psychological and environmental causes of crime. Their graduates are highly sought after by sectors including: •Policing •Probation •Criminal Justice •Law •Accountancy •Public administration •Social and community work
  28. 28. Birmingham City University : Criminology - BA (Hons) : The curriculum of criminology BA (Hons) offers a varied, yet focused, choice of subjects through which students will be able to develop their interests within the specialized field of criminology and related social science disciplines.
  29. 29. The Centre for Criminology - University of Oxford : • It pursues a research strategy aimed principally at fostering and developing clusters of research activity around six substantive themes. These are: Security, rights and justice; Penal culture, policy and practice; Politics, legitimacy and criminal justice; Crime and the family; Victims; and Criminal Justice, Citizenship and Migration. • These are also the approaches to the study of crime and criminal justice that inform teaching and doctoral supervision in the Centre.
  30. 30. University of Punjab: • Syllabus includes the following subjects or courses: • Introduction to Criminology • Introduction to Security Studies • Computer Applications • National and International Perspective on Crime and Security • Crime and Criminality: Theory and Policy • Crime and Security • Geographical Information System (GIS) • Criminal Justice System of Pakistan • Research Methods in Criminology • Social Statistics in Criminology • Organizational Behaviour and Human Resource Development • Crime and Criminology in Pakistan • Islamic Perspective on Crime and Punishment • There is much more.
  31. 31. The HEC (Higher Education Commission) has prescribed the following program for Master level degree course for Universities in Pakistan. These courses include: 1. Essentials of Criminology 2. Crime and Criminal Behavior – Theoretical Perspectives 3. Criminology Methods of Research 4. System of Criminal Justice 5. The Correctional Institutions
  32. 32. Karachi UNI: • Karachi University starts admissions in the master degree in Criminology.
  33. 33.  The programmer’s courses cover key transnational issues including security, terrorism, cyber-crime and the criminology of war.  Over the course of the degree programme, students will learn about crime scene investigation, forensic psychology, criminal profiling and the criminal justice system.  In the final year of the programme students are provided with the opportunity to undertake a work-based placement with a criminal justice agency.
  34. 34. •Forensic scientists look at evidence and apply scientific principles and then presents the results in court. •Criminology deals with the motive, other causes, psychology, profiling. Forensic studies and Criminology :
  35. 35. Career and Job opportunities in Criminology
  36. 36. Daily tasks of a criminologist 1. Entry-level criminologists conduct data collection, report proofing, and computer work, catalogue information about the possible causes of crime. 2. the crimes committed, compile crime statistics, and propose improvements for the use of resources. 3. They also analyze and develop crime prevention strategies, the causes of crime, and how the community relates to crime. Criminologists may be involved in crime scene investigations or attend autopsies seeking evidence and information to analyze the crime.
  37. 37. Career paths in criminology • Corrections • Counselling • Criminal Investigations • Financial Fraud Investigation & Prevention • Rehabilitation • Teaching • Research and Policy Studies Worldwide
  38. 38. Employment Systems for Criminologists • Court Systems • Correctional Institutions • Counseling Agencies • Banks & Financial Institutions • Insurance Companies • Non-Profit Agencies • Private Investigation Agencies • Retailers • Government:
  39. 39.  Intelligence Institutes,  FIA (Drug Abuse),  Money laundry and Fraud Section,  Research related work in NGOs,  In Law Enforcement Agencies Pakistan
  40. 40. Potential Jobs in Pakistan that can be created  criminal justice  coordinator,  police  psychologist,  police trainer,  police reformist,  private detective and  community police officer
  41. 41. Prison systems and other institutions  Prison governor,  Correctional officer,  Prison reform officer,  Prison security manager,  Legal aid officer  Probation/parole officer.
  42. 42. Criminal investigation wing in public and private  crime scene investigator  chief interrogator  crime pattern analyst  character verification officer  forensic expert etc
  43. 43. As teachers, trainers and counselors in; university, prison institution and human development department
  44. 44. Recommendation’s 1. In order for criminology to make contributions to the knowledge of terrorism, the discipline ought to incorporate terrorism as part of the criminological enterprise. 2. Sufficient funds should be provided to develop libraries of criminology and forensic.
  45. 45. 3. More Job opportunities are to be created in relevant fields for criminologist. 4. Subject of criminology should be included at graduate as well as undergraduate level. We need a master’s level programme where we should socialize, educate and train the brilliant students from the available degree holders of BA (preferably having sociology, or law in their graduate studies) or LLB.
  46. 46. 5. The simple reasons for the laxity in our daily newspapers or talks on various TV-channels on all issues are mostly journalistic and unprofessional in nature and we don't have any trained and competent people in this field. 6. There is a need for more Security and Intelligence Agencies for controlling crimes. Punishment cannot alone be given as a cure for handling crime international, juvenile Delinquency, Deviance. 7. Special more institutes should be formed so that criminals with these problems can be handled by criminal psychologist and can be treated in that way. We don't have any such institute, nor do we have any concerted efforts in this direction.
  47. 47. CONCLUSION
  48. 48. ANY QUESTIONS? 