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SCHOOLS OF CRIMINOLOGY
AMITAVA ADHIKARY URK20CR1087
VELIKA D’SOUZA URK20CR1071
PRE-CLASSICAL SCHOOL
PIONEER: ST. THOMAS AQUINAS
YEAR: UNTIL 18TH CENTURY
IDEOLOGY: CRIMINALS WERE THOSE PEOPLE
UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DEMONS OR SPIRITS
PUNISHMENT: BARBAROUS PUNISHMENTS TO FREE THE PERSON
FROM THE EVIL SPIRIT
Fire Ordeal Water Ordeal Poison Ordeal
ACCORDING HINDU RELIGION, SINNERS ARE SENT TO THE VARIOUS
NARAKAS (HELLS) BY YAMADHARMA ACCORDING TO THEIR NATURE
AND SERIOUSNESS OF THEIR SINS.
Kalasutram (Hot as hell) Sucimukham (Tortured by needles)
CLASSICAL SCHOOL
PIONEER: CESARE BECCARIA
YEAR: 18TH CENTURY
IDEOLOGY: • Based on Rationalism
• Free-will theory
• Principle of Hedonism
PUNISHMENT: • Defined by law
• Pleasure-Pain Theory
• Equal and severe punishment
• Focussed more on the crime than
criminal
NEO-CLASSICAL SCHOOL
PIONEER: JEREMY BENTHAM
YEAR: CIRCA MID 18TH CENTURY
IDEOLOGY: The action of crime does not depend
upon the free-will of the criminal alone,
but also on other provocative factors.
PUNISHMENT: • Extenuating circumstances must be taken into
account
• Different treatment for children and the
mentally ill
• Introduction of the presentation of Expert
Evidence in courts
• Introduction of Minimum and Maximum
sentences
The study of the Causation of Crime began here.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRE CLASSICAL AND NEO
CLASSICAL
PRE CLASSICAL
• CRIMINAL’S PSYCHOLOGY WAS NEVER TAKEN INTO
CONSIDERATION
• THE TREATMENT OF CRIMINALS WAS AS WORSE AS
WILD ANIMALS
• CRIMINALS WERE CONSIDERED AS DEMONS
• A FEAR WAS USUALLY MADE WITHIN COMMONERS SO
THAT THE MASS DOES NOT INDULGE IN CRIME
NEO CLASSICAL
• STARTED TREATING WITH EQUITY RATHER THAN
EQUALITY
• A LAW WAS MADE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE
RELIGION
• PROVOCATION FACTORS WERE TAKEN IN ACCOUNT
• TREATMENT OF MENTALLY ILL AND CHILDREN HAD A
SOFT CORNER IN THE EYES OF LAW
• CONCEPT OF EVIL SPIRIT IN CRIMINALS
• LAW WAS BUILD IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RELIGION
• EQUAL LAW FOR ALL
• STUDY OF CRIME BEGAN
• FACTORS SUCH AS PROVOCATION WAS ALSO TAKEN INTO
CONSIDERATION
Schools of Criminology

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Schools of Criminology

  • 1. SCHOOLS OF CRIMINOLOGY AMITAVA ADHIKARY URK20CR1087 VELIKA D’SOUZA URK20CR1071
  • 2.
  • 3. PRE-CLASSICAL SCHOOL PIONEER: ST. THOMAS AQUINAS YEAR: UNTIL 18TH CENTURY IDEOLOGY: CRIMINALS WERE THOSE PEOPLE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DEMONS OR SPIRITS
  • 4. PUNISHMENT: BARBAROUS PUNISHMENTS TO FREE THE PERSON FROM THE EVIL SPIRIT Fire Ordeal Water Ordeal Poison Ordeal
  • 5. ACCORDING HINDU RELIGION, SINNERS ARE SENT TO THE VARIOUS NARAKAS (HELLS) BY YAMADHARMA ACCORDING TO THEIR NATURE AND SERIOUSNESS OF THEIR SINS. Kalasutram (Hot as hell) Sucimukham (Tortured by needles)
  • 6. CLASSICAL SCHOOL PIONEER: CESARE BECCARIA YEAR: 18TH CENTURY IDEOLOGY: • Based on Rationalism • Free-will theory • Principle of Hedonism
  • 7. PUNISHMENT: • Defined by law • Pleasure-Pain Theory • Equal and severe punishment • Focussed more on the crime than criminal
  • 8. NEO-CLASSICAL SCHOOL PIONEER: JEREMY BENTHAM YEAR: CIRCA MID 18TH CENTURY IDEOLOGY: The action of crime does not depend upon the free-will of the criminal alone, but also on other provocative factors.
  • 9. PUNISHMENT: • Extenuating circumstances must be taken into account • Different treatment for children and the mentally ill • Introduction of the presentation of Expert Evidence in courts • Introduction of Minimum and Maximum sentences The study of the Causation of Crime began here.
  • 10. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRE CLASSICAL AND NEO CLASSICAL PRE CLASSICAL • CRIMINAL’S PSYCHOLOGY WAS NEVER TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION • THE TREATMENT OF CRIMINALS WAS AS WORSE AS WILD ANIMALS • CRIMINALS WERE CONSIDERED AS DEMONS • A FEAR WAS USUALLY MADE WITHIN COMMONERS SO THAT THE MASS DOES NOT INDULGE IN CRIME NEO CLASSICAL • STARTED TREATING WITH EQUITY RATHER THAN EQUALITY • A LAW WAS MADE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RELIGION • PROVOCATION FACTORS WERE TAKEN IN ACCOUNT • TREATMENT OF MENTALLY ILL AND CHILDREN HAD A SOFT CORNER IN THE EYES OF LAW
  • 11.
  • 12. • CONCEPT OF EVIL SPIRIT IN CRIMINALS • LAW WAS BUILD IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RELIGION • EQUAL LAW FOR ALL • STUDY OF CRIME BEGAN • FACTORS SUCH AS PROVOCATION WAS ALSO TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION