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Power point classical & neo classical schools

Classical Theory: One of the earliest approaches to explaining the causes of crime was classical theory. A product of the Enlightenment, based on the assumption that people exercise free will and are thus completely responsible for their actions. In classical theory, human behavior, including criminal behavior, is motivated by a hedonistic rationality, in which actors weigh the potential pleasure of an action against the possible pain associated with it. Neo-Classical: A modification of classical theory in which it was conceded that certain factors, such as insanity, might inhibit the exercise of free will. Premeditation as a measure of the degree of free will. Mitigating circumstances as legitimate grounds for diminished responsibility.

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Power point classical & neo classical schools
 Several theories attempt to explain criminal
behavior. Some theories assume:
 Crime is part of human nature.
 Crime is based on biological, psychological,
sociological, and/or economic aspects.
 The classical school came into existence in the
middle of the eighteenth century, a time in history
when punishment for crime was severe and very
intense.
 Two famous writers during this classical period were
Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) and Jeremy Bentham
(1748-1832)
 The Classical school of thought was premised
on the idea that people have free will in
making decisions, and that punishment can be
a deterrent for crime, so long as the
punishment is proportional, fits the crime, and
is carried out promptly.
 It started in Europe. Throughout Europe the
use of torture to secure confessions and force
self-incriminating testimony had been widely
spread.
 The classical writers accepted punishment as a
principle method of infliction of pain,
humiliation and disgrace to create ‘fear’ in man
to control his behavior.
 The founders of this school , however,
considered prevention of crime more important
than the punishment for it. So they stressed on
the need for a criminal code.
 So the real contribution of this school was that
it underlined the need for a well defined
criminal justice system.
Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794)
He believed that :
Punishment should be deterrent than retributional
 The law should be codified (written) with
punishments prescribed in advance.
 Punishment should be limited (less harsher) to
only that necessary to deter people from ever
committing it again (no capital punishment).
 Punishment should be severe, certain, and swift.
 The criminal justice system should be organized
around crime prevention.

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Power point classical & neo classical schools

  • 2.  Several theories attempt to explain criminal behavior. Some theories assume:  Crime is part of human nature.  Crime is based on biological, psychological, sociological, and/or economic aspects.
  • 3.  The classical school came into existence in the middle of the eighteenth century, a time in history when punishment for crime was severe and very intense.  Two famous writers during this classical period were Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) and Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
  • 4.  The Classical school of thought was premised on the idea that people have free will in making decisions, and that punishment can be a deterrent for crime, so long as the punishment is proportional, fits the crime, and is carried out promptly.  It started in Europe. Throughout Europe the use of torture to secure confessions and force self-incriminating testimony had been widely spread.
  • 5.  The classical writers accepted punishment as a principle method of infliction of pain, humiliation and disgrace to create ‘fear’ in man to control his behavior.  The founders of this school , however, considered prevention of crime more important than the punishment for it. So they stressed on the need for a criminal code.  So the real contribution of this school was that it underlined the need for a well defined criminal justice system.
  • 6. Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) He believed that : Punishment should be deterrent than retributional  The law should be codified (written) with punishments prescribed in advance.  Punishment should be limited (less harsher) to only that necessary to deter people from ever committing it again (no capital punishment).  Punishment should be severe, certain, and swift.  The criminal justice system should be organized around crime prevention.
  • 7. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) He believed that: The punishment reduced future deviance by instilling a fear of punishment in the criminal offender and society. Punishment should be just a bit in excess of the pleasures derived from the act and not higher than that.
  • 8.  The major shortcoming of the classical school was that it proceeded on an abstract presumption of free will and relied solely on that act without paying attention to the state of mind of the criminal.  It erred in prescribing equal punishment for same offence thus making no distinction between first offenders and habitual criminals.
  • 9.  The ‘free will’ theory of classical school did not survive for long.  It was soon realized that the exponents of classical school faltered in their approach in ignoring the individual differences under certain situation and treating first offenders and habitual alike on the basis of similarity of act or crime.
  • 10.  The neo-classists asserted that certain categories of offenders such as minors, idiots, insane or incompetent had to be treated leniently in matters of punishment irrespective of the similarity of their criminal act because these persons were incapable of appreciating the difference between right and wrong.  The advocates of this school started with the basic assumption that man acting on reason and intelligence is responsible for his conduct, But those lacking normal intelligence or having some mental depravity are irresponsible for their conduct.
  • 11.  Though the neo-classists recommended lenient treatment for “irresponsible” or mentally depraved criminals on account of their incapacity to resist criminal tendency but they certainly believed that all criminals, whether responsible or irresponsible, must be kept segregated from the society.  Neo-classists adopted subjective approach to criminology and concentrated their attention on the conditions under which an individual commits crime.
  • 12.  This school :  Used scientific methods  Based on belief that crime results from forces that are beyond the control of the individual  Rejected the notion of free will. Instead, focused on socialization, genetics, economic conditions, peer group factors, etc. So, not all persons were completely responsible for their actions.
  • 13.  The idea that crime is the product primarily of people of low intelligence has been popular occasionally in the United States.  A study in 1931 showed no correlation between intelligence and criminality.
  • 14. Psychoanalytic Theories Psychoanalytic theories of crime causation are associated with the work of Sigmund Freud who believed that people who had unresolved deep-seated problems were psychopaths .
  • 17.  Sociologists emphasize that human beings live in social groups and that those groups and the social structure they create influence behavior.
  • 18.  In the 1920s, a group of sociologists known as the Chicago School attempted to uncover the relationship between a neighborhood’s crime rate and the characteristics of the neighborhood.
  • 21.  Robert Merton in 1938 wrote about a major contradiction in the U.S. between cultural goals and social structure. He called the contradiction anomie.
  • 22.  For Merton, the contradiction between the cultural goal of achieving wealth and the social structure’s inability to provide legitimate institutional means for achieving the goal.
  • 23.  Boisvert, D. (2014). Intelligence and Crime. The Encyclopedia of Theoretical Criminology.  Nihel Chabrak, Russell Craig, Nabyla Daidj, Financialization and the Employee Suicide Crisis at France Telecom, Journal of Business Ethics, 2015,  Sampson, R. J., & Groves, W. B. (1989). Community structure and crime: Testing social-disorganization theory. American journal of sociology, 774- 802.  Posner, R. A. (1979). The Chicago School of antitrust analysis. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 925-948.
  • 24.  Hoffman, F. G. (2007). Neo-classical counterinsurgency?. Parameters, 37(2), 71.  Hoffman, F. G. (2007). Neo-classical counterinsurgency?. Parameters, 37(2), 71.  Heravi, M. M., Rajabzadeh, G., Bamoharram, F. F., & Seifi, N. (2006). An eco-friendly catalytic route for synthesis of 4-amino-pyrazolo [3, 4-d] pyrimidine derivatives by Keggin heteropolyacids under classical heating and microwave irradiation. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 256(1), 238-241.  Ffrench-Davis, R. (1988). An outline of a neo-structuralist approach. Cepal Review.  Hare, R. D. (1999). Without conscience: The disturbing world of the psychopaths among us. Guilford Press.
  • 25.  Kiehl, K. A., Smith, A. M., Hare, R. D., Mendrek, A., Forster, B. B., Brink, J., & Liddle, P. F. (2001). Limbic abnormalities in affective processing by criminal psychopaths as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Biological psychiatry, 50(9), 677-684.  Tulchin, S. H. (1939). Intelligence and crime.  Maguire, M. (2000). Policing by risks and targets: Some dimensions and implications of intelligence‐led crime control. Policing and Society: An International Journal, 9(4), 315-336.  Ribaux, O., Baylon, A., Roux, C., Delémont, O., Lock, E., Zingg, C., & Margot, P. (2010). Intelligence-led crime scene processing. Part I: Forensic intelligence. Forensic Science International, 195(1), 10-16.

Editor's Notes

  1. One of the earliest approaches to explaining the causes of crime was classical theory. A product of the Enlightenment, based on the assumption that people exercise free will and are thus completely responsible for their actions. In classical theory, human behavior, including criminal behavior, is motivated by a hedonistic rationality, in which actors weigh the potential pleasure of an action against the possible pain associated with it.
  2. A modification of classical theory in which it was conceded that certain factors, such as insanity, might inhibit the exercise of free will. Premeditation as a measure of the degree of free will. Mitigating circumstances as legitimate grounds for diminished responsibility.
  3. Classical and neoclassical theory are the basis of the criminal justice system in the United States.
  4. The relationship between intelligence and crime has garnered much attention from the scientific community. There are various views on how best to conceptualize and measure intelligence as well as the mechanisms underlying the IQ and crime relationship. While research has consistently shown a significantly negative relationship between IQ and crime at both the individual and aggregate level, some remain skeptical about this association. The three main criticisms involve police detection, race, and class, as well as the temporal order of the intelligence and crime relationship. Despite these criticisms, it is clear that a deeper understanding is needed on how low intelligence affects criminal behaviors and on how this vulnerable group navigates through the criminal justice system.
  5. Persons characterized by no sense of guilt, no subjective conscience, and no sense of right and wrong. They have difficulty in forming relationships with other people; they cannot empathize with other people. They are also called sociopaths or antisocial personalities.
  6. Psychopathic traits might be more common than we think. Lynne Malcolm investigates the world of the psychopath, from a neuroscientist who diagnosed himself to psychologists searching for treatments for ‘callous and unemotional' children. One of the things about these kids is that they don't pay attention to the deep emotions or the deep concerns of other people. They can just look at it in the face and go “whatever” and move on.
  7. Most sociological theories of crime causation assume that a criminal’s behavior is determined by his or her social environment and reject the notion of the born criminal.
  8. In the 1920s, a group of sociologists known as the Chicago School attempted to uncover the relationship between a neighborhood’s crime rate and the characteristics of the neighborhood.
  9. The condition in which the usual controls over delinquents are largely absent, delinquent behavior is often approved of by parents and neighbors, there are many opportunities for delinquent behavior, and there is little encouragement, training, or opportunity for legitimate employment.
  10. Robert Merton presented two, not always clearly differentiated theories in his seminal explorations on the social-structure-and-anomie paradigm: a strain theory and an anomie theory. A one-sided focus on Merton's strain theory in the secondary literature has unnecessarily restricted the power and effectiveness of Merton's anomie theory. For although structural strain is one way to explain why deviance occurs in the context of anomie, it is not the only way. We contend that scholars who are critical of strain theory should not automatically discard Merton's anomie theory, because the perspective of anomie is compatible with several other theories of crime and delinquency.