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Decision making in criminals 
Group members: 
1. Anum Suhail 
2. Mahum Azhaar 
3. Pakeeza Arif 
4. Shahtaj Shakir 
5. Soof...
DECISION MAKING 
According to James Stoner, 
"Decision making is the process of identifying and selecting 
a course of act...
STEPS IN DECISION MAKING
A SUB-GROUP OF SOCIOLOGY
 Criminology is the scientific study of crime, including its causes, responses 
by law enforcement and methods of prevent...
OUR AIM/WHAT WE WANT TO DO 
Criminology 
Cognitive 
Psychology 
Decision 
making in 
criminals
Why we chose criminology and decision 
making? 
 Firstly we as psychology students were eager to know that why people are...
Decision Making and Criminality: 
 overview of Eric Johnson and John Payne’s chapter on THE DECISION TO 
COMMIT A CRIME p...
Two main themes: 
 First Concerns about the construction by the decision maker of 
internal representations of crucial as...
STRATEGIES USED: 
As remarked by Carroll, decisions made 
by police, prosecutors, judges, juries 
and parole boards all fo...
Deterrence theory: 
Core principle of classical school and rational 
choice of theories. 
How Crimes can be controlled: 
B...
Normative Theories of Rational Choice: 
Expected Utility 
 OPERATING PRINCIPLE: 
 Expected utility theory is an account ...
Bounded Reality: 
 the cognitive limitation of their minds and rationality of individuals is limited 
by the information ...
Hypothetical Reasoning, Social Cognition, : 
 Hypothetical reasoning: 
A practical reasoning pattern that often occurs wi...
Rational Choice Theory: 
 In criminology, it describes crime as the result of intentional process in which 
pros and cons...
Social Bonding theory: 
 Basic concept: 
 The individual tend to attempt crime or inadequate acts when their bonds 
with...
Social control theory: 
VIEWPOINT: 
 When a person is experiencing lack of social connections or a lack of 
social networ...
FACTS AND FIGURES: 
 Males have greater chances to commit crime and violence than the females 
 According to research an...
• Rational Misbehavior? Evaluating an Integrated Dual- 
Process Model of Criminal Decision Making 
 Main objective of thi...
 Results 
 STUDY 1: 
 Negative state affect, i.e., feelings of fear and worry evoked by a criminal 
prospect, and perce...
Conclusion 
 PROXIMIAL STATE: 
 These results extend research that links stable individual dispositions to 
proximal sta...
•Specifying the Direct and Indirect Effects of Low Self-Control and 
Situational Factors in Offenders' Decision Making: To...
 They advance three hypotheses concerning the integration of low self-control 
into a rational choice framework: 
HYPOTHE...
3)Criminal Decision Making: The Development of 
Adolescent Judgment, criminal Responsibility, and 
Culpability.
EVIDENCE THROUGH THEORIES OF 
JUDGEMENT: 
 Theories hypothesize that throughout adolescence, judgment is impaired 
becaus...
RESULTS: 
 Results revealed that detained youth were more likely to think of future-oriented 
consequences of engaging in...
Case#1 
Susan Denise Atkins 
 Susan Denise Atkins was a member of the "Manson family", led by 
Charles Manson. 
 Manson ...
SUSAN BACKGROUND: 
 In early 1967, while staying with friends in San Francisco, Susan Atkins met 
Charles Manson, and by ...
WHAT INFLUENCED SUSAN 
 REINFORCEMENT FACTOR: 
Manson 
IMPLICATION OF THEORY: 
1) Rational theory- : Murders were less co...
CONCLUSION: 
 She along with Mason and other members try to fulfill their expectations 
regarding her and try to be liked...
Case#2 
Lost Boys: Hopelessness, Peer Pressure 
Lead to Youth Violence 
16-Year old Tommy was surrounded by family, but it...
INFLUENCING FACTOR 
 Hanging around with wrong crowd (peer influence) 
Reference from theories : 
Strain theory 
Stress o...
Crime control policies: 
It refers to methods taken to reduce crime in a society. Penology often focuses on the use 
of cr...
Adoption of the expected utility model: 
 The idea that a criminal act is the result of a rational cost/benefit 
calculat...
• CRIME PREVETION 
PROGRAM/AWARENESS
Decision making in criminals
Decision making in criminals
Decision making in criminals
Decision making in criminals
Decision making in criminals
Decision making in criminals
Decision making in criminals
Decision making in criminals
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Decision making in criminals

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Decision making in criminals

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Decision making in criminals

  1. 1. Decision making in criminals Group members: 1. Anum Suhail 2. Mahum Azhaar 3. Pakeeza Arif 4. Shahtaj Shakir 5. Soofia Hussain 6. Syeda Amna Burhan 7. Wajeeha Ghani
  2. 2. DECISION MAKING According to James Stoner, "Decision making is the process of identifying and selecting a course of action to solve a specific problem." According to Trewartha and Newport "Decision making involves the selection of a course of action from among two or more possible alternatives in order to arrive at a solution for a given problem."
  3. 3. STEPS IN DECISION MAKING
  4. 4. A SUB-GROUP OF SOCIOLOGY
  5. 5.  Criminology is the scientific study of crime, including its causes, responses by law enforcement and methods of prevention.  Sub-groups of criminology:  Penology: The study of prisons and prison systems  Bio criminology: The study of the biological basis of criminal behavior  Feminist criminology: The study of women and crime  Criminalistics: The study of crime detection
  6. 6. OUR AIM/WHAT WE WANT TO DO Criminology Cognitive Psychology Decision making in criminals
  7. 7. Why we chose criminology and decision making?  Firstly we as psychology students were eager to know that why people are engaged in criminal behaviors  Secondly we wanted to know about their mental thinking and their decision making abilities i.e. on what basis do such people commit so brutal acts.  How these individuals decide which steps should be taken for a particular act?
  8. 8. Decision Making and Criminality:  overview of Eric Johnson and John Payne’s chapter on THE DECISION TO COMMIT A CRIME provides us a concepts and findings from behavioral decision theory and of their applicability to an understanding of criminal decision making.  Instead they suggest that given the human cognitive system is limited in information processing capabilities, choice behavior is more realistically distinguished in terms of its bounded rationality.
  9. 9. Two main themes:  First Concerns about the construction by the decision maker of internal representations of crucial aspects of the decision problem which leads them to analyze the implications of the prospect theory both for the framing of choices by the possible criminal.  Second theme is concerned with the decision processes that operate upon the representations.
  10. 10. STRATEGIES USED: As remarked by Carroll, decisions made by police, prosecutors, judges, juries and parole boards all follow 3 things 1) the offenders’ choice of which crime to commit, 2) 2) the choice of target and the choice of the method 3) moment of committing the crime. SATISFISING/COGNITIVE HEURISTICS: • we consider options one by one, then we select an option as soon as we find one that is satisfactory and or just good enough to meet our minimum level of acceptability.
  11. 11. Deterrence theory: Core principle of classical school and rational choice of theories. How Crimes can be controlled: By using punishments which are combination of proper degrees of certainty, severity and clarity.
  12. 12. Normative Theories of Rational Choice: Expected Utility  OPERATING PRINCIPLE:  Expected utility theory is an account of how to choose rationally when you are not sure which outcome will result from your acts.  BASIC SLOGAN:  Choose the act with the highest expected utility
  13. 13. Bounded Reality:  the cognitive limitation of their minds and rationality of individuals is limited by the information they have and the finite time they have to make a decision  . According to Cognitive Psychology researches:  it has been concluded that active processing of information is a serial process which occurs in memory of limited capacity, duration and ability to put information in more permanent storage Why They use Heuristics:  because of which people are pushed to used heuristics to keep the information processing demand of complex problem solving tasks within their bounded limits.
  14. 14. Hypothetical Reasoning, Social Cognition, :  Hypothetical reasoning: A practical reasoning pattern that often occurs within everyday life.  Social Cognition Various criminologist terms criminals as rational agents that perform careful consideration of alternatives before they decide to commit a crime. Peers influence can also be very important because in certain situations adolescents are put up due to peer pressure
  15. 15. Rational Choice Theory:  In criminology, it describes crime as the result of intentional process in which pros and cons are considered  They stress more on the expected reward for committing a crime and its related costs and benefits revolving around the criminal activity.
  16. 16. Social Bonding theory:  Basic concept:  The individual tend to attempt crime or inadequate acts when their bonds with the society or community are weakened or threatening after break up.  Basically Social bond theory later on developed into social control theory 4 components of social bonding: 1) Attachment to families 2) Commitment to social norms and institutions 3) Involvement in activities 4) The belief that these things are important.
  17. 17. Social control theory: VIEWPOINT:  When a person is experiencing lack of social connections or a lack of social networks that would normally prohibit into criminal activity, the likelihood that the individual will engage in criminal activity increases. Biological and Biosocial theories: Contemporary biological theories concentrate more on differences in genetic and other biological factors that are in interaction with the environment which less probably to refer bio defects or abnormalities
  18. 18. FACTS AND FIGURES:  Males have greater chances to commit crime and violence than the females  According to research analysis, males are strong in attempting crimes PROSPECT THEORY(an analysis of decision under risk) A theory that people value gains and losses differently and, as such, will base decisions on perceived gains rather than perceived losses. Also known as "loss-aversion theory
  19. 19. • Rational Misbehavior? Evaluating an Integrated Dual- Process Model of Criminal Decision Making  Main objective of this research:  HYPOTHESIS:  Test the hypothesis that dispositional self-control and morality relate to criminal decision making via different mental processing modes, a ‘hot’ affective mode and a ‘cool’ cognitive one. Methods: Sample: Undergraduate students using scenarios describing two different types of crime, illegal downloading and insurance fraud. Both self-control and morality are operationalized through the HEXACO model of personality.
  20. 20.  Results  STUDY 1:  Negative state affect, i.e., feelings of fear and worry evoked by a criminal prospect, and perceived risk of sanction were found to mediate the relations between both dispositions and criminal choice.  STUDY 2:  Processing mode was manipulated by having participants rely on either their thinking or on their feelings prior to deciding on whether or not to make a criminal choice.
  21. 21. Conclusion  PROXIMIAL STATE:  These results extend research that links stable individual dispositions to proximal states that operate in the moment of decision making.  DISPSITIONAL PRESPECTIVES:  The results also add to dispositional perspectives of crime by using a structure of personality that incorporates both self-control and morality.
  22. 22. •Specifying the Direct and Indirect Effects of Low Self-Control and Situational Factors in Offenders' Decision Making: Toward a More Complete Model of Rational Offending INTRODUCTION: This paper builds on work by Nagin and Paternoster.  They contend that two recent developments in criminological theory, self-control and rational choice, have been explored separately rather than in conjunction with one another. FINDINGS:  Nagin and Paternoster found direct effects for variables from each of these theories and called for more research into simultaneous examination of the two.
  23. 23.  They advance three hypotheses concerning the integration of low self-control into a rational choice framework: HYPOTHESIS: 1. That low self-control will have both direct and indirect effects via situational characteristics on intentions to shoplift and drive drunk; 2. That situational characteristics will have direct effects on intentions to deviate, as well as effects on other situational factors; and 3. That a model uniting the effects of low self-control and situational characteristics will provide a good fit to the data.
  24. 24. 3)Criminal Decision Making: The Development of Adolescent Judgment, criminal Responsibility, and Culpability.
  25. 25. EVIDENCE THROUGH THEORIES OF JUDGEMENT:  Theories hypothesize that throughout adolescence, judgment is impaired because the development of several psychosocial factors that are presumed to influence decision making lags behind the development of the cognitive capacities that are required to make mature decisions. TECHNIQUE USED:  Use of innovative video technique to examine the role of several psychosocial factors—temporal perspective, peer influence, and risk perception—in adolescent criminal decision making. SAMPLE: 56 adolescents aged 13–18 yrs
  26. 26. RESULTS:  Results revealed that detained youth were more likely to think of future-oriented consequences of engaging in the depicted delinquent act and less likely to anticipate pressure from their friends than no detained youth.  Examination of the developmental functions of the psychosocial factors indicates age-based differences on standardized measures of temporal perspective and resistance to peer influence and on measures of the role of risk perception in criminal decision making
  27. 27. Case#1 Susan Denise Atkins  Susan Denise Atkins was a member of the "Manson family", led by Charles Manson.  Manson and his followers committed a series of nine murders at four locations in California, over a period of five weeks in the summer of 1969.  ACCORDING TO HER, “The only complete man I have ever met“. Under the direction of Charlie Manson, she stabbed actress Sharon Tate to death and had participated in the murder of music teacher Gary Hinman.
  28. 28. SUSAN BACKGROUND:  In early 1967, while staying with friends in San Francisco, Susan Atkins met Charles Manson, and by summer she was on a road trip with Manson and his group.  By July 1969, Atkins was a trusted member of Manson's inner circle, and he took her and two others with him to shake down a man named Gary Hinman for money.  Atkins died in prison in 2009
  29. 29. WHAT INFLUENCED SUSAN  REINFORCEMENT FACTOR: Manson IMPLICATION OF THEORY: 1) Rational theory- : Murders were less costly as compared to loosing Mason’s family 2) Role fulfillment-: A tendency to conform to others' decision-making expectations
  30. 30. CONCLUSION:  She along with Mason and other members try to fulfill their expectations regarding her and try to be liked by them and maintain her position in the group.
  31. 31. Case#2 Lost Boys: Hopelessness, Peer Pressure Lead to Youth Violence 16-Year old Tommy was surrounded by family, but it was love for that family he said that prompted him to allegedly be part of a home invasion robbery. LOVE OF FAMILY Become part of a home invasion robbery
  32. 32. INFLUENCING FACTOR  Hanging around with wrong crowd (peer influence) Reference from theories : Strain theory Stress or strain leads towards criminal acts Engaging in criminal acts to escape from strain
  33. 33. Crime control policies: It refers to methods taken to reduce crime in a society. Penology often focuses on the use of criminal penalties as a means of deterring people from committing crimes and temporarily or permanently incapacitating those who have already committed crimes from re-offending.
  34. 34. Adoption of the expected utility model:  The idea that a criminal act is the result of a rational cost/benefit calculation suggests that everyone, not just “criminal types," may choose to commit a crime under the right circumstances.
  35. 35. • CRIME PREVETION PROGRAM/AWARENESS

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