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CRIMINOLOGY
An Introduction and Overview


             By
    FRANCIS C. POSTRADO
       BS Criminology
What is CRIMINOLOGY?
     Etymological      Definition     -
Criminology (from Latin crīmen,
"accusation"; and Greek -λογία, -logia)
is the scientific approach to studying
criminal behavior.
     The term was coined in 1885 by
Raffaele Garofalo, an Italian law
professor.
What is CRIMINOLOGY?
      Classic Definition – According to
Edwin Sutherland and Donald Cressey:
      Criminology is a body of knowledge
regarding crime as a social phenomenon.
It includes within its scope the processes
of making laws, of breaking of laws,
and of reaction toward the breaking of
laws.
Making of laws
       Law is passed because of the consensus of the will
of the public. In the Philippines, we have bicameral system
of legislation. It is called bicameral because it is composed
of two houses; the Senate and the House of
Representatives. We have three major divisions or
branches in the government; the executive, vested on the
office of the president; the legislative, cited and explained
above; and the judiciary vested on the Supreme Court. We
are being represented by the legislative branch in making
laws.
Early laws worldwide setting:
       1. Code of Hammurabi- Babylon (1700 B.C.)
       2. Mosaic Code- Israelites (1200 B.C.)
       3. Draconian Code- Greece (17th century)
       4. Hindu Code of Manu- India
       5. Koran- Islamic Society
       6. Law of twelve tables- Romans (451-450 B.C.)
       7. Sumerian Code- Summer (3500 BC.)
       8. Law of Moses ( 1500 B.C.-1900 B.C.)

Early laws in the Philippines:
         1. Maragtas Code (1215) -the oldest law of Panay
Island.
         2. Kalantiaw Code (1433) -2nd code of criminal
justice.
Breaking of Laws
·    All violations of laws are violations of
the will of the majority in the society.
     Violation of the provisions of the
criminal laws created by the public thru
representation is called CRIME.

Crime- is an act or omission in violation of
criminal law.
Act- is outward movement tending to
produce effect.
Reaction of the society towards the
breaking of laws
       Society either reacts positively or negatively
when someone commits crime.
       However, seldom has the society reacted
positively; it reacts negatively by imposing
punishment on the law-breaker.

      Phenomenon- observable; something which
can be observed; any fact, circumstances, or
experiences which can be explained scientifically.
Objectives of Criminology
     The development of a body of
general and verified principles and
of other types of knowledge
regarding this process of law,
crime, and its control and
prevention, and the treatment of
the youthful offenders.
Nature of Criminology
      Criminology continues to bring together in a
very amorphous manner people who do the
following kinds of work:
      1. academicians (often sociologists) who
teach students a subject called criminology,
including those criminologists who also do
research and write on the subject;
      2. teachers who train other people for
professional roles in crime control and
criminal justice work;
3. those who are involved in policy research
within the criminal justice system; and

      4. those who apply criminology that is all the
people who are employed in criminal justice agencies,
ranging from policemen to lawyers to prison wardens to
correctional workers.

      Even this list of broad groupings does not exhaust
the possibilities as criminology and criminal justice
increasingly play prominent roles in the further
development of society.
Criminology Distinguished
           from
 Other Related Disciplines
Criminology: An Interdisciplinary Science
It involves two or more academic fields,
namely:
       1. Sociology
       2. Criminal justice,
       3. Political science,
       4. Psychology,
       5. Economics,
       6. Natural Sciences
Criminology Distinguished from
   Other Related Disciplines
Criminology             and    Criminal Justice
 Criminology                  Criminal justice
explains the origin,
extent, and nature of
                              refers to agencies
crime in society              of social control

Criminologist                 Criminal Justice Scholars

-identify the nature,         -seek more effective
extent and cause of           methods of crime
crime.                        control and offender
                              rehabilitation
Criminology Distinguished from
   Other Related Disciplines
Criminology         and        Criminal Justice

Overlapping Area of Concern. Criminal justice
experts cannot begin to design effective programs
of crime prevention or rehabilitation without
understanding the nature and cause of crime.
They require accurate criminal statistics and data to
test the effectiveness of crime control and
prevention programs.
Criminology Distinguished
            from
  Other Related Disciplines
  Criminology         and       Deviance
  Studies Criminal            Studies behavior
behavior                    that departs from
                            social norms

  NOTE: Not all crimes are deviant or unusual
  acts and not all deviant acts are illegal.
Criminology Distinguished
            from
  Other Related Disciplines
Criminology         and       Deviance
Overlapping Area of Concern. There is a
thin line that distinguishes criminal act from
deviant act. For example, when does
sexually oriented material cross the line
from merely suggestive to obscene and
therefore illegal?
Is Criminology a Science?
      There is at present a continuing argument
whether criminology is a science or not. Edwin
H. Sutherland and Donald Cressy both
American      Criminologist      argued     that
criminology is not a science but it has hopes of
becoming a science.
      However, George L. Wilker said that
criminology cannot possibly become a science
due to lack of universal proposition of crime
and scientific studies of criminal behavior is
impossible.
So How Criminology become a
             Science?
        Criminology is a science in itself when applied to law
enforcement and prevention of crimes under the following
nature:
        1. It is an applied science - in the study of the causes of
crimes, anthropology, zoology, psychology, sociology and other
natural sciences may be applied. While in crime detection,
chemistry,     medicine,     physics,   mathematics,      ballistics,
photography, legal medicine, question documents examination
may be utilized. This is called Instrumentation

         2. It is a social science - in as much as crime is a social
creation and that it exists in a society being a social phenomenon,
its study must be considered a part of social science.
3. It is dynamic- criminology changes as
social conditions changes. It is concomitant with
the advancement of other sciences that have been
applied to it.

       4. It is nationalistic - the study of crimes
must be in relation with existing criminal law
within a territory or country. Finally, the question
as to whether an act is a crime is dependent on the
criminal law of a country.
The Scope of Criminology
1. Study of the causes of crimes and development of
criminals.
2. Study of the origin and development of criminal
laws.
3. Study of the different factors that enhances as:
        a. criminal sociology- study the effects of social
conditions on crime and criminals including the machinery of
justice and the evolution of criminal law and punishment.
        b. criminal psychiatry- study of human mind in relation
to criminality.
The Scope of Criminology
       c. criminal ecology- the study of criminality in
relation to spatial distribution on a community.
       d. criminal demography- study of the
relationship between criminology and population
       e. criminal epideomology- study of the
relationship between environment and criminality.
       f. Criminal physical anthropology- study of
criminality in relation to physical constitution of
men.
       g. Victimology- study of the role of the victim
in the commission crime.
The Scope of Criminology
4. Study of the various process and measures
adopted by society violation of criminal laws:
        a. the detection and investigation of crimes,
        b. the arrest and apprehension of criminals,
        c. the prosecution and conviction of the criminal in a
judicial proceeding,
        d. the enforcement of laws, decrees and regulations,
        e. the administration of the police and other law
enforcement agencies,
        f. maintenance of recreational facilities and other
auxiliary prevent the development of crimes and criminal
behavior.
Three Divisions of Criminology
      • Criminal Etiology- it is an attempt at
scientific analysis of the causes of the crime.
      • Sociology of Law- which is an attempt
at scientific analysis of the conditions which
penal/criminal laws has developed as a
process of formal and social control.
      • Penology- which is concerned with the
control and prevention of crime and the
treatment of offenders.
The Criminologist
      Criminologists are interested as how criminal
laws are created, who has the power to create them,
what are the purpose of such laws, how they are
enforced and violated.

       The criminologists study the kinds of sanctions
or incentives that can best protect the environment.
The criminologists study the relationship between
ideology and power in the making, enforcing, and
breaking of laws.
Criminologist, defined
       A Criminologist is a person who studies the
causes of crimes, its treatment and prevention using
scientific methods.

      Criminologists use scientific principles
• Gather data
• Create theories
• Employ established method of social science
inquiry
• Experimental designs
• Sophisticated data analyses
Is a Policeman considered a
        Criminologist?
     Generally speaking, a policeman is a
criminology     practitioner     not    a
criminologist, because he is focused only
in the enforcement of the law, which is
only one aspect in the work of a
criminologist.
What is a Criminology
          Practitioner?
      A criminology practitioner is any person who is a
consumer of the knowledge and research of
criminologists, applied in the prevention, control and
treatment of a crime.

       Examples: any member of any law enforcement
agency of the government, crime laboratory
technicians, correctional officers, and other workers
of the criminal justice system.
What is then is a Licensed
       Criminologist?
      A licensed criminologist is a degree holder
of Criminology or a Criminology practitioner
who      passed     the   licensure      (Board)
Examination for Criminologist and is
registered with the Professional Regulation
Commission (PRC).

R.A. 6506- an Act Creating the Board of
Criminology in the Philippines and for other
purposes
Criminology in the Philippines

Philippine College of Criminology          Criminology Curriculum: Only 5
formerly Plaridel College, 1956         subjects dealt with Criminology proper,
1st Criminology School                   i.e. explaining etiology and nature of
Sta Cruz, Manila                                          crime


R.A. 6506 (July 1, 1972): Provides       Recognized Crim Org: Professional
Board Examinations to Criminology         Criminologists Association of the
  Graduates and Guidelines in the         Philippines (PCAP) & Philippine
Practice of Criminology Profession.     Educators Association for Criminology
                                                Education (PEACE)

     More of Criminal Justice;
                                        Ched Memo Order (CMO) 21, Seriesof
emphasized on operations of agencies
                                         2005: Criminology is now under the
   of justice, specifically police
                                        umbrella of Criminal Justice Education
departments, courts, and correctional
                                            along with Law Enforcement
              facilities.
                                            Administration, Correctional
                                          Administration, Industrial Security
                                         Management, and Forensic Science
Oldest school introduced
      criminology in the Philippines
        ESCUELA DE DERECHO DE MANILA of 1898 established by
FELIPE G. CALDERON of TANZA founder and first Dean, after his death,
rename to MANILA LAW COLLEGE whose educational principles in
Criminology was introduced in the Philippines on 1953 and took effect in
1954 by establishing sister institution, THE PHILIPPINE COLLEGE OF
CRIMINOLOGY.

The Unveiled History of Law and Criminal Justice Educations
and Practices in the Philippines
by
Prof. Danilo I. Gregorio,
1st ,Advance Edition, 2011
Copyrighted 2010, (Unpublish)
0929-386166645/0915-4403691
Practice of Criminology Profession
(Republic Act No. 6506: Criminologist Law)
                   Law enforcement
               administrator (Police, NBI,
                          etc.)
                 Forensic practitioner:
             Fingerprint Examiner, Forensic
                  Ballistician, Forensic
                   Photographer, etc.

              Correctional Administrator


                   Industrial Security
                   Officer/Consultant


              Instructor in schools offering
                 criminology programs
Pre-Employment Eligibilities
Criminology PRC License – Republic Act No. 6506

Honor Graduate Eligibility – Presidential Decree 907

            Civil Service Eligibility
             NAPOLCOM Eligibility

              Agency Eligibility
   Certified Security Professional License
Government Agencies Available for
     Criminology Graduates
Government Agencies Available for
     Criminology Graduates




       Other government agencies requiring public safety agents
Private Agencies Available for
      Criminology Graduates




Credit and Lending Corporations

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CRIMINOLOGY: An Introduction and Overview

  • 1. CRIMINOLOGY An Introduction and Overview By FRANCIS C. POSTRADO BS Criminology
  • 2. What is CRIMINOLOGY? Etymological Definition - Criminology (from Latin crīmen, "accusation"; and Greek -λογία, -logia) is the scientific approach to studying criminal behavior. The term was coined in 1885 by Raffaele Garofalo, an Italian law professor.
  • 3. What is CRIMINOLOGY? Classic Definition – According to Edwin Sutherland and Donald Cressey: Criminology is a body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. It includes within its scope the processes of making laws, of breaking of laws, and of reaction toward the breaking of laws.
  • 4. Making of laws Law is passed because of the consensus of the will of the public. In the Philippines, we have bicameral system of legislation. It is called bicameral because it is composed of two houses; the Senate and the House of Representatives. We have three major divisions or branches in the government; the executive, vested on the office of the president; the legislative, cited and explained above; and the judiciary vested on the Supreme Court. We are being represented by the legislative branch in making laws.
  • 5. Early laws worldwide setting: 1. Code of Hammurabi- Babylon (1700 B.C.) 2. Mosaic Code- Israelites (1200 B.C.) 3. Draconian Code- Greece (17th century) 4. Hindu Code of Manu- India 5. Koran- Islamic Society 6. Law of twelve tables- Romans (451-450 B.C.) 7. Sumerian Code- Summer (3500 BC.) 8. Law of Moses ( 1500 B.C.-1900 B.C.) Early laws in the Philippines: 1. Maragtas Code (1215) -the oldest law of Panay Island. 2. Kalantiaw Code (1433) -2nd code of criminal justice.
  • 6. Breaking of Laws · All violations of laws are violations of the will of the majority in the society. Violation of the provisions of the criminal laws created by the public thru representation is called CRIME. Crime- is an act or omission in violation of criminal law. Act- is outward movement tending to produce effect.
  • 7. Reaction of the society towards the breaking of laws Society either reacts positively or negatively when someone commits crime. However, seldom has the society reacted positively; it reacts negatively by imposing punishment on the law-breaker. Phenomenon- observable; something which can be observed; any fact, circumstances, or experiences which can be explained scientifically.
  • 8. Objectives of Criminology The development of a body of general and verified principles and of other types of knowledge regarding this process of law, crime, and its control and prevention, and the treatment of the youthful offenders.
  • 9. Nature of Criminology Criminology continues to bring together in a very amorphous manner people who do the following kinds of work: 1. academicians (often sociologists) who teach students a subject called criminology, including those criminologists who also do research and write on the subject; 2. teachers who train other people for professional roles in crime control and criminal justice work;
  • 10. 3. those who are involved in policy research within the criminal justice system; and 4. those who apply criminology that is all the people who are employed in criminal justice agencies, ranging from policemen to lawyers to prison wardens to correctional workers. Even this list of broad groupings does not exhaust the possibilities as criminology and criminal justice increasingly play prominent roles in the further development of society.
  • 11. Criminology Distinguished from Other Related Disciplines Criminology: An Interdisciplinary Science It involves two or more academic fields, namely: 1. Sociology 2. Criminal justice, 3. Political science, 4. Psychology, 5. Economics, 6. Natural Sciences
  • 12. Criminology Distinguished from Other Related Disciplines Criminology and Criminal Justice Criminology Criminal justice explains the origin, extent, and nature of refers to agencies crime in society of social control Criminologist Criminal Justice Scholars -identify the nature, -seek more effective extent and cause of methods of crime crime. control and offender rehabilitation
  • 13. Criminology Distinguished from Other Related Disciplines Criminology and Criminal Justice Overlapping Area of Concern. Criminal justice experts cannot begin to design effective programs of crime prevention or rehabilitation without understanding the nature and cause of crime. They require accurate criminal statistics and data to test the effectiveness of crime control and prevention programs.
  • 14. Criminology Distinguished from Other Related Disciplines Criminology and Deviance Studies Criminal Studies behavior behavior that departs from social norms NOTE: Not all crimes are deviant or unusual acts and not all deviant acts are illegal.
  • 15. Criminology Distinguished from Other Related Disciplines Criminology and Deviance Overlapping Area of Concern. There is a thin line that distinguishes criminal act from deviant act. For example, when does sexually oriented material cross the line from merely suggestive to obscene and therefore illegal?
  • 16. Is Criminology a Science? There is at present a continuing argument whether criminology is a science or not. Edwin H. Sutherland and Donald Cressy both American Criminologist argued that criminology is not a science but it has hopes of becoming a science. However, George L. Wilker said that criminology cannot possibly become a science due to lack of universal proposition of crime and scientific studies of criminal behavior is impossible.
  • 17. So How Criminology become a Science? Criminology is a science in itself when applied to law enforcement and prevention of crimes under the following nature: 1. It is an applied science - in the study of the causes of crimes, anthropology, zoology, psychology, sociology and other natural sciences may be applied. While in crime detection, chemistry, medicine, physics, mathematics, ballistics, photography, legal medicine, question documents examination may be utilized. This is called Instrumentation 2. It is a social science - in as much as crime is a social creation and that it exists in a society being a social phenomenon, its study must be considered a part of social science.
  • 18. 3. It is dynamic- criminology changes as social conditions changes. It is concomitant with the advancement of other sciences that have been applied to it. 4. It is nationalistic - the study of crimes must be in relation with existing criminal law within a territory or country. Finally, the question as to whether an act is a crime is dependent on the criminal law of a country.
  • 19. The Scope of Criminology 1. Study of the causes of crimes and development of criminals. 2. Study of the origin and development of criminal laws. 3. Study of the different factors that enhances as: a. criminal sociology- study the effects of social conditions on crime and criminals including the machinery of justice and the evolution of criminal law and punishment. b. criminal psychiatry- study of human mind in relation to criminality.
  • 20. The Scope of Criminology c. criminal ecology- the study of criminality in relation to spatial distribution on a community. d. criminal demography- study of the relationship between criminology and population e. criminal epideomology- study of the relationship between environment and criminality. f. Criminal physical anthropology- study of criminality in relation to physical constitution of men. g. Victimology- study of the role of the victim in the commission crime.
  • 21. The Scope of Criminology 4. Study of the various process and measures adopted by society violation of criminal laws: a. the detection and investigation of crimes, b. the arrest and apprehension of criminals, c. the prosecution and conviction of the criminal in a judicial proceeding, d. the enforcement of laws, decrees and regulations, e. the administration of the police and other law enforcement agencies, f. maintenance of recreational facilities and other auxiliary prevent the development of crimes and criminal behavior.
  • 22. Three Divisions of Criminology • Criminal Etiology- it is an attempt at scientific analysis of the causes of the crime. • Sociology of Law- which is an attempt at scientific analysis of the conditions which penal/criminal laws has developed as a process of formal and social control. • Penology- which is concerned with the control and prevention of crime and the treatment of offenders.
  • 23. The Criminologist Criminologists are interested as how criminal laws are created, who has the power to create them, what are the purpose of such laws, how they are enforced and violated. The criminologists study the kinds of sanctions or incentives that can best protect the environment. The criminologists study the relationship between ideology and power in the making, enforcing, and breaking of laws.
  • 24. Criminologist, defined A Criminologist is a person who studies the causes of crimes, its treatment and prevention using scientific methods. Criminologists use scientific principles • Gather data • Create theories • Employ established method of social science inquiry • Experimental designs • Sophisticated data analyses
  • 25. Is a Policeman considered a Criminologist? Generally speaking, a policeman is a criminology practitioner not a criminologist, because he is focused only in the enforcement of the law, which is only one aspect in the work of a criminologist.
  • 26. What is a Criminology Practitioner? A criminology practitioner is any person who is a consumer of the knowledge and research of criminologists, applied in the prevention, control and treatment of a crime. Examples: any member of any law enforcement agency of the government, crime laboratory technicians, correctional officers, and other workers of the criminal justice system.
  • 27. What is then is a Licensed Criminologist? A licensed criminologist is a degree holder of Criminology or a Criminology practitioner who passed the licensure (Board) Examination for Criminologist and is registered with the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC). R.A. 6506- an Act Creating the Board of Criminology in the Philippines and for other purposes
  • 28. Criminology in the Philippines Philippine College of Criminology Criminology Curriculum: Only 5 formerly Plaridel College, 1956 subjects dealt with Criminology proper, 1st Criminology School i.e. explaining etiology and nature of Sta Cruz, Manila crime R.A. 6506 (July 1, 1972): Provides Recognized Crim Org: Professional Board Examinations to Criminology Criminologists Association of the Graduates and Guidelines in the Philippines (PCAP) & Philippine Practice of Criminology Profession. Educators Association for Criminology Education (PEACE) More of Criminal Justice; Ched Memo Order (CMO) 21, Seriesof emphasized on operations of agencies 2005: Criminology is now under the of justice, specifically police umbrella of Criminal Justice Education departments, courts, and correctional along with Law Enforcement facilities. Administration, Correctional Administration, Industrial Security Management, and Forensic Science
  • 29. Oldest school introduced criminology in the Philippines ESCUELA DE DERECHO DE MANILA of 1898 established by FELIPE G. CALDERON of TANZA founder and first Dean, after his death, rename to MANILA LAW COLLEGE whose educational principles in Criminology was introduced in the Philippines on 1953 and took effect in 1954 by establishing sister institution, THE PHILIPPINE COLLEGE OF CRIMINOLOGY. The Unveiled History of Law and Criminal Justice Educations and Practices in the Philippines by Prof. Danilo I. Gregorio, 1st ,Advance Edition, 2011 Copyrighted 2010, (Unpublish) 0929-386166645/0915-4403691
  • 30. Practice of Criminology Profession (Republic Act No. 6506: Criminologist Law) Law enforcement administrator (Police, NBI, etc.) Forensic practitioner: Fingerprint Examiner, Forensic Ballistician, Forensic Photographer, etc. Correctional Administrator Industrial Security Officer/Consultant Instructor in schools offering criminology programs
  • 31. Pre-Employment Eligibilities Criminology PRC License – Republic Act No. 6506 Honor Graduate Eligibility – Presidential Decree 907 Civil Service Eligibility NAPOLCOM Eligibility Agency Eligibility Certified Security Professional License
  • 32. Government Agencies Available for Criminology Graduates
  • 33. Government Agencies Available for Criminology Graduates Other government agencies requiring public safety agents
  • 34. Private Agencies Available for Criminology Graduates Credit and Lending Corporations