Entry Skills Prior Knowledge of Topic Area Attitudes toward Content and Potential Delivery System Academic Motivation (ARCS) Educational and Ability Levels General Learning Preferences Attitudes Toward the Organization Giving the Instruction Group Characteristics
Certain skills that are already mastered (in relation to Learning Goal) Learners’ experience or knowledge and attitudes Influence the outcome of the instruction Examples: Able to add or subtract, able to read.
What learners already know about the specific topic Partial knowledge Misconceptions
Learners’ impression and attitude of topic or how it will/may be delivered Preconceived notions Learners’ expectations Example: Students to not want to learn a new app on the computer. They would rather learn it on their smartphones.
Some consider this the most important factor in creating a successful lesson plan ARCS model: attention, relevance, confidence, satisfacti on ARCS helps to obtain information from learners Never assume! Example question to ask learners BEFORE instruction: Do you believe this goal is relevant for you?
General and Achievement levels of learners Ability to cope with new instruction Previous instructional experiences
Willingness to explore new modes for learning Do they like lecture/discussion, seminar, case studies, etc. Learning Style! Learning Skills and Preferences
What kind of attitude do the learners have toward management, peers, school, teachers, e tc. Cynical or Positive? Determines the success of the instruction Those with positive attitudes about the organization and their peers are more likely to use the skills. (Dick and Carey)
Accommodate diversity Overall impression of the target population. All based on direct interaction, not assumption! Used for Objective development Helps with motivation strategies and different ways of teaching the content