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Day2 Helping Students... 2009


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Confratute 2009
Helping Student Set Goals, Get Organized, and Self-Regulate Behavior for Academic Success

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Day2 Helping Students... 2009

  1. 1. Helping Students Achieve Academic Success<br />Angela M. Housand, Ph.D.<br /><br />Confratute 2008<br />University of Connecticut<br />
  2. 2. Students who are self-regulated learners are “metacognitively, motivationally, and behaviorally active participants in their own learning process”.<br />(Zimmerman, 1989, p. 329)<br />
  3. 3. Active engagement in the learning process produces increases in academic performance.<br />(Ablard & Lipschultz, 1998; Ames, 1984; Corno, 1986, 1989; Dweck, 1986; Schunk & Rice; 1985, 1987, 1991; Zimmerman, 1989; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990)<br />
  4. 4. How can we, as educators, help students take personal initiative in the process of learning?<br />
  5. 5. How can we shift the responsibility of learning to students?<br />
  6. 6. How can we help students achieve their potential?<br />
  7. 7. Self-Regulated Learners<br />Compared with low achieving students, high achievers more frequently: <br />Set specific learning goals<br />Use a variety of learning strategies<br />Self-monitor<br />Adapt their efforts systematically<br /><br />
  8. 8. Self-Regulation<br />Learners with high levels of<br />self-regulation have<br />good control over the<br />attainment of their goals.<br />
  9. 9. IndividualFactors<br />Personal Effort<br />Intrinsic Motivation<br />Goal Orientation<br />Self-efficacy<br />Age<br />Gender<br />(Blair & Razza, 2007; McWhaw & Abrami, 2001; Miles & Stine-Morrow, 2004; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1986, 1988, 1990)<br />
  10. 10. Gifted students tend to be more self-regulated than their average performing peers.<br />Self-Regulated Learners<br />(Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990)<br />
  11. 11. Self-Regulated Learners<br />There still exists a large degree of variation among gifted students in their use of strategies associated with self-regulated learning.<br />(Ablard & Lipschultz, 1998; Risemberg & Zimmerman, 1992; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990)<br />
  12. 12. Self-Regulated Learners<br /> This variation may explain why some gifted students become highly productive, contributing members of society and others are in danger of underachievement. <br />
  13. 13. S<br />Quality of Work<br />Quality of Work<br />Ability<br />Effort<br />R2 = .66<br />R2 = .63<br />R2 = .11<br />Quality of Work<br />Quality of Work<br />Effort<br />R2 = .52<br />Ability<br />Teacher Rating of Students<br />Student Self-Rating<br />(Siegle & McCoach)<br />
  14. 14. Self-Regulated Learning<br />Self-regulation of behavior<br />Control of resources and environment<br />Self-regulation of motivation and affect<br />Control of motivational beliefs<br />Self-regulation of cognition<br />Control of various cognitive strategies for learning<br />Zimmerman (1989)<br />
  15. 15. Cyclical and Ongoing<br />
  16. 16. When will I start?<br />Where will I work?<br />How will I get started?<br />What will help me?<br />What might hinder me?<br />
  17. 17. Am I accomplishing what I planned to do?<br />Am I being distracted?<br />Is this taking more time than I thought?<br />Am I in a setting where I can accomplish the most?<br />How can I encourage myself to keep working?<br />
  18. 18. Did I accomplish what I planned to do?<br />Was I distracted and how did I get back to work?<br />Did I plan enough time or did it take longer than I thought?<br />In which situation did I accomplish the most work?<br />
  19. 19. The first requisite<br />of success is the <br />ability to apply your <br />physical and mental <br />energies to one <br />problem without <br />growing weary.<br />-Thomas Edison<br />
  20. 20.<br />
  21. 21. Three Categories ofSelf-Regulation Strategies<br />Personal:<br /> How a student organizes and interprets information<br />Behavioral<br /> Actions that a student takes<br />Environmental<br /> Structuring of the physical environment and seeking<br />
  22. 22. Personal SR Strategies<br />Organizing and transforming information<br />Outlining<br />Summarizing<br />Rearranging materials<br />Highlighting<br />Flashcards<br />Draw pictures, diagrams, charts<br />Webs/mapping<br />
  23. 23. Personal SR Strategies<br />Goal setting and planning<br />Sequencing, timing, and completing<br />Time management<br />Pacing<br />
  24. 24. Personal SR Strategies<br />Keeping records<br />Note-taking<br />Recording marks<br />Portfolio<br />Drafts of assignments<br />
  25. 25. Personal SR Strategies<br />Self-monitoring<br />Lists of errors made<br />Reflection logs/Journals<br />Weekly self-evaluations<br />Self-assessment checklists and inventories<br />Recording marks<br />Time-on-task analysis<br />Podcast or video<br />Discussion with teacher<br />
  26. 26. Personal SR Strategies<br />Rehearsing and memorizing<br />Mnemonic devices<br />Teaching someone else the material<br />Making sample questions<br />Visualization<br />Repetition<br />Rhyming / Rapping<br />Create Categories<br />
  27. 27. Behavioral SR Strategies<br />Self-evaluating<br />What does the teacher want me to do?<br />What do I want out of it?<br />What did I learn today?<br />What did I do well?<br />What am I confused about?<br />What do I need to get help with?<br />What do I still need to do?<br />
  28. 28. Behavioral SR Strategies<br />Self-consequating<br />Treats to motivate (Self-reinforcement)<br />Delay of gratification<br />Arranging or imagining punishment<br />
  29. 29. Environmental SR Strategies<br />Environmental structuring<br />Selecting or arranging the physical setting<br />Isolating; Eliminating or minimizing distractions<br />Short and frequent study<br />
  30. 30. Environmental SR Strategies<br />Seeking information<br />Library resources<br />Internet resources<br />Reviewing cards<br />Rereading records, tests, textbooks<br />
  31. 31. Environmental SR Strategies<br />Seeking assistance<br />From peers<br />From teachers or other adults<br />Emulating exemplary models<br />
  32. 32. Environmental Influences<br />Opportunities for help seeking<br />Provision of complex tasks<br />Explicit strategy instruction<br />Choice in and control over activities<br />Student participation in evaluation<br />(Boekaerts & Corno, 2005; DeCorte, Verschaffel, & DeVen, 2001; Folkesson & Swalander, 2007; Hadwin et. al., 2001; Perry, 1998; Perry, Hutchinson, & Thauberger, 2007; Perry, Norby, & VandeKamp, 2003; Perry, Phillips, & Dowler, 2004; Turner, 1995)<br />
  33. 33. Research Tells Us…<br />When the learning environment provides:<br /> Opportunities for help-seeking from resources, peers, and teacher<br />Students Engage in Self-Regulated Learning Behaviors<br />
  34. 34.
  35. 35. Classroom Strategies<br />Suns and Clouds<br />Provide materials<br />Post-its<br />Resources (computer, access to media)<br />Opportunities to regain focus:<br />Personal timer (10 minutes)<br />Get up, get a drink, stretch<br />
  36. 36. Research Tells Us…<br />When the learning environment provides:<br />Complex tasks that extend over time, allow for variation in expression style, and integrate multiple processes, both cognitive and procedural<br />Students Engage in Self-Regulated Learning Behaviors<br />
  37. 37. Complex Tasks<br /><ul><li>Students responsible for classroom
  38. 38. Cleaning / Organizing
  39. 39. Classroom set-up
  40. 40. Jobs that extend over time
  41. 41. Jobs rotate less frequently
  42. 42. Choice of jobs
  43. 43. Decision-making within job</li></li></ul><li>Complex Tasks<br /><ul><li>Give students a purpose for the task
  44. 44. During the process
  45. 45. For completion
  46. 46. Require student reflection
  47. 47. Progress
  48. 48. Process</li></li></ul><li>Classroom Opportunities for Providing Complex Tasks?<br />
  49. 49. Classroom Opportunities for Providing Complex Tasks<br />Group Projects <br />Independent Projects<br />Open-ended Questioning<br />Investigation Centers<br />Learning Contracts<br />Activity Menus<br />
  50. 50. Independent Projects<br />Ask the question:<br />Will you be able to stay interested in this topic for an extended period of time?<br />
  51. 51. The first requisite<br />of success is the <br />ability to apply your <br />physical and mental <br />energies to one <br />problem without <br />growing weary.<br />-Thomas Edison<br />
  52. 52. Independent Projects<br />Project Ideas on the Web: <br /><br />
  53. 53. Independent Projects<br />Planning Templates by Googling: <br />Management Plan<br />Wizard Project Maker<br />
  54. 54.
  55. 55. Timeline:<br /><ul><li>Start Date
  56. 56. Completion Date
  57. 57. Progress Report Dates</li></ul>Project Description:<br />What do you hope to find out or learn?<br />
  58. 58. Intended Project(s):<br /><ul><li>In what ways will you share your work?
  59. 59. How, when, and where will you share and communicate the results of your project with other people?</li></ul>What Format Will Your Project Take? <br />What will your product be?<br />
  60. 60. Getting Started:<br />What skills, resources and materials will I need?<br />Who is the intended audience?<br />
  61. 61. Identifying a Variety of Expression Styles<br />
  62. 62.
  63. 63. You Know its Working When…<br />Most students can start to work without any reminders beyond the initial directions.<br />Verbal guidance or environmental reminders of self-regulation strategies is not needed.<br />
  64. 64. You Know its Working When…<br />The activity choices offered demonstrate responsiveness to specific student interests and varied expression styles in product development.<br />The activity choices offered include open-ended options to extend the challenge of previous activities.<br />
  65. 65. You Know its Working When…<br />Most students demonstrate visible enthusiasm and task commitment for their chosen activity.<br />The physical arrangement, organization, and access to resources in the environment enhances activity outcomes.<br />
  66. 66. Open Ended Questioning: A Resource<br />
  67. 67. SEM-R Bookmarks<br />
  68. 68. Research Tells Us…<br />When the learning environment provides:<br /> Explicit strategy instruction, both domain specific and metacognitive strategy instruction<br />Students Engage in Self-Regulated Learning Behaviors<br />
  69. 69. Domain Explicit Strategies<br />Reading Strategies as an example<br />
  70. 70. Strategies vs. Skillsin Reading<br />Reading skills = instruction in the following:<br />Word identification<br />Fluency<br />Vocabulary<br />Comprehension<br />Study skills<br />Reading strategies = process where the reader interacts with the text to create meaning<br />Coiro, 1998<br />
  71. 71. Comprehension StrategiesBefore, During, and After Reading<br />Determining Importance<br />Making Connections<br />Questioning<br />Metacognition<br />Making Inferences<br />Visualizing<br />Summarizing<br />Paris, 2004<br />
  72. 72. Metacognitive Strategy Instruction<br />Self-Regulation Strategies as an Example<br />
  73. 73. Strategies vs. Skills<br />Self-regulation skills = instruction in the following:<br />Eliminating distractions<br />Note Taking<br />Outlining<br />Webs/Mapping<br />Categorization<br />Self-regulation strategies = process where individual takes initiative and responsibility for her own success<br />
  74. 74. Self-Regulation Strategies<br />Organizing<br />Goal Setting / Planning<br />Record Keeping<br />Self-Monitoring<br />Self-Evaluating<br />Self-Consequating<br />Seeking Assistance<br />
  75. 75. Research Tells Us…<br />When the learning environment provides:<br /> Choice and volitional control over processes, timing, challenge level, and outcome or product of learning tasks<br />Students Engage in Self-Regulated Learning Behaviors<br />
  76. 76. Volitional Control<br /><ul><li>Set clear expectations in advance
  77. 77. Provide reminders
  78. 78. Bring students attention to their behavior when they lose self-regulation</li></li></ul><li>Volitional Control<br /><ul><li>Classroom structures that provide access to materials
  79. 79. Systems for recurring activities
  80. 80. Restroom / Drink
  81. 81. Library
  82. 82. Opportunities for monitoring behavior</li></li></ul><li>SEM-R: An Example<br />Three Phase Reading Enrichment Program<br />Extension of Joe Renzulli and Sally Reis’ Schoolwide Enrichment Model<br />Designed to promote enjoyment of reading and increase self-regulation in reading<br />
  83. 83.
  84. 84. Ground Rules for SIR<br />You must have a book to read<br />If you aren’t enjoying a book and have given it a fair chance, ask the teacher to help you choose a new one.<br />Remain in your reading area during SIR<br />Only reading is happening<br />Minimal quiet talking<br />Do your best reading the whole time<br />
  85. 85.
  86. 86.
  87. 87. Student keeping a record<br />Student tracking progress<br />Student assessment of goal attainment<br />Higher order thinking & metacognitive strategy use<br />
  88. 88. Student reflection on reading<br />Student participation in assessment and review<br />Explicit strategy instruction<br />Purpose for reading and goal setting<br />Efficacy building via specific feedback<br />
  89. 89. Research Tells Us…<br />When the learning environment provides:<br />Opportunities for students participate in the process of evaluating their own work. <br />Students Engage in Self-Regulated Learning Behaviors<br />
  90. 90.
  91. 91. Henegar 2005<br />
  92. 92. A Teacher How-to<br />Guide learners’ self-beliefs, goal setting, and expectations<br />Help students frame information in a positive manner<br />Provide specific cues<br />
  93. 93. A Teacher How-to<br />Promote reflective dialogue<br />Modeling (e.g. think aloud)<br />Student practice<br />Group discussions<br />
  94. 94. A Teacher How-to<br />Provide corrective feedback<br />Performance standards must be clear and perceived as attainable<br />Focus feedback on the process of learning rather than on the student<br />
  95. 95. A Teacher How-to<br />Help learners link new experiences to prior learning<br />Use experiential learning activities<br />Focus on application of knowledge in broader context<br />Integrate professional examples with classroom information<br />
  96. 96. Agents of Learning<br />
  97. 97. McCoach Goals Worksheet<br />Directions:<br />Please complete all of the following sentences regarding the class that you are focusing on for this program.  There are no right or wrong answers.  Put down the first idea that comes into your head.  When you are done, give this form back to your teacher/counselor.   <br /> When I try hard in this class, it&apos;s because _________________________. <br /> I would spend more time on my schoolwork if  _________________________. <br /> If I do poorly in this class, then  ___________________________________. <br /> When I don&apos;t try hard in this class, it&apos;s because  ____________________. <br /> I would rather do ___________________ than do my work for this class. <br /> Doing well in this class will help me to  ________________________. <br /> Doing poorly in this class will keep me from  ________________________. <br /> This class is important because  ________________________________. <br /> The most interesting thing that I learned this year is _______________________. <br />The thing that I am most interested in learning more about is  ________________. <br />The most interesting thing that I learned in _______ class is _________________. <br />I feel best about myself when  _______________________________________. <br />I feel worst about myself when  _____________________________________. <br />I am most proud of  _____________________________________________. <br />I wish that I could  ______________________________________________. <br />When I grow up, I want to  ________________________________________.<br />I really value ___________________________________________________.<br />Note: The goal valuations interventions are based on the work of D. Betsy McCoach.<br />
  98. 98.
  99. 99.
  100. 100.
  101. 101. Self-Regulation<br /> The goal is to teach students a self-regulatory process to reach goals and aspirations. This involves breaking down goal attainment processes into teachable component parts.<br />
  102. 102. Questions?<br />
  103. 103. The greater danger for most of us <br />lies not in setting our aim too high <br />and falling short; <br />but in setting our aim too low, <br />and achieving our mark.<br />-Michelangelo<br />
  104. 104.
  105. 105.
  106. 106.
  107. 107.
  108. 108.
  109. 109. Questions?<br />