Goal setting and objectives

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  • Review slide with participants.
  • For #1, it makes sense that setting instructional goals helps students focus their attention on information specifically related to the goals. But, it also can mean that students don ’t learn other information related to the content being studied because they ignore information that is not specifically related to the defined goals. For #2, when instructional goals or objectives are too specific, students ’ learning is limited. It’s important to identify the knowledge that students will be learning at a somewhat general level (specific but flexible) so that students can identify their own more specific learning goals related to that knowledge. For a learning objective or goal to be specific but flexible, it must not be too broad or too specific. Examples are provided for you in the chart above with goals that are too broad, too specific, and specific but flexible. Briefly discuss what makes a learning objective too broad, too specific, or specific but flexible.
  • For #3, research indicates that if you provide students with opportunities to adapt the learning goals you have set for them to their personal needs and desires, they are likely to learn more. Some teachers encourage students to write a “contract” for learning. This provides students with a great deal of control over their learning. Contracts can include the goals for learning as well as the grade the student will receive if he or she meets those goals. The goals for learning may include goals that the student sets as well as goals the teacher sets. Review the example on the bottom portion of the slide.
  • Allow participants to read the slide. These are activities or assignments that the students are going to complete today. They are not learning goals.
  • Allow participants to read the slide. These are learning goals.
  • Take a few minutes to allow participants to read the examples on the slide and think about which ones are learning goals and which are activities or assignments. After a couple of minutes, go over each example and have participants call out whether it is a learning goal or activity or assignment.
  • Communicating objectives effectively is probably just as important as designing them. Many teachers communicate the learning goals they set in both written and oral forms. Learning goals can be written on the board, on a bulletin board, and in a written handout as well as provided orally. If your students have not had much experience setting learning goals, you will need to model the process for them and provide support along the way. A good way to begin is to be sure that the goals you set for student learning are specific but flexible. Both short and long term goals need to be clearly visible to students and in language they can understand. When you communicate student learning goals to parents, you provide an important way for parents to be involved in their children ’s education. If parents understand the learning objectives, they can provide appropriate support. One effective and simple method of communicating learning goals to parents is in a letter. Be sure to keep the message simple and avoid education jargon as much as possible.
  • Review the slide information as a wrap-up of what we have covered so far in setting objective and goals.
  • The research yielded 4 generalizations that can guide teachers in goal setting. Share a quote from John Hattie who reviewed 7,827 students on learning and instruction, “The most powerful single innovation that enhances achievement is feedback”. The four generalizations on feedback are listed on this slide and we ’ll look at each one in greater detail in next slides.
  • Providing students with an explanation of what they are doing that is correct and what they are doing that is not correct is the most effective type of feedback. Simply telling students that their answer on a test is right or wrong has a negative impact on achievement. Providing students with the correct answer has a moderate effect. The best feedback appears to involve an explanation of what is accurate and what is inaccurate in terms of student responses. In addition, asking students to keep working on a tack until they succeed appears to enhance student achievement.
  • The timing of feedback is critical to its effectiveness. Feedback that is given immediately after a test-like situation is best. The longer the delay, the less improvement there is in achievement.
  • The manner in which students receive feedback is important for student achievement. Feedback should reference a specific level of skill or knowledge. This means the feedback is criterion-referenced as opposed to norm referenced (not in reference to other students). Only giving the percentage of correct or incorrect answers is not usually very helpful in correcting a skill. When feedback relates specifically to the identified knowledge or skill, both the teacher and the student have a better understanding of what, if anything, needs to be done to improve student performance.
  • Feedback should not be considered something that only the teacher provides. Students can effective monitor their own progress by simply keeping track of their performance as learning occurs. For example, students might keep a chart of their accuracy, their speed, or both while learning a new skill. Since many students are not experienced at providing feedback, you will need to model and teach this to students as well as provide support throughout the process.
  • Goal setting and objectives

    1. 1. Classroom Instruction That Works Research Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement Robert J. Marzano, Debra Pickering & Jane E. Pollock Rena Allen Don Washburn
    2. 2. Learning Goals <ul><li>Know generalizations from research and recommended classroom practices related to the nine categories of instructional strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how the research on instructional strategies can be embedded in classroom curriculum design </li></ul>
    3. 3. Where Did These Strategies Come From? <ul><li>Analysis of 30 years of research on instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Experience with thousands of educators </li></ul>
    4. 4. Meta-analysis <ul><li>Combined results from a number of studies to determine the average effect of a given technique. </li></ul><ul><li>These results are translated into a unit of measurement referred to as an effect size . </li></ul>
    5. 5. Effect Size <ul><li>The increase or decrease in achievement of the experimental group in standard deviation units . </li></ul><ul><li>This effect size can then be translated into a percentile gain . </li></ul>
    6. 6. Marzano ’s 9 Analyzed Category Average Effect Size Percentile Gain Number of Studies Identifying Similarities & Differences 1.61 45 31 Summarizing & Note Taking 1.00 34 179 Reinforcing Effort & Providing Recognition .80 29 21 Homework & Practice .77 28 134 Nonlinguistic Representation .75 27 246 Cooperative Learning .73 27 122 Setting Objectives & Providing Feedback .61 23 408 Generating & Testing Hypotheses .61 23 63 Cues, Questions, & Advance Organizers .59 22 1251
    7. 7. Strategy Card Sort <ul><li>In your table groups, </li></ul><ul><li>match the specific </li></ul><ul><li>behaviors with the </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate instructional </li></ul><ul><li>category. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Four Planning Questions for Instruction Which strategies will help students practice, review, and apply that knowledge? Which strategies will provide evidence that students have learned that knowledge? What knowledge will students learn? Which strategies will help students acquire and integrate that knowledge?
    9. 9. Incorporating the Strategies into Instructional Planning Question Strategies What knowledge will students learn? <ul><li>Setting Objectives </li></ul>Which strategies will provide evidence that students have learned that knowledge? <ul><li>Providing Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Providing Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Homework </li></ul>
    10. 10. Incorporating the Strategies into Instructional Planning (Continued) Question Strategies Which strategies will help students acquire and integrate that knowledge? <ul><li>Cues, Questions, & Advance Organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing & Note Taking </li></ul><ul><li>Nonlinguistic Representation </li></ul><ul><li>Homework </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Providing Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcing Effort & Providing Recognition </li></ul>Which strategies will help students practice, review, and apply that knowledge? <ul><li>Homework & Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying Similarities & Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Generating & Testing Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Providing Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcing Effort & Providing Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Nonlinguistic Representation </li></ul>
    11. 11. SETTING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Provide students a direction for learning. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Four Planning Questions for Instruction: <ul><li>Setting Objectives </li></ul>What knowledge will students learn? Which strategies will help students practice, review, and apply that knowledge? Which strategies will provide evidence that students have learned that knowledge? Which strategies will help students acquire and integrate that knowledge?
    13. 13. Participant Outcomes <ul><li>Participants will: </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the purpose and importance of setting objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Identify ways to implement goal setting in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the purpose and importance of providing feedback to students about their learning </li></ul><ul><li>Review examples of providing corrective, timely and specific feedback </li></ul>
    14. 14. Research and Theory about Goal Setting <ul><li>Generalization # 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional goals narrow what students focus on. </li></ul><ul><li>Set objectives or goals that are specific but flexible. </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization # 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional goals should not be too specific. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When goals are too specific they limit learning and are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>typically referred to as behavioral objectives. </li></ul></ul>Too Broad Too Specific Specific but Flexible
    15. 15. Research and Theory about Goal Setting <ul><li>Generalization # 3: </li></ul><ul><li>Students should personalize goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Students are more likely to explain what they are </li></ul><ul><li>learning and show personal interest in the learning </li></ul><ul><li>objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Write a contract for learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>include the goals for learning and how grades are determined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>include teacher determined goals and student determined goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow students to identify more specific knowledge that interest them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>base on their individual gaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individualize </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Today Read Chapter 2 in .. Finish Adverb assignment… Work on myth.. Activities/Assignments
    17. 17. As a result of what we do today, you will be able to demonstrate that you: Understand the technique of foreshadowing in mysteries. Can revise writing to improve use of descriptive adverbs. Learning Goals
    18. 18. <ul><li>Add and subtract fractions. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the various components of culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a travel brochure for a region. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a simple machine. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the relationship between fractions and decimals </li></ul><ul><li>Write a report on Charles Dickens. </li></ul><ul><li>Design a menu that includes a balance of foods from the food pyramid. </li></ul><ul><li>Know states and their capitals. </li></ul>Activities/Assignments or Learning Goals?
    19. 19. Recommendations for Classroom Practice on Goal Setting <ul><li>Communicate Learning Goals to Students </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide in writing (i.e. on board, handout) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide orally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Help Students Set Learning Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Model process for students (i.e. sentence stems) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide support along the way </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short term and long term goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Communicate Learning Goals to Parents </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the message simple </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid educational jargon </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. A well written goal should… <ul><li>establish direction and purpose </li></ul><ul><li>be specific but flexible </li></ul><ul><li>be stated in terms of knowledge rather than learning activities </li></ul><ul><li>provide students opportunities to personalize </li></ul>
    21. 21. PROVIDING FEEDBACK <ul><li>Provide students information about how well they are performing relative to a particular learning goal so that they can improve their performance. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Four Planning Questions for Instruction: <ul><li>Providing Feedback </li></ul>What knowledge will students learn? Which strategies will help students practice, review, and apply that knowledge? Which strategies will provide evidence that students have learned that knowledge? Which strategies will help students acquire and integrate that knowledge?
    23. 23. <ul><li>Generalizations based on research : </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback should be corrective in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback should be timely . </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback should be specific to a criterion . </li></ul><ul><li>Students can effectively provide some of their own feedback . </li></ul>Research & Theory Classroom Practice Regarding Providing Feedback
    24. 24. Research & Theory Classroom Practice Regarding Providing Feedback <ul><ul><li>should be “corrective” in nature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gives an explanation of what the student is doing correctly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gives an explanation of what the student is doing that is not correct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>promotes working on a task until the student is successful </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><ul><li>should be timely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>this is a critical point! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>immediate is best </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the longer the delay that occurs in giving feedback, the less improvement there is in achievement </li></ul></ul></ul>Research & Theory Classroom Practice Regarding Providing Feedback
    26. 26. <ul><ul><li>should be specific to a criterion to be the most useful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Referenced to a specific level of skill or knowledge (criterion referenced) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOT in reference to other students – (norm referenced). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only giving the percentage of correct or incorrect answers is not usually very helpful in correcting a skill. </li></ul></ul></ul>Research & Theory Classroom Practice Regarding Providing Feedback
    27. 27. <ul><ul><li>can also be effectively provided by the students themselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students keeping track of their own performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chart or graph of accuracy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chart of graph of speed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or both accuracy and speed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teach students how to give feedback </li></ul></ul></ul>Research & Theory Classroom Practice Regarding Providing Feedback

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