Chapter 15 powerpoint presentation final


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Chapter 15 powerpoint presentation final

  1. 1. Chapter 15<br />Differentiate instruction and assessment for middle and high school students<br />By MYRIAM BELFORT<br />MARLEY PALMER<br />LAKISHA WILLIAMS<br />CELIA MARTINEZ<br />
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION<br />Differentiate instruction refers to different methods strategies combine to develop students critical thinking.<br />
  3. 3. Components of differentiated instruction<br />Curriculum enhancement which involves no changes to students curriculum but instructional strategies that promote learning. For example vocabulary words , and graphics organizers.<br />Curriculum modification targeted students individual needs which includes accommodation and adaption and learning contract.<br />
  4. 4. Accommodation , adaptions, learning contract<br />Accommodation Modify how the material is presented to the students .<br />Adaptions refer to students who have difficulties in writing may be assigned in writing activities.<br />Learning contract help teacher and student to negotiate on a project to determine mastery <br />
  5. 5. Differentiate instructing using flexibility grouping.<br />Is a differentiated instruction implement in you classroom with a flexible group which often change according to students goals and lessons. But in the middle school and high school it is identified as “tracked” which students are place by achievement level.<br />
  6. 6. Grouping<br />Grouping pasterns are determined by two variables<br />Homogeneous students with the same achievement levels<br />Heterogeneous students with a wide range of achievement levels.<br />Cooperative learning group students work together to achieve the same goal.<br />
  7. 7. Assignments and homework<br />Assignment should be clear and comprehensible<br />Students needs to know why the assignments is important , when is due, what support they need and the steps for getting the job done. Complete info help motivate students.<br />
  8. 8. How can I plan for differentiated instruction?<br />Planning should be base on individual needs.<br />Be consistent, do a planning pyramid, have a universal design learning, mapping curriculum and most of all have a routine<br />
  9. 9. WHAT AND HOW MUCH DO YOU EXPECT, ALL, <br />MORE, OR SOME OF YOUR STUDENTS TO LEARN?<br />Planning Pyramid<br />Can be used as a framework for planning<br />Not only for students with learning or behavior problems but for gifted and talented students<br />The bottom of the pyramid-topics that all groups would research & which all students would be tested<br />The middle & top of the pyramid-student-selected material<br />Additional notes<br />Planning needs to include accommodations to help students with disabilities learn content<br />Aside from state-adopted textbooks<br />Choose fundamental ideas you want students to learn<br />Divide the class into mixed-ability cooperative learning groups<br />Provide the students a checklist of your expectations<br />Include differentiated assessment<br />
  10. 10. Accommodating gifted & talented students<br />Students who are gifted or talented and other high-achieving students already know the material being covered in the general curriculum.<br />As a teacher, you’ll need to recognize the characteristics of students with extraordinary gifts and talents so that you can help identify students for special services and provide appropriate instruction for gifted students.<br />Investigate local policies and understand your role in identifying students with special gifts and talents and designing instruction that meets their needs.<br />
  11. 11. Underidentified High-Achieving Students<br />Characteristics:<br />Advanced vocabulary for chronological age<br />Outstanding memory<br />Asks endless questions<br />Is comfortable with abstract thinking<br />Has many interests, hobbies, and collections<br />May have a passionate interest for many years<br />Intense<br />Strongly motivated to do things of interest<br />Prefers complex and challenging tasks to “basic” work<br />Catches on quickly<br />Comes up with “better ways” for doing things<br />Aware of global issues<br />Sophisticated sense of humor<br />
  12. 12. Underidentified High-Achieving Students cont’d<br />High achieving students who are not identified for special programs because they do not meet state or school district criteria to qualify.<br />It’s the teacher’s responsibility to provide these children support, encouragement, and stimulating they need to feel productive and successful.<br />Become familiar with policies and procedures for identifying and instructing students who are gifted and talented.<br />Learn what resources are available and policies related to acceleration and enrichment.<br />Two commonly recommended approaches for gen. ed. Classrooms are curriculum compacting and the Parallel Curriculum Model.<br />
  13. 13. Vocabulary<br />Acceleration: the procedure of moving students quickly through the grades or through the curriculum<br />Enrichment: Alternative to acceleration. Adding breadth and depth to the traditional curriculum. <br />Curriculum compacting: Provides students with the opportunity to demonstrate what they already know about a subject by eliminating repetitive or review content and replacing it with advanced learning experiences.<br />Parallel Curriculum Model (PCM): A framework for differentiated instruction that takes into consideration four curriculum design components. (Core curriculum-Curriculum of Connections-Curriculum of Practice-Curriculum of Identity)<br />
  14. 14. How can DI Accommodate Multiple Intelligences?<br />Howard Gardner proposes the theory of multiple intelligences. He suggests that human beings are capable of exhibiting intelligence in 7 domains:<br />Linguistic<br />Logical-Mathematical<br />Spatial<br />Musical<br />Bodily-kinesthetic<br />Interpersonal<br />Intrapersonal <br />Later, Gardner identified an 8th intelligence-the naturalistic and 9th intelligence-the existential.<br />
  15. 15. How can DI Accommodate Multiple Intelligences? Cont’d<br />Traditional intelligence test taps only linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligence.<br />Gardner advocates a revamping of assessment procedures to evaluate ALL 8 AREAS in ways that are sensitive to culture, age, gender, and social class. <br />The main tenet of Gardener’s theory to remember when planning educational programs is the responsibility to help all students realize and enhance their potential and strengths by showing children joy and interest in learning while helping them with the mastery of skills & curriculum.<br />Teachers need to design rich learning experiences that nurture each student’s combination of intelligences’. <br />
  16. 16. How does DI relate to RTI?<br />Students at secondary levels are more likely to be placed in departmentalized settings.<br />Scheduling problems can inhibit time for Tier 2 and Tier 3 instruction.<br />The pacing of instruction is much more rapid with little time for review or reteaching.<br />Much is to be learned from research & practice about how best to provide tiered instruction for middle & high school students.<br />The steps that you take to address individual needs through implementation of evidence-based strategies can form the foundation for RTI.<br />
  17. 17. Preparing Engaging Lessons for Middle and High School Students<br />Find new ways to students participation<br />
  18. 18. Prelearning Activities<br />Prelearning activities are strategies used by teachers in order to bring on students prior knowledge. <br />Prelearning activities set the stage for learning and helps build common vocabulary.<br />Prelearning activities saves lots of reteaching time.<br />
  19. 19. Purpose Setting Activities<br />Provides students with a reason for completing reading assignments.<br />Provides students reason to actively listen to a lecture.<br />Helps to guide reading and listening process.<br />Helps students improve their comprehension.<br />Works well for all learners, but is particularly used for student with motivational and attention problems.<br />
  20. 20. Preteaching Vocabulary<br />Use a variety of methods to preteach vocabulary.<br />Should identify the key concepts that are most helpful for students to learn from the lesson.<br />There are seven principles of excellent vocabulary instructions:<br />Should develop awareness of stages of word knowledge.<br />Should build experiential background for students.<br />
  21. 21. Preteaching Vocabulary cont..<br />3. You should relate word learning to the <br /> students background.<br />4. Have depth of meaning through multiple <br /> sources and repeated exposure.<br />5. Always foster excitement and appreciation to <br /> word learning.<br />6. Teach independent building of word learning<br />7. Always teach words in context<br />Keep these principles in mind.<br />
  22. 22. Graphic Organizers<br />Graphic organizers is describe as a diagram that uses content vocabulary to help students anticipate concepts and their relationships to one another in the reading material.<br />Can be used to provide visual representation of key ideas to students with reading comprehension difficulties and learning disabilities.<br />Is used to arrange key technical term that are important to the concepts which need to be learned.<br />Assist in learning materials typically used in classroom instuctions.<br />
  23. 23. Sematic Maps<br />Commonly used in prelearning activities.<br />Is used as a visual aid which will help students see how ideas are related to one another and what they already know.<br />Student can use maps as a listening or reading guide.<br />Can be used as the framework for postlistening and postreading discussions and as an aid for studying for quizzes and test.<br />
  24. 24. Concept Diagrams<br />Concept diagram is similar to a semantic map.<br />Helps students to determine definitions, characteristics, examples, and non-examples of a concept.<br />It is time consuming, always choose those that important to the curriculum and the students need to understand.<br />
  25. 25. Timelines<br />Timelines are used to provide students with a way to visualize.<br />Sequence content-area information as they read, listen, and discuss.<br />Math, science, reading, and art can be used as a study skill tool.<br />They can also be illustrated or included by using photographs as well.<br />
  26. 26. Create Listener-Friendly Lectures<br />Facilitate listening and learning by creating a listener- friendly lectures. Listener-friendly lectures are creates to do just so.<br />Lectures should be well designed in order to benefit students with learning disabilities.<br />Also to benefit English language learners, and listeners with relatively limited language skills.<br />Lectures should enhance students understanding.<br />
  27. 27. Instructional Clarity<br />Instructional clarity is one key to enhancing students understanding.<br />Clear, direct, and explicit presentation of information.<br />Five components of instructional clarity:<br />Understanding- connecting new information with what students already know.<br />Structuring- providing a clear format for the presentation, that students will be able to follow.<br />Sequencing- Arranging a presentation in a logical order.<br />Explaining- defining key terms and providing examples as necessary.<br />Presenting-delivering materials in an articulate and lively manner with correct pacing, and using visual aids and multimedia as necessary.<br />
  28. 28. Pause Procedure<br />Is another way of making lectures more friendly.<br />Is a technique that helps students learn more from lectures.<br />During lectures teacher pauses to allow students to compare their notes.<br />Make certain they have recorded key concepts of the lecture.<br />Teacher ask if students have any questions, and then return to the lecture.<br />
  29. 29. Giving Demonstrations<br />Demonstrations can be used to show students how to perform a skill.<br />Demonstrations can be used to show students how to complete, and solve a problem.<br />Can be used in small group setting, individual students, or the entire class.<br />
  30. 30. Giving Demonstrations cont..<br />Demonstration Plus Model Strategy is used to demonstrate to students who have learning problems.<br />When using this strategy you should add these two steps.<br />After the students have viewed the demonstration, choose a student to perform and verbally complete each step.<br />Have students complete additional practice exercise independently, by using the steps.<br />
  31. 31. Giving Demonstrations cont..<br />Thinking aloud is a metacognitive strategy used to model how to think and learn.<br />Are most frequently used to model reading processes.<br />Can be used to model thinking during a demonstration.<br />
  32. 32. Five Powerful Uses of Think Alouds<br />Making predictions or showing students how to develop hypotheses <br />Describing your visual images<br />Sharing and analogy or showing how prior knowledge applies<br /> Verbalizing confusing points or showing how you monitor developing understanding<br />Demonstrating fix-up strategies<br />
  33. 33. Facilitating Student Participation<br />Student engagement can be fostered by the use of cooperative learning groups and involvement in hands-on learning activities.<br />Questioning is important for helping the teacher monitor the students understanding of the content.<br />Questioning helps the teacher understand how students are processing what they learned.<br />
  34. 34. Questioning<br />Effective questioning strategies include the following:<br />Distribute questions evenly among all students<br />Make certain that questions are clearly stated<br />Ask a variety of question types<br />Ask all kinds of students all kinds of questions<br />Give students specific feedback about their answers<br />Let students explain why their answer is right<br />Etc……..<br />
  35. 35. Discussion<br />Classroom discussion can be stimulating for students and for teachers as well.<br />Can be also be challenging for teachers.<br />Vibrant discussions students participation are high, stimulated, and students have opportunities to connect what they are learning to their personal knowledge and experience.<br />Vibrant discussions help students learn how to express ideas, justify positions, listen to ideas of others, and ask for clarification when they don’t understand.<br />
  36. 36. Discussion cont.<br />Discussion web is a graphic aid to help students prepare for classroom discussions in the content area classes.<br />
  37. 37. Effective Content-Area Reading Instruction for Middle and High School Learners<br />Familiarizing Yourself with the Textbook<br />Readability Level: expressed as a grade level.<br />Friendliness Level: also known as considerate text it is written and formatted in such a way that information can be extracted easily and support is available when the reader does not understand.<br />Friendliness text has organization, explication, conceptual density, metadiscourse, and instructional devices.<br />
  38. 38. Understanding how students interact with & respond to text<br />FLIP chart strategy<br />Friendliness – Language – Interest – Prior knowledge<br />Making textbook adaptations<br /><ul><li>Research indicates that most content-area teachers seldom implement many adaptations
  39. 39. Adapting textbooks takes time
  40. 40. Textbook adaptations often slow down instruction
  41. 41. It’s not fair to the high-achieving students</li></li></ul><li>Text highlighting<br />Underlining or highlighting key points in the textbook can help students attend to the most salient information.<br />Information you think is most important<br />Intermediate step<br />Use cooperative learning groups<br />Students can work collaboratively to develop text coding or “text graffiti” systems using colored pens & sticky notes<br />
  42. 42. Multiliteracies<br />Living in a digital age requires students to learn skills for dealing with multiple sources of information<br />Trade books (both fiction & non-fiction) – magazines – journals<br />- autobiographies – internet - <br />Select books that are engaging – grab interest – share enthusiasm <br />
  43. 43. Listening to learn<br />CD-ROM & downloable versions of recorded books to assist students who are blind, have low vision, or learning disabilities.<br />SLICK<br />Set up the CD-ROM playback machine<br />Look ahead to identify headings, subheadings & key words<br />Comprehend the recorded text<br />Keep notes for further review for tests<br />
  44. 44. DIFFERENTIATING ASSESSMENT<br />Learners have different assessment needs; some children with challenges in learning basic skills may need more intensive monitoring than others.<br />Accommodations and adaptations are needed to meet individual needs.<br />
  45. 45. 4 ways assessment & instruction can be linked<br />Pre-assessment: what a student knows and needs to learn<br />Ongoing assessment: monitor student learning and see if adjustments are needed.<br />Have students demonstrate what they have learned.<br />Students set instructional goals and self-assessment <br />
  46. 46. Preparing Students for High-Stakes Tests<br />The NCLB(No child left behind) Act mandated assessment for ALL students including English language learners and students with disabilities.<br />These tests vary depending on what accommodations the student qualifies for.<br />A teacher must follow the state and school district policies and procedures when preparing students for high-stakes tests.<br />
  47. 47. Developing Test Taking Strategies<br />1. Test Approach Skills: mentally and physically helps students prepare for tests. It helps alleviate anxiety. Ex- flyers sent home to parents about nutrition and rest to prepare for the test.<br />Test taking Skills: skills used during specific kinds of exams. Ex-multiple choice (eliminate all wrong possibilities first). Essay questions (re-read the question twice).<br />Test preparedness skills: knowing the general content and format of the test. <br />
  48. 48. Standards, Test Content, & Student Motivation<br />Learning and knowledge goals: set goals created by teacher and student.<br />Real-world interactions: make connections between academic curriculum and personal experiences<br />Interesting subject content- if a student enjoys a topic, they will put forth more effort.<br />Strategy instruction: teacher needs to have direct instruction, scaffolding, and guided practice.<br />Praise and rewards: compliments in order for students to feel pride and accomplishment in their work.<br />
  49. 49. Teacher-Made Tests<br />Some department made tests can not be representative of what was taught in class. <br />Also known as student-friendly tests<br />Can be used to find out a students prior knowledge and what they need to learn.<br />Student-friendly tests are based on information covered in class. The students are told explicitly what they are responsible for learning and reviewing.<br />The test format should be clear and easy to understand, there should be enough room for the students to write and the directions clear.<br />Consider the adaptations and accommodations needed for students with special needs.<br />
  50. 50. Alternative AssessmentsIn addition to tests, alternative assessments can be used for pre-assessment or monitoring a students prior and current knowledge<br />Audio/Video tapes<br />Self checklists<br />Lists of books read<br />List of accomplishments<br />Journals and self reflections<br />Individual student progress graphs<br />Samples of home learning<br />Copies of passages read fluently<br />Self checklists<br />
  51. 51. Assessment portfolios <br />Can be use as evidence of students performance and as well as a form of organization of different subjects in order to keep track of students progress.<br />Grading can be use in a form of rubrics or scoring guides.<br />
  52. 52. Types of rubrics<br />Analytic rubrics break an activity into pieces<br /> holistic rubrics uses pieces that are together. However it takes a long period of time to set. never less it helps parents to keep an eye in their students progress. <br />