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Critical thinking skills in developing leadership, Shahid Hussain Mir, Pakistan

Critical thinking & Leadrship at EFL classes

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Critical thinking skills in developing leadership, Shahid Hussain Mir, Pakistan

  3. 3. Why Is Critical Thinking Important?  . . . it underlies the basic elements of communication  . . . it plays an important part in social change. . .  . . . it is a path to freedom from half- truths and deceptions Critical thinking helps us develop: • Intellectual Humility • Intellectual Autonomy • Intellectual Integrity • Intellectual Courage • Intellectual Perseverance • Confidence in Reason • Intellectual Empathy • Fair-mindedness
  4. 4. ©2007 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press ELEMENTS OF THOUGHT
  5. 5. What IS Thinking Critically and Creatively ???? © 2010 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
  6. 6. What is Critical Thinking  Expanded Contemporary Emphasis Reasoning EvaluateArgumentsandConclusions Communication Creativity ProblemSolving EvaluateIdeasandPlans Life-LongLearningSkills EvaluateOne'sUnderstanding
  7. 7. What Is Critical Thinking? p. 107 Chapter Exercise p. 105+
  8. 8. CRITICAL THINKING “‘Knowledge is power.’ Rather, knowledge is happiness. To have knowledge, deep broad knowledge, is to know truth from false and lofty things from low.” Helen Keller, American author, activist, and lecturer • Critical Thinking is evaluating ideas. • Creative Thinking is producing new ideas.
  9. 9. Critical Thinking: What is involved?  Question: what is being asked?  Purpose: why do I want the answer?  Point of View: where do I stand to look at the question?  Information: what data do I have?  Concepts: what ideas are involved?  Assumptions: what am I taking for granted?  Inferences: what conclusions am I drawing?  Consequences: what are the implications of my question?
  10. 10. Uncritical Thinkers o Pretend to know more than they do. o Get annoyed by problems. o Are impatient. o Judge on first impressions and intuition. o Focus on their own opinions. o Look only for ideas like their own. o Are guided by feelings rather than thoughts. o Claim that thinking gives them a headache. Don’t think about it, just sign it!
  11. 11. Reasoning in Critical Thinking I. Reasoning: Induction vs. Deduction Inductive arguments go from specific observations to general conclusions Deductive arguments go from broad generalizations to specific conclusions
  12. 12. I. Reasoning : Relevance and Adequacy Two things are required to judge the soundness of an argument: Relevance Adequacy Look at an example: “I don’t see why all students have to take an introductory writing course. It’s a free country. Students shouldn’t have to take courses they don’t want to take.” Is the statement “It’s a free country relevant? What does living in a free country have to do with courses that community college students are required to take? Nothing. Now look at this example: “Everyone taking Math 100 failed the test last Friday. I took the test last Friday. Therefore, I will probably get an F in the course.” How many tests are left in the course? What other assignments figure into students’ grades? The information present may not be adequate to predict an F in the course.
  13. 13. I. Reasoning: Analyzing Arguments “The aim of argument, or of discussion, should not be victory, but progress.” Joseph Joubert, French moralist Sound or Unsound? Is it Relevant? Is it Adequate? Is it Logical?
  14. 14. How to Develop Leadership in ESL/EFL Class through problem solving activities ?
  15. 15. CAN YOU THINK OF A SOLUTION ? If You ( a group) are/ is stuck in a room and door is locked and there is no one to get you out then how will you think out of the box for the solution of the problem?
  16. 16. I. Problem Solving: How-To’s STEP 1: Define the problem. STEP 2: Brainstorm possible options. STEP 3: Devise criteria to evaluate each option. STEP 4: Evaluate each option you’ve proposed. STEP 5: Choose the best solution. STEP 6: Plan how to achieve the best solution. STEP 7: Implement the solution and evaluate results.
  17. 17. II. Decision Making: What’s Your Style? Directive Behavioral Analytical Conceptual
  18. 18. Four Common Decision Making Problems Snap decisions  Don’t jump to conclusions! Narrow thinking  Broaden your vistas! Sprawling thinking  Don’t beat around the bush! Fuzzy thinking  Keep it sharp! Keep it relevant!
  19. 19. III.Becoming a Better Leader 1. Admit when you don’t know. 2. Realize you have buttons that can be pushed. 3. Learn more about the opposition. 4. Trust and verify. 5. Remember that critical thinking is the foundation of all achievement. 6. Think-consult-decide (TCD)© 2010 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
  20. 20. ESL STUDENTS ARE CRITICAL THINKERS IF:  Acknowledge personal limitations.  See problems as exciting challenges.  Have understanding as a goal.  Use evidence to make judgments.  Are interested in others’ ideas.  Are skeptical of extreme views.  Think before acting.  Avoid emotionalism  Keep an open mind
  21. 21. GOOD LEADERS:  Don’t accept other people’s blueprints.  Be vigilant about what others can’t see.  Differentiate the good from the bad.  Take the plunge before They're an expert.  Concentrate on the big picture.  Take sensible risks.  Motivate THEMSELF from inside.  Shape environments that will support THEIR creativity.  Actively pursue THEIR creative life.
  22. 22. Operational Procedures of Critical Thinking - 1  Identifying key definitions  Identifying ambiguity  Identifying variables  Formulating questions  Defining issue or problem  Classifying information  Sequencing information  Recognizing patterns  Determining credibility  Distinguishing fact from opinion  Identifying assumptions  Identifying values  Noting missing evidence  Identifying relationships  Comparing & contrasting  Cause and effect  Summarizing information  Using analogies
  23. 23. Operational Procedures of Critical Thinking - 2  Predicting trends from data  Predicting outcomes based upon evidence  Translating between verbal and symbolic  Identifying conclusions  Identifying errors in reasoning such as:  Logical fallacies  Errors in statistical reasoning  Alternative conclusions that satisfy evidence
  24. 24. Developing Discussion Questions to Promote Critical Thinking  a) “What are the implications of ___?”  (b) “Why is ___ important?”  (c) “What is another way to look at ___?”  Questions that ask students to reflect on their own thinking processes and to identify what particular form of critical thinking they are using – metacognition  (Joe Cuseo, Questions that Promote Deeper Thinking, Oncoursenewsetter)
  25. 25. Teaching Strategies that Promote Critical Thinking  According to Gregor Novak, Professor Emeritus at IUPUI, who spearheaded the development of JiTT and is now co-director of the JiTTDL (digital library) project, the heart of the JiTT approach is the “feedback loop” formed by the students’ preparation outside of class that affects what happens during the subsequent in-class session.
  26. 26. JiTT Fosters Class Discussions
  27. 27. OTHER RECOMMENDED TECHNIQUES  ROLE PLAY : Assign Famous Leaders Role To Students  DEBATE: Ask the students to do a debate on any topic in the classroom.  GAMES: Make the ESL/EFL students play games like word building , puzzle etc. It will help them in developing critical thinking.
  29. 29. . Reflect on yourself: Who are you? What do you stand for? How do you want to influence others? Formulate a concrete vision of yourself and start living your life as the leader who makes your vision a reality. and your knowledge. Take the time to continue your path of excellence.
  30. 30.  2. Understand your base: Find out what people think about your style of leadership. This could be a real eye opener, and the key to making changes to the way you influence others. Conduct a 360° evaluation of yourself from your peers, supervisors and friends.  3. Trust and Empower: An integral part of becoming a great leader is to gain creative followers, and this includes learning to respect your team’s capabilities by delegating tasks. Leaders know that nobody does their best if they feel weak, incompetent or alienated; they know that those who are expected to produce the results must feel a sense of ownership.
  31. 31.  4. VENTURE OUT: Leaders don’t sit idly by waiting for fate to smile upon them. They seek and accept challenges. Leaders are pioneers who are willing to step out into the unknown. They are willing to take risks, innovate, and experiment to find new and better ways of doing things.  5. LEAD BY EXAMPLE: Take the opportunity to learn about your followers and expand on where they want to go with their career. Take time to mentor others and demonstrate effective business ethics.  6. SET DEFINITIVE GOALS: Know where your destination is and then map out a plan to get there. To improve your leadership skills, first set specific life goals with realistic timelines. Develop action plans that will provide direction toward your goals.
  32. 32.  9. Be willing to admit failures and weaknesses: No one is perfect. Great leaders surround themselves with people that will fill in their own weaknesses. The most successful leaders know that the key to success is not avoiding failure, but learning from their mistakes.  10. BECOME A LIFELONG LEARNER: Great leaders continue to improve themselves in every possible way. Life is filled with opportunities to learn and exp

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Critical thinking & Leadrship at EFL classes


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