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Writing Performance Objectives Based on Blooms Taxonomy 5th aug 2010 [autosaved]

This PPT was prepared for Irushadhiyya School Teachers Professional Dvelopment on Writing Performance Objectives.

The Session was facilitated by Mohamed Nasir & Junaina Ismail.

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Writing Performance Objectives Based on Blooms Taxonomy 5th aug 2010 [autosaved]

  1. 1. StatingStating Performance ObjectivesPerformance Objectives && Bloom’s TaxonomyBloom’s Taxonomy Mohamed Nasir & Junaina IsmailMohamed Nasir & Junaina Ismail Irushadhiyya SchoolIrushadhiyya School
  2. 2. School Based Professional DevelopmentSchool Based Professional Development 5th August5th August 20102010 08:00 – 16:0008:00 – 16:00 22
  3. 3. StatingStating Performance ObjectivesPerformance Objectives && Bloom’s TaxonomyBloom’s Taxonomy Mohamed Nasir & Junaina IsmailMohamed Nasir & Junaina Ismail Irushadhiyya SchoolIrushadhiyya School
  4. 4. A Fundamental TruthA Fundamental Truth We don’t see theWe don’t see the world as it is; weworld as it is; we see the worldsee the world through the lensthrough the lens through which wethrough which we look at it.look at it.
  5. 5. Objectives of the SessionObjectives of the Session • Participants will e able to writeParticipants will e able to write performance objectivesperformance objectives incorporating the 3 elementsincorporating the 3 elements of an effective performanceof an effective performance objective.objective. • Participants will be able toParticipants will be able to utilize Bloom’s Taxonomy ofutilize Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Behaviours to raiseCognitive Behaviours to raise performance objectives toperformance objectives to higher levels of learning.higher levels of learning.
  6. 6. The following books and other materialsThe following books and other materials are used as a basis for thisare used as a basis for this presentationpresentation.. Psychology of Teaching and Learning By Martinez-Pons. M
  7. 7. The following books and other materialsThe following books and other materials are used as a basis for thisare used as a basis for this presentationpresentation.. Teaching Strategies A Guide to Effective Instruction By Orlich Harder Callahan Trevisan
  8. 8. The following books and other materialsThe following books and other materials are used as a basis for thisare used as a basis for this presentationpresentation.. Guidelines for Writing Learning Objectives By AAFP
  9. 9. The following books and other materialsThe following books and other materials are used as a basis for thisare used as a basis for this presentationpresentation.. http://www.idaho-post.org/ Reg2/Attachments/ID%20workbook.pdf
  10. 10. The following books and other materialsThe following books and other materials are used as a basis for thisare used as a basis for this presentationpresentation.. http://www.adprima.com/objectives.htm http://med.fsu.edu/education/facultydevelopment/objectives. asp
  11. 11. The following books and other materialsThe following books and other materials are used as a basis for thisare used as a basis for this presentationpresentation.. http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/ edPsybook/Edpsy3/edpsy3_bloom.htm http://www.you-can-teach- writing.com/writing-objectives.html
  12. 12. What is performance objective?What is performance objective? A performance objective is a detailedA performance objective is a detailed description of what students will be able todescription of what students will be able to do when they complete a unit ofdo when they complete a unit of instructioninstruction.. (Dick and Carey , 1978)(Dick and Carey , 1978)
  13. 13. What is performance objective?What is performance objective? A collection of words and/ or pictures andA collection of words and/ or pictures and diagrams intended to let others know whatdiagrams intended to let others know what you intend for your students to achieve”you intend for your students to achieve” (Mager, 1999, p. 3)(Mager, 1999, p. 3) Behavioural objective Explicit instructional objectives
  14. 14. Purposes of objectivesPurposes of objectives • By knowing where you intoned to go, youBy knowing where you intoned to go, you increase the chances of you and the learnerincrease the chances of you and the learner ending up there.ending up there. • Guides the teacher relative to the planning ofGuides the teacher relative to the planning of instruction and evaluation of studentinstruction and evaluation of student achievementachievement • Guides the learner, helps him/her focus and setGuides the learner, helps him/her focus and set prioritiespriorities • Allows for analysing in terms of the levels ofAllows for analysing in terms of the levels of teaching and learning.teaching and learning.
  15. 15. Purposes of objectivesPurposes of objectives • Guide the learner relative to self-assessment.Guide the learner relative to self-assessment. • Basis for analysing the level of cognitiveBasis for analysing the level of cognitive thinking we are expecting from the learner.thinking we are expecting from the learner. • Makes teaching more focused andMakes teaching more focused and organized.organized. • Provides models so that students can writeProvides models so that students can write their own objectives and thus helps developtheir own objectives and thus helps develop important life long learning skills, ‘ the settingimportant life long learning skills, ‘ the setting of objective’.of objective’.
  16. 16. Formulation of Aims, Goals &Formulation of Aims, Goals & ObjectivesObjectives Aims Goals Subject Specific Course goals Learning Objectives Performance Objective National Reports, Guide Books, Government Circulars MoE Documents/ Circulars Curriculum Guides, Teacher Yearly, Term & Unit Plans Teacher Unit and Weekly Plan Teacher Daily Lesson Plans
  17. 17. What is …What is … Aim?Aim? Goal?Goal?
  18. 18. Formulation of Aims and GoalsFormulation of Aims and Goals Aim: Broader statements about intent of education. Goals: Statements that will describe what schools are expected to accomplish – more specific than aims but do not specify the achievement levels.
  19. 19. Formulation of Aims and GoalsFormulation of Aims and Goals RealityReality AimAim is a target. Something to which you aspire,is a target. Something to which you aspire, or something you aim to achieve.or something you aim to achieve. ObjectiveObjective is something that you can achieve.is something that you can achieve.
  20. 20. Formulation of Aims and GoalsFormulation of Aims and Goals My aim isMy aim is To lose weight.To lose weight. My Objective isMy Objective is To lose 200g a week.To lose 200g a week. ..
  21. 21. Formulation of Aims and GoalsFormulation of Aims and Goals Aim: Desires (things you would like toAim: Desires (things you would like to achieve)achieve) Goals: Milestones that you can achieve andGoals: Milestones that you can achieve and tick a box ontick a box on Objectives: Methods to achieve the goal.Objectives: Methods to achieve the goal.
  22. 22. Stating Performance ObjectivesStating Performance Objectives A Performance Objective does notA Performance Objective does not describe what the instructor will bedescribe what the instructor will be doing, but instead the skills,doing, but instead the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that theknowledge, and attitudes that the instructor will be attempting toinstructor will be attempting to produce in learners.produce in learners.
  23. 23. The 3-main componentsThe 3-main components of a performance.of a performance. ? ? ?? ? ?
  24. 24. The 3-main components of aThe 3-main components of a performanceperformance 1.1. AN ACTION OR PERFORMANCEAN ACTION OR PERFORMANCE STATEMENTSTATEMENT -- that the teacher expectsthat the teacher expects the students to perform. It should bethe students to perform. It should be measurable and observable.measurable and observable. Example:Example: write an essay describing the process ofwrite an essay describing the process of election of members of the parliamentelection of members of the parliament
  25. 25. The 3-main components of aThe 3-main components of a performanceperformance • Conditions statementConditions statement – the condition– the condition under which the action occurs. It alsounder which the action occurs. It also includes a description of what will beincludes a description of what will be available to learners when they performavailable to learners when they perform the desired behavior.the desired behavior. Example:Example: using information found in the textbookusing information found in the textbook
  26. 26. The 3-main components of aThe 3-main components of a performanceperformance • Criterion statementCriterion statement – identifies criteria– identifies criteria or level of performance expected of theor level of performance expected of the student. Only important criteria should bestudent. Only important criteria should be imposed.imposed. Example:Example: all major steps central to the election processall major steps central to the election process listed in the text must be presentlisted in the text must be present
  27. 27. The 3-main components of aThe 3-main components of a performanceperformance Let’s place all those parts together!Let’s place all those parts together! The students will be able to write an essayThe students will be able to write an essay describing the process of selection ofdescribing the process of selection of members of the parliamentmembers of the parliament (ACTION),(ACTION), incorporating the five major steps centralincorporating the five major steps central to the election processto the election process (CRITERION)(CRITERION) listed in the booklisted in the book (CONDITION).(CONDITION).
  28. 28. The 3-main components of aThe 3-main components of a performanceperformance Example 2Example 2 After practicing during class in small groupsAfter practicing during class in small groups (CONDITION)(CONDITION) , the students will underline, the students will underline the key information needed to solve eachthe key information needed to solve each of 10 word problemsof 10 word problems (ACTION)(ACTION) with 80%with 80% accuracyaccuracy (CRITERION).(CRITERION).
  29. 29. The 3-main components of aThe 3-main components of a performanceperformance Let’s apart the components of this performance objective.Let’s apart the components of this performance objective. Students willStudents will tell the timetell the time representedrepresented on an analog clock to theon an analog clock to the nearest minute.nearest minute. Action Condition Criteria tell the time analog clock tell the time
  30. 30. The 3-main components of aThe 3-main components of a performanceperformance ConditionCondition PerformancePerformance Criterion measureCriterion measure With the use of a protector,With the use of a protector, that meets a 3, 4, 5 ratio.that meets a 3, 4, 5 ratio. the students will construct athe students will construct a right triangleright triangle
  31. 31. Sample ConditionalSample Conditional StatementsStatements •““From memory….”From memory….” •““Using a map, a compass, a ruler, and aUsing a map, a compass, a ruler, and a protector, ….”protector, ….” •““On a computer disk, which describes ….’On a computer disk, which describes ….’ •““Given six different material samples with labels,Given six different material samples with labels, …”…” •““From notes taken while viewing ……”From notes taken while viewing ……” •““Within a ten-minute time span and fromWithin a ten-minute time span and from memory….”memory….”
  32. 32. Sample Criterion StatementsSample Criterion Statements •“……70 percent of a given list of problems”70 percent of a given list of problems” •“…“…... nine out of the ten elements …….”... nine out of the ten elements …….” •“……“…… within 5 minutes with no more than two errorswithin 5 minutes with no more than two errors of any kind”of any kind” •“…“…... without any grammatical or spelling errors”... without any grammatical or spelling errors”
  33. 33. Magic TriangleMagic Triangle Learning ActivitiesLearning Activities What does this What does this triangle triangle represent? represent?ObjectivesObjectives EvaluationEvaluation
  34. 34. Magic TriangleMagic Triangle Objective > Learning Activities>EvaluationObjective > Learning Activities>Evaluation If they areIf they are not congruentnot congruent studentsstudents become discouraged and unhappy.become discouraged and unhappy.
  35. 35. ReflectReflect How do teachers select a particularHow do teachers select a particular performance?performance?
  36. 36. Teachers must analyse:Teachers must analyse: • the skills or knowledge thethe skills or knowledge the teachers hope students will retainteachers hope students will retain for future use in school or workfor future use in school or work environmentsenvironments Then what?Then what?
  37. 37. TheThe teacherteacher identifies an action verb.identifies an action verb. Upon completion of the class theUpon completion of the class the learner should be able tolearner should be able to repair a dripping tap.repair a dripping tap.
  38. 38. Words open to manyWords open to many interpretationsinterpretations • To knowTo know • To understandTo understand • To appreciateTo appreciate • To enjoyTo enjoy • To believeTo believe
  39. 39. Words open to limitedWords open to limited interpretations are desiredinterpretations are desired To writeTo write To identifyTo identify To differentiateTo differentiate To contrastTo contrast To list 
  40. 40. Teachers must analyse:Teachers must analyse: • The goals of the courseThe goals of the course • The content and materialsThe content and materials available for teachingavailable for teaching
  41. 41. What is an acceptable performanceWhat is an acceptable performance objective?objective? When u finish writing an objective, stop toWhen u finish writing an objective, stop to look at it and ask yourselflook at it and ask yourself whywhy you wantyou want students to be able to do what you havestudents to be able to do what you have described in the objective. If the answer is,described in the objective. If the answer is, ‘because that is one of the things they need‘because that is one of the things they need to be able to do when they leave hereto be able to do when they leave here today.’ then the objective is probablytoday.’ then the objective is probably acceptable.acceptable.
  42. 42. Group work:Group work:
  43. 43. Group work:Group work:
  44. 44. Group work:Group work:
  45. 45. Group work:Group work: Working in groups the participants willWorking in groups the participants will identify the main points in the textidentify the main points in the text provided.provided. • After identifying the main points in theAfter identifying the main points in the given text about stating objectives, thegiven text about stating objectives, the participants will write 3 performanceparticipants will write 3 performance objectives correctly.objectives correctly.
  46. 46. To prepare a useful, well-writtenTo prepare a useful, well-written objective, make sure these questionsobjective, make sure these questions are answered:are answered: 1.1.What do I want students to be ableWhat do I want students to be able to do?to do? 2.2.What are the important conditionsWhat are the important conditions or constraints under which I wantor constraints under which I want them to perform?them to perform? 3.3.3. How well must students perform3. How well must students perform for me to be satisfied?for me to be satisfied?
  47. 47. Teachers are powerfulTeachers are powerful people and keepers ofpeople and keepers of the future. Help yourthe future. Help your students dream big!students dream big! Learning DomainLearning Domain
  48. 48. Learning DomainLearning Domain This world isThis world is but a canvasbut a canvas for ourfor our imaginations.imaginations. (Henry David Thoreau)
  49. 49. A committee of colleagues, led byA committee of colleagues, led by Benjamin Bloom (1956), identifiedBenjamin Bloom (1956), identified three domains of educationalthree domains of educational activities.activities.  Cognitive :Cognitive : mental skills (knowledge)mental skills (knowledge)  Affective:Affective: growth in feelings or emotionalgrowth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude)areas (Attitude)  Psychomotor:Psychomotor: manual or physical skillsmanual or physical skills (Skills)(Skills)
  50. 50. LearningLearning DomainsDomains
  51. 51. So what?
  52. 52. It is important that teachersIt is important that teachers carefullycarefully considerconsider the performance objectivesthe performance objectives when preparing lesson plans.when preparing lesson plans. Because the objectives will dictateBecause the objectives will dictate the nature of the content to bethe nature of the content to be taught.taught.
  53. 53. In a complex world thatIn a complex world that demands complexdemands complex decisions and thinking,decisions and thinking, it is important that weit is important that we challenge our studentschallenge our students with higher-levelwith higher-level learning objectives,learning objectives, questions andquestions and assessment.assessment. (Raymond, 2004)(Raymond, 2004)
  54. 54. Many criterion-Many criterion- referenced tests nowreferenced tests now include ainclude a preponderant amountpreponderant amount of higher-levelof higher-level questions andquestions and problems for students.problems for students.
  55. 55. Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge The Original “Bloom’s TaxonomyThe Original “Bloom’s TaxonomyThe Original Bloom’s Taxonomy 1956
  56. 56. Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge The Original Bloom’s Taxonomy 1956 Group Work
  57. 57. Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy (1956) 1.1. KnowledgeKnowledge:: Remembering or retrievingRemembering or retrieving previously learned material. Examples of verbspreviously learned material. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:  that relate to this function are:   knowknow identifyidentify relaterelate listlist definedefine memorizememorize recordrecord namename recognizerecognize acquireacquire recallrecall repeatrepeat
  58. 58. Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy (1956) 1. Knowledge:Knowledge: (recall data or information)(recall data or information) •The student will be able to identify the capitals of each atoll.The student will be able to identify the capitals of each atoll. •The students will be able to write the formula for sulphuricThe students will be able to write the formula for sulphuric acid.acid. •The students will be able to list the principal parts of a speech.The students will be able to list the principal parts of a speech. •The students will be able to state quadratic formula.The students will be able to state quadratic formula.
  59. 59. Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy (1956) 2. Comprehension: The ability to grasp or construct meaning from material. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:   restaterestate locatelocate reportreport recognizerecognize explainexplain expressexpress identifyidentify discussdiscuss describedescribe reviewreview inferinfer concludeconclude illustrateillustrate interpretinterpret differentiatedifferentiate concludeconclude
  60. 60. Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy (1956) Comprehension: (understand the meaning,(understand the meaning, translation, interpolation. State a problem intranslation, interpolation. State a problem in one’s own words)one’s own words) •The student will be able to identify transitive verbs.The student will be able to identify transitive verbs. •The students will be able to describe photosynthesis in his ownThe students will be able to describe photosynthesis in his own words.words. •The student will be able to interpret the symbols on a weatherThe student will be able to interpret the symbols on a weather map.map. •The students will be able to interpret the quadratic formula.The students will be able to interpret the quadratic formula.
  61. 61. Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy (1956) 3. Application: The ability to use learned material, or to implement material in new and concrete situations. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are: apply relate develop translate  use  operate Practice Exhibit organize employ restructure interpret demonstrate illustrate calculate dramatize
  62. 62. Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy (1956) 3. Application: (Use a concept in a new situationUse a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. Appliesor unprompted use of an abstraction. Applies what was learned in the classroom into a novelwhat was learned in the classroom into a novel situations)situations) • The student will be able to compute miles per gallonThe student will be able to compute miles per gallon for an auto trip.for an auto trip. • The student will be able to predict the effects ofThe student will be able to predict the effects of combining paint colours.combining paint colours. • The student will be able to apply the formula toThe student will be able to apply the formula to determine the area of a triangle.determine the area of a triangle. • The student will be able to use the quadratic formulaThe student will be able to use the quadratic formula
  63. 63. Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy (1956) 4. Analysis: The ability to break down orThe ability to break down or distinguish the parts of material into itsdistinguish the parts of material into its components so that its organizational structurecomponents so that its organizational structure may be better understood. Examples of verbs thatmay be better understood. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:  relate to this function are:   analyzeanalyze comparecompare probeprobe inquireinquire examineexamine contrastcontrast SurveySurvey classifyclassify categorizecategorize differentiatedifferentiate contrastcontrast investigateinvestigate detectdetect experimentexperiment scrutinizescrutinize DiscoverDiscover inspectinspect
  64. 64. Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy (1956) 4. Analysis: • The student will be able to identify bias in a newsThe student will be able to identify bias in a news story.story. • The student will be able to identify relevant data in aThe student will be able to identify relevant data in a report on consumer product.report on consumer product. • The student will be able to point out the effects ofThe student will be able to point out the effects of public opinion in the election of political candidates.public opinion in the election of political candidates. • The student will be able to explain why theThe student will be able to explain why the quadratic formula may give imaginary answersquadratic formula may give imaginary answers
  65. 65. Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy (1956) 5. Synthesis5. Synthesis:: The ability to put partsThe ability to put parts together to form a coherent or unique newtogether to form a coherent or unique new whole. Examples of verbs that relate to thiswhole. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:  function are:   composecompose produceproduce designdesign assembleassemble createcreate prepareprepare predictpredict modifymodify planplan inventinvent formulateformulate collectcollect set upset up generalizegeneralize documentdocument CombineCombine RelateRelate ProposePropose arrangearrange
  66. 66. Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy (1956) 5. Synthesis: • The student will be able to plan for a completing a class project. • The student will be able to write an acceptable term paper. • The student will be able to design an experiment for testing a hypothesis. • The student will be able to graph a quadratic equation. • The students will be able to write a company operations or process manual.
  67. 67. Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy (1956) 6. Evaluation:Evaluation: The ability to judge, check,The ability to judge, check, and even critique the value of material for aand even critique the value of material for a given purpose. Examples of verbs thatgiven purpose. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:  relate to this function are:   judgejudge assessassess comparecompare evaluateevaluate concludeconclude measuremeasure deducededuce argueargue decidedecide choosechoose SelectSelect estimateestimate ValidateValidate considerconsider appraiseappraise ValueValue criticizecriticize inferinfer
  68. 68. Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy (1956) 6. Evaluation: • The student will be able to determine which writing project meets the stated criteria. • The student will be able to discriminate which conclusions are supported by evidence. • The student will be able to appraise fallacies in an argument. • The student will be able to explain the relationship between the graph and the results of the quadratic equation.
  69. 69. The RevisionThe Revision  Began in November 1996Began in November 1996  Led by David KrathwohlLed by David Krathwohl  Involved cognitive psychologists, curriculumInvolved cognitive psychologists, curriculum theorists, teacher educators, and measurementtheorists, teacher educators, and measurement and assessment specialists.and assessment specialists.  Group met twice a year for four years.Group met twice a year for four years.  Draft completed in 2000; text published in 2001.Draft completed in 2000; text published in 2001.  Two books – soft cover for teachers and otherTwo books – soft cover for teachers and other “practitioners” and hard cover for academicians.“practitioners” and hard cover for academicians.
  70. 70. The RevisionThe Revision
  71. 71. The mind is not a vessel to beThe mind is not a vessel to be filled, but a fire to be ignited.filled, but a fire to be ignited. (Plutarch)(Plutarch)
  72. 72. Bloom’s Taxonomy and higher-orderBloom’s Taxonomy and higher-order thinkingthinking Take a walk down memory laneTake a walk down memory lane Investigate the RevisedInvestigate the Revised TaxonomyTaxonomy - New terms- New terms - New emphasis- New emphasis Explore each of the six levelsExplore each of the six levels See how questioning plays anSee how questioning plays an important role within the framework (oralimportant role within the framework (oral language)language) OverviewOverview
  73. 73. Bloom Revised BloomBloom Revised Bloom • Remember • Apply • Understand • Analyze • Evaluate • Create• Evaluation • Analysis • Synthesis • Application • Comprehension • Knowledge
  74. 74. The SUBJECT is the Learner orThe SUBJECT is the Learner or the Student.the Student. The student (will)The student (will) The student (should)The student (should) The students (might)The students (might) Quite often, the subject is implicit or understood.
  75. 75. Cognitive ProcessesCognitive Processes  RememberRemember  UnderstandUnderstand  RecognizingRecognizing  RecallingRecalling  InterpretingInterpreting  ExemplifyingExemplifying  ClassifyingClassifying  SummarizingSummarizing  InferringInferring  ComparingComparing  ExplainingExplaining
  76. 76. Cognitive ProcessesCognitive Processes (continued)(continued)  ApplyApply  AnalyzeAnalyze  EvaluateEvaluate  CreateCreate  ExecutingExecuting  ImplementingImplementing  DifferentiatingDifferentiating  OrganizingOrganizing  AttributingAttributing  CheckingChecking  CritiquingCritiquing  GeneratingGenerating  PlanningPlanning  ProducingProducing
  77. 77. Four Types of KnowledgeFour Types of Knowledge  Factual KnowledgeFactual Knowledge  Conceptual KnowledgeConceptual Knowledge  Procedural KnowledgeProcedural Knowledge  Metacognitive KnowledgeMetacognitive Knowledge
  78. 78. Why is Alignment Important?Why is Alignment Important?  Increases validity of assessmentIncreases validity of assessment  Increases students’ opportunity toIncreases students’ opportunity to learnlearn  Provides more accurate estimatesProvides more accurate estimates of teaching effectivenessof teaching effectiveness  Permits better instructionalPermits better instructional decisions to be madedecisions to be made
  79. 79. ALIGNMENT USING THE TAXONOMY TABLE Objectives Assessments Instructional Activities RememberRemember UnderstandUnderstand ApplyApply AnalyzeAnalyze EvaluateEvaluate CreateCreate FactualFactual ConceptualConceptual ProceduralProcedural Meta-Meta- CognitiveCognitive
  80. 80. 1. Focus students’ attention on important facts and terms, using, among other things, study guides, colors, and verbal markers. 2. Structure the information to be remembered (e.g., outlines, diagrams, pictures). 3. Use repetition, incorporating songs and rhythmic activities (e.g., clapping, chanting, cheering). 4. Use mnemonic devices & acronyms; teach memory strategies (e.g., rehearsal, elaboration, making connections with familiar places and things). 5. Use distributed practice. Teaching Students to "Remember Factual Knowledge"
  81. 81. Teaching Students to "Understand Conceptual Knowledge“ 1. Emphasize defining features or key characteristics; ask "what makes X, X?" 2. Give examples, non-examples, and “near” examples. 3. Teach concepts in relation to one another; show connections and relationships using visual representations and graphic organizers. 4. Use metaphors and similes. 5. Use “hands-on” activities and manipulatives; build models.
  82. 82. What happened after...?What happened after...? How many...?How many...? What is...?What is...? Who was it that...?Who was it that...? Can you name ...?Can you name ...? Find the meaning of…Find the meaning of… Describe what happened after…Describe what happened after… Who spoke to...?Who spoke to...? Questions for Remembering
  83. 83. Can you write in your own words?Can you write in your own words? How would you explain…?How would you explain…? Can you write a brief outline...?Can you write a brief outline...? What do you think could have happened next...?What do you think could have happened next...? Who do you think...?Who do you think...? What was the main idea...?What was the main idea...? Can you clarify…?Can you clarify…? Can you illustrate…?Can you illustrate…? Questions for Understanding
  84. 84. Can you group by characteristics such as…?Can you group by characteristics such as…? Do you know of another instance where…?Do you know of another instance where…? Can you write a brief outline...?Can you write a brief outline...? Which factors would you change if…?Which factors would you change if…? What questions would you ask of…?What questions would you ask of…? From the information given, can you develop a set ofFrom the information given, can you develop a set of instructions about…?instructions about…? Questions for Applying
  85. 85. Which events could not have happened?Which events could not have happened? If. ..happened, what might the ending have been?If. ..happened, what might the ending have been? How is...similar to...?How is...similar to...? What do you see as other possible outcomes?What do you see as other possible outcomes? Why did...changes occur?Why did...changes occur? Can you distinguish between...?Can you distinguish between...? What were some of the motives behind..?What were some of the motives behind..? What was the turning point?What was the turning point? Can you explain what must have happened when...?Can you explain what must have happened when...? What was the problem with...?What was the problem with...? Questions for Applying
  86. 86. Is there a better solution to...?Is there a better solution to...? Judge the value of... What do you think about...?Judge the value of... What do you think about...? Can you defend your position about...?Can you defend your position about...? Do you think...is a good or bad thing?Do you think...is a good or bad thing? How would you have handled...?How would you have handled...? What changes to.. would you recommend?What changes to.. would you recommend? Do you believe...? How would you feel if. ..?Do you believe...? How would you feel if. ..? How effective are. ..?How effective are. ..? What are the consequences..?What are the consequences..? What influence will....have on our lives?What influence will....have on our lives? Questions for Evaluating
  87. 87. Can you design a...to...?Can you design a...to...? Can you see a possible solution to...?Can you see a possible solution to...? If you had access to all resources, how wouldIf you had access to all resources, how would you deal with...?you deal with...? Why don't you devise your own way to...?Why don't you devise your own way to...? What would happen if ...?What would happen if ...? How many ways can you...?How many ways can you...? Can you create new and unusual uses for...?Can you create new and unusual uses for...? Can you develop a proposal which would...?Can you develop a proposal which would...? Questions for Creating
  88. 88. Lunch BreakLunch Break 1 hr1 hr
  89. 89. He who learns but does not think is lost (Chinese Proverb)
  90. 90. Thank youThank you ‫ރ‬‫ރ‬ ‫ރ‬‫ރ‬ ‫ރ‬‫ރ‬
  91. 91. The End A Special thanks to The Lab Assistant & other Support Staff for arranging the room for the session.

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