embedded systems and robotics on avr platform

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embedded systems and robotics on avr platform

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embedded systems and robotics on avr platform

  1. 1. EMBEDDED SYSTEMS & ROBOTICS (on AVR platform) -neha sharma
  2. 2. CONTENTS 1. Company overview 2. Embedded Systems & types 3. Applications 4. Microcontroller 5. Pin diagram & Features of ATmega 16 6. CVAVR 7. I/O function registers 8. LCD interfacing 9. SPI 10. Robotics (laws) 11. Autonomous robots 12. how robot moves? 13. sensors
  3. 3. COMPANY OVERVIEW • • • • • The Hewlett-Packard Company or HP is an American multinational IT company, headquartered at US, founded by will Hewlett and Dave Packard in 1947. HP is the world’s leading PC manufacturing company since 2007. It specializes in developing and manufacturing computing, data storage, and networking hardware, designing software and delivering services. In 2012 it was the world's largest PC vendors by unit sale. Merges with COMPAQ in 2002. Majority of its products includes PC, laptops, printers, scanners, digital cameras, servers, PDA.
  4. 4. WHAT ARE EMBEDDED SYSTEMS? •An Embedded system is a Software program on a H/W chip designed for a specific purpose and can also contain some mechanical moving parts. • An embedded system is a microprocessor or microcontroller based electronic device used for specific task.
  5. 5. TYPES OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS 1. Real time embedded system (a) Soft real time embedded system (b) Hard real time embedded system 2. Non real time embedded system
  6. 6. APPLICATIONS • Pen drives • Hard disk • Mouse • Calculators • Cell phones • Security system • Alarm system • Digital camera • Printers • Environment monitoring systems…
  7. 7. microcontroller • It is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. • It is designed for embedded systems.
  8. 8. Pin diagram of ATmega16
  9. 9. Features of ATMEGA 16 • • • • • • • • • • • • It is a 40 pin IC. Advanced RISC Architecture 16 MHz clock frequency 16K Bytes of In‐System Self‐Programmable Flash 512 Bytes EEPROM 1K Byte Internal SRAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines 3 channel interrupts 8‐channel, 10‐bit ADC Two 8‐bit Timer/Counters One 16‐bit Timer/Counter 4 channels for USART ,master/slave SPI.
  10. 10. PROGRAMMING KIT PROGRAMMER
  11. 11. Code Vision AVR (CVAVR) • CVAVR is an IDE (integrated development program). • An IDE is a software having functions like Preprocessing, Compilation, Assembly, Linking Object Translation, Text Editor etc. • It has limitation of code size. • It works on computers with Windows platform that is Windows XP & Vista.
  12. 12. CVAVR
  13. 13. Atmega 16
  14. 14. I/O functions Registers Input Output functions are set by Three Registers for each PORT. •DDRX ‐‐‐‐> Sets whether a port is Input or Output of PORTX. • PORTX ‐‐‐> Sets the Output Value of PORTX. For ex. PORTA=255 ( all pins work of port A as output) for LED & LCD. • PINX ‐‐‐‐‐> Reads the Value of PORTX for ex. PINA.0=0 (0th pin of port A working as input ) for switches
  15. 15. LCD interfacing • We have used 16x2 alphanumeric LCD, have their own embedded system in them. • lcd_clear()  clears screen • lcd_gotoxy(x,y)  position • lcd_putchar(char c)  display single character. • lcd_putsf(string) whole string • lcd_puts(char arr)  for array • itoa(int val, char arr[]) • ftoa(float val, char decimal_places, char arr[])
  16. 16. Selecting LCD in CVAVR
  17. 17. SPI (serial peripheral interface) It is a communication protocol, used between two or more microcontroller and devices supporting SPI mode data transfer. 1. MOSI : Master Out Slave In 2. MISO : Master In Slave Out 3. SCK : Serial Clock 4. SS: Slave Select
  18. 18. SPI We can transmit/receive only 1 byte of data.
  19. 19. LAWS OF ROBOTICS 1. A robot must not harm human being and humanity. 2. It must obey the orders given by human being, w/o conflicting law 1st. 3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as it doesn’t conflict
  20. 20. AUTONOMOUS ROBOT • • • • Basic elements for building autonomous robot. Robot chassis and actuators: body and wheels arrangement. Electronics: includes Sensors, motion control circuits, power management system etc. Power Source :Usually batteries or direct supply through wire. Intelligence: is achieved by using Microcontroller.
  21. 21. HOW ROBOT MOVES? (H/w) •3 motors for 4 wheels • 2 motors for 2 wheels and 1 ball bearing caster •Controlling rpm and direction of wheels, controls speed
  22. 22. HOW ROBOT MOVES? (S/w) • At first TIMER has to initialize. (Atmega has 3 timers 0, 1, 2). • OCRX= (int. value 0-255); • forward movement: 1 in clockwise other in anticlock direction. • Backward: opposite of forward. • turning left: left wheel having less value of OCRX. • Turning right: right wheel having less value OCRX.
  23. 23. SENSORS • Sensors are like “feel” for robot. • Electronically :it is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. • TEMPERATURE SENSOR: like DS1621,thermistor. LM35 measures from 0 to 100 degrees
  24. 24. LIGHT SENSORS • Light Dependent Resistor (LDR): a resistor whose resistance varies with intensity of light. • IR sensor: IR led + photodiode + LM358. • From any “non black body” i.e obstacle IR reflects and falls on photo diode. • Hence Photo diode become forward bias, and it turn on the IC LM358 that gives the output. IR LED IR sensor photodiode LM 358
  25. 25. CONCLUSION • electronics + mechanics + software = ROBOT • By using all of the commands of CVAVR, programming is done on a robot. • A robot must be used for mankind.
  26. 26. REFERENCES • www.google.com • www.wikipedia.com • Google images • http://www.embeddedsystem .com/ • http://robotics.nasa.gov/

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