An Introduction to Robotics and Embedded System


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An Introduction to Robotics and Embedded System

  1. 1. Introduction to Robotics : Robotics is the study of the design,construction and use of robots. These technology represent a practicalapplication of Physics, Computer Science,Engineering and Mathematics . It provides a variety of Engineering Concepts. Every Automated systems can be stated as aRobot.
  2. 2. History
  3. 3. Why do we need a Robot : To perform a Job accurately and efficiently. To perform a job safely. To achieve High Throughput (Work done per Unit time). To avoid mistakes. To perform a job continuously without getting tired. A robot never says “No, I’ll not do this job because it is not interesting”. Actually, there are endless reasons for using Robots.
  4. 4. What is Robot :"A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulatordesigned to move material, parts, tools, or specializeddevices through various programmed motions for theperformance of a variety of tasks“.An automatic device that performs functionsnormally ascribed to humans or a machine in the formof a human.
  5. 5. So let’s start doing Robotics byINVENTING THE TECHNOLOGY WE DESIRE !!!
  6. 6. How to Plan a Robot : It depends upon the requirements. We have to fix the environment for the Robot. For example, if we want a robot who will make coffee than the materials required for that are known to Robot. So that the Robot can take materials from there to complete the Process. But if we are unable to do that than we have to develop a robot, having the capabilities for identifying the Objects.
  7. 7. How to understand the Logic of Robot : Let’s take an example of such a robot who will go to market and buy vegetables. In this condition , the robot has the capabilities of identifying the vegetables, streets, available shortest path from the source to destination etc.
  8. 8. Types of Robot : Industrial Robots :-materials handling-welding-inspection-improving productivity-Laboratory applications Mobile Robots :- Robots that move around on legs, tracks or wheels.- In 1979 a nuclear accident in the USA caused a leak of radioactive material.Led to production of special robot-Teleoperator to handle the radioactive material. Educational Robots Domestic Robots
  9. 9. Current Scenario : A first particular new innovation in robot design is the open sourcingof robot-projects. Currently, there are about 1 million industrial robots toiling aroundthe world, and Japan is the top country having high density of utilizingrobots in its manufacturing industry Certification The Robotics Certification Standards Alliance (RCSA) is aninternational robotics certification authority who confers variousindustry and educational related robotics certifications.
  10. 10. Rules of Robotics (Asimov’s law of Robotics) : A robot may not injure a human being, or, throughinaction, allow a human being to come to harm A robot must obey orders given it by human beings,except where such orders would conflict with the First Law. A robot must protect its own existence as long as suchprotection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.Zeroth Law : No robot may harm humanity or through inaction allowhumanity to come to harm.
  11. 11. Introduction to Basic Electronic Components Used in Robot ….
  12. 12. The following are the basic electronic components we have touse in a Robot :- Resistor- Capacitor- Diodes- Transistors- Motors- Power Supply- Sensors
  13. 13. Resistor :Resistors are the obstacles in the path of the electrons flowing in thewire.We use Resistor because : Limiting current to another component. Reducing voltage in some parts of the Circuit. Controlling the voltage / current flowing into another component. Protecting the inputs of sensitive components.
  14. 14. Types of Resistor : Variable ResistorLight Dependent Resistor Circuit Symbol
  15. 15. Capacitor : Capacitor store electrons by attracting them to Positive Voltage. When the voltage is reduced or removed the electrons move disappearoff.These are used for : Creating Timers. Smoothing out voltage. Blocking DC Current. Adjust Frequency.
  16. 16. Types of Capacitor : Electrolytic Capacitor Ceramic Capacitor
  17. 17. Diodes :Diode is a two terminal electronic component that conducts electriccurrent in only one direction.Types of Diode : Silicon P-N Junction Diode : Light Emitting Diode Photo Diode Anode Cathode
  18. 18. Transistors :Transistors are a kind of Switches. We can control the switch usingvoltage on base pin.The transistors we are using are : P-N-P , N-P-N , Phototransistor N-P-N Photo Transistor +V Infrared Photo Transistor +Vout θ Resistor (~ 10 K) Working of 2N2222 (NPN) Transistor IR Sensor circuit by Phototransistor
  19. 19. Motors :Motors are used to provide the motion to machine directly.There are four types of Motors : DC Motor DC Geared Motor Stepper Motor Servo Motor
  20. 20. Power Supply / Source : In Robotics we use 12 V and 1 A power supply generally but it canvary up to 12 V and 5 A. It depends upon the Circuit Requirements. We can use the Voltage Regulator to increase or decrease the value ofVoltage as per the requirement. 7805 Voltage Regulator
  21. 21. Sensors : Sensors are the devices which are used to sense the changes that occurin their surroundings.Types of Sensors :
  22. 22. IR Sensor :  There is one emitter and one detector.  Emitter emits IR rays and the detector detects it.  Black LED is an emitter and White LED is the Photo Diode.  It consists three components : IR LED, Photo Diode, Op-Amp (LM358 IC). IR LED Photo Diode IR LED Op-Amp (LM358) Three Pin Photo Connector Diode IndicatorPotentiometer LED
  23. 23. Working of Sensor : Black LED generating IR rays andthese rays are reflected by the surface.(If the surface is black than it willabsorb the Light) The Photodiode senses the light andindicator LED shows the result thatwhether there is an object or not. If indicator LED is on than the resultis +ve and when it is off then the resultis -ve.
  24. 24. What is a Line Follower Robot : Robot which follows a Line whether it is Curvy or Straight orDivergence. We are going to make a machine which will follow a black line onwhite background. If there is any divergence or any cross points in the path of themachine then it will stop in such case. These type of case will be solved by the Intelligent Line Follower. We are using the AVR ATMega16 Microcontroller to build this Robot.
  25. 25. Components Required :1. Development Board – 1 No.2. Caster Wheel – 2 No.3. IR Sensor Kit – 2 No.4. Battery – 6 Volt5. Wheel Clamps – 2 No.6. Geared Motors – 2 No.7. Connecting Chords as required.
  26. 26. Connecting Cord
  27. 27. Working of Line Follower Left Sensor Right SensorIf left sensor detect the light surface and right sensor detect dark surface then therobot will turn right. Left Sensor Right SensorIf left sensor detect the dark surface and right sensor detect light surface then therobot will turn left.
  28. 28. Working of Simple Line Follower
  29. 29. How Line Follower Works …
  30. 30. How to Program a Robot …Required Software :Operating System : Windows XP, Vista, Windows 7Tools : AVR Studio. (Current versions has AVR-GCC plug-in to write code in C)Compiler : IAR, Image Craft , Code Vision AVR, Win AVRLoader : AVR Loader by Robosapiens IndiaRequired Hardware : USB Programmer Connecting Cord
  31. 31. Write your program here
  32. 32. 1. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Antenna2. Inertial Navigation System/GPS3. Ku-Band Satellite Communications Antenna4. Video Cassette Recorder5. GPS Antennas (Left and Right)6. APX-100 Identification Friend or Foe Transponder7. Ku-Band Satellite Communications Sensor Processor Modem Assembly8. C-Band Upper Omni directional Antenna Bracket9. Forward Fuel Cell Assembly10. Aft Fuel Cell Assembly11. Accessory Bay12. Engine Cooling Fan13. Oil Cooler/Radiator14. 914F Engine 15. Tail Servo (Left and Right) 16. Battery Assembly #2 17. Power Supply 18. Battery Assembly #1 19. Aft Equipment Bay Tray 20. Secondary Control Module 21. Synthetic Aperture Radar Processor/AGM-114 Electronics Assembly 22. Primary Control Module 23. Front Bay Avionics Tray 24. ARC-210 Receiver/Transmitter 25. Flight Sensor Unit 26. Video Encoder 27. De-ice Controller 28. Electro-Optical/Infrared Sensor/AN/AAS-52(V)1 Electronics Assembly 29. Front Bay Payload Tray 30. Ice Detector 31. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Receiver/Transmitter 32. Nose Camera Assembly