Introduction to AVR
Mahmoud Sadat Badran
• Microcontroller ? (History ,Components, Advantages, Applications)
• Hardware VS. Software
• Microcontroller Vs. Microprocessor.
• Major market players.
• AVR Microcontroller.
• Microcontroller ?
• A microcontroller is a single chip, self-contained
1. 1971 Texas Instrument calculator-on-a-chip TMS 1000, which
was a 4-bit microcontroller with built-in ROM and RAM.
2. 1976 Intel 8048 was one of Intel's first microcontrollers.
3. 1980 Intel 8051 followed in and became one of the most
popular microcontroller families.
4. 1996 Atmel AVR was one of the first microcontroller families
to use on-chip flash memory for program storage.
A Microcontroller has seven main components:
1-Central processing unit (CPU)
4-Input and Output
2. Very small in size.
3. Programming of Microcontrollers is simple to learn (c language or
4. Ability to simulate project before implementation.
Hardware VS. Software
# Hardware Software
Design Cost High Medium
Speed High Medium
Modifications Hard Easy
Maintainability Hard Easy
Time to market Long short
Cost High Low
Microcontroller Vs. Microprocessor
# Micro-controller Micro-processor
Cost Cheap Expensive
Speed Slow (in MHz Range) Fast (in GHz Range)
Purpose Special General
Dependency Single Chip has almost
components to be able
Resources Limited Unlimited
The AVR architecture was conceived by two students at the
Norwegian Institute of Technology Alf-Egil Bogen and Vegard
• Devices range from 1 to
• Pin count range from 8 to
• Full code compatibility
• Pin/feature compatible
• TINY AVR family
8 -32 pin
16 family members
• MEGA AVR family
32 -100 pin
23 family members
• XMEGA AVR family
32 -100 pin
• Application-specific AVRs
USB, CAN and LCD
Motor Control and Lighting
8 family members
• RISC modified Harvard architecture
Powerful instruction set for C and Assembly
Same powerful AVR core in all devices
• Single cycle execution
One instruction per external clock
Low power consumption
• 32 Working Registers
All Directly connected to ALU!
• Very efficient core
20 MIPS @ 20MHz
• High System Level Integration
Lowest total system cost
1. Complete navigation application
2. Car Radio control
3. DES encryption / decryption
4. Reed-Solomon (error correction)
5. Pager protocol
6. Refrigerator control
7. Battery charger
8. Embedded web server
9. Label/recite printer
• AVR Studio -front end for all AVR tools
• Win AVR
• Code Vision (Evaluation version with limited code
• Starter kits and evaluation boards
• On-Chip Debuggers and Emulators
• Fully updated product web
• Highly skilled Field Application
• Support mail handled by AVR
• Reference designs
• Application notes
• AVRfreaks community website