Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Be a GCSE PE Champion“To succeed... you need to find something to   hold on to, something to motivate you,         somethi...
Be a GCSE PE Champion            Section 1: Healthy Active Lifestyle - 1.1. Healthy active lifestyles and how they benefit ...
Be a GCSE PE Champion            Section 1: Healthy Active Lifestyle - 1.2. Influences on your healthy active lifestyle    ...
Be a GCSE PE Champion        Section 1: Healthy Active Lifestyle - 1.3. Exercise and fitness as part of your healthy active...
Be a GCSE PE Champion     Section 1: Healthy Active Lifestyle - 1.3. Exercise and fitness as part of your healthy active li...
Be a GCSE PE Champion        Section 1: Healthy Active Lifestyle - 1.4. Physical activity as part of your healthy active l...
Be a GCSE PE Champion         Section 1: Healthy Active Lifestyle - 1.4. Physical activity as part of your healthy active ...
Be a GCSE PE Champion       Section 1: Healthy Active Lifestyle - 1.4. Physical activity as part of your healthy active li...
Be a GCSE PE Champion        Section 1: Healthy Active Lifestyle - 1.4. Physical activity as part of your healthy active l...
Be a GCSE PE Champion                Section 1: Healthy Active Lifestyle - 1.5. Your personal health and wellbeing        ...
Be a GCSE PE Champion       Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.1. Different body types       ...
Be a GCSE PE Champion         Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.2. Optimum weight           ...
Be a GCSE PE Champion     Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.3. Weight related conditions    ...
Be a GCSE PE Champion          Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.4. Drugs in Sport          ...
Be a GCSE PE Champion            Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.4. Drugs in Sport        ...
Be a GCSE PE Champion         Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.4. Cardiovascular system    ...
Be a GCSE PE Champion         Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.4. The respiratory system   ...
Be a GCSE PE Champion         Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.5. The muscular system      ...
Be a GCSE PE Champion        Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.6. The skeletal system       ...
Be a GCSE PE Champion                  Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.7. Joints          ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Gcse pe revision booklet

80,389 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

Gcse pe revision booklet

  1. 1. Be a GCSE PE Champion“To succeed... you need to find something to hold on to, something to motivate you, something to inspire you” Revision Booklet The difference between the impossible and the possible lies in a persons determination” www.eezipezi.co.uk
  2. 2. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 1: Healthy Active Lifestyle - 1.1. Healthy active lifestyles and how they benefit you Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to) 1. Explain  what  constitutes  a  healthy  active  lifestyle 2. Classify  the  bene?its  of  a  healthy,  active  lifestyle  as  physical,  mental  or  social 3. Explain  how  a  healthy  active  lifestyle  can: • Increase  individual  wellbeing Helps • Help  the  individual  to  feel  good  (SEROTONIN) • Help  relieve  stress individual 3 categories of a healthy active lifestyle • Increase  self  esteem  and  conAidence to feel and • Contribute  to  good  health look good • Contribute  to  enjoyment  of  life 4. Explain  how  participation  in  physical  activity  can  stimulate • Cooperation • Competition • Physical  challenge REASONS Develops FOR Enhances friendships PARTICIPATING IN PHYSICAL body shapeBenefits of taking part Co- and social ACTIVITY operation mixing Help relieves Contributes stress/tension to good health & Stress related and enjoyment BENEFITS of life illness OF SPORTING Aesthetic CLUBS & Competition appreciation PARTICIPATION http://bit.ly/jxn8nF Physical Healthy active lifestyle Challenge lesson presentation Social Mental Physical Develops Helps relieve stress Helps individual to friendships and and tension look and feel good Serotonin is social mixing the “feel Improves co- Aesthetic Enhances body good operation appreciation shape hormone” Improves Gives the Helps individual to competition performer a mental lose weight challenge www.eezipezi.co.uk
  3. 3. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 1: Healthy Active Lifestyle - 1.2. Influences on your healthy active lifestyle Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to)1. Identify  the  main  factors  that  affect  involvement  in  physical  activity • People:  family,  peers,  role  models • Image:  fashion,  media  coverage • Cultural  factors:  age,  gender • Resources:  location,  access • Health  and  wellbeing:  illness • Socio-­‐economic:  cost2. Explain  opportunities  to  become  involved  in  physical  activity3. Describe  a  number  of  initiatives  developed  to  encourage  participation • Minimum  involvement  in  PE • PESSCL Cristiano Ronaldo influences people to take part in physical activity Tom Daly influences people to take part in physical activity Influences on taking part lesson Influences on taking part in physical activity People Image Cultural Resources Health and Socio- factors well-being economic “Winners never Quit. Quitters never Win!” www.eezipezi.co.uk
  4. 4. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 1: Healthy Active Lifestyle - 1.3. Exercise and fitness as part of your healthy active lifestyle Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to) 1. Understand  the  terms 1. Health 2. Exercise 3. Fitness   4. Performance Health, fitness, exercise and 2. Know  and  understand  components  of  health  related  exercise performance lesson 1. Cardiovascular  Aitness 2. Muscular  strength 3. Muscular  Endurance 4. Flexibility 5. Body  Composition Health Related Fitness Cardiovascular Fitness ! Examples 1. Playing 90 minutes in football matches 2. Playing Cricket matches that could last for 3-5 days 3. Running in a marathon Muscular Strength Muscular EnduranceExamples ! Examples1. Weightlifting 1. Long distance walking2. Rugby 5 2. Long distance running3. Can be developed by lifting heavy weights with 3. Long distance swimming components few reps of Health related exercise Body Composition Flexibility ! Examples ! Examples 1. Different Somatotypes 1. Hurdling in athletics 2. Mesomorph 2. Gymnastics – performing 3. Endomorph 5 components of Health related complex sequences 4. Ectomorph exercise lesson 3. Swimming Fat Men Eat More Sweets Cos Fit Boys Can’t KEY DEFINITIONS 1. Health – State of complete mental, physical and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity 2. Fitness – The ability to meet demands of the environment 3. Exercise – a form of physical activity which maintains or improves health and/or physical fitness 4. Performance – how well a task is completed www.eezipezi.co.uk
  5. 5. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 1: Healthy Active Lifestyle - 1.3. Exercise and fitness as part of your healthy active lifestyle Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to) 6 Skill1. De?ine: related 1. Agility fitness components 2. Balance video 3. Coordination 4. Power 5. Reaction  Time 6. Speed2. Identify  the  importance  of  each  to  different  physical  activities Skill Agility The ability to change the position of the body Related Fitness quickly and to control the movement of the whole body Co-ordination Balance Ability to use two or more The ability to retain the parts of the body together centre of mass of the body above the base of support with reference to static or dynamic conditions of movement Speed or shape The differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time Power The ability to undertake strength performances quickly Power = strength x speed Reaction Time 6 Skill The time between the related presentation of a stimulus and fitness the onset of movement components lesson A B C P R S or R S P C A B www.eezipezi.co.uk
  6. 6. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 1: Healthy Active Lifestyle - 1.4. Physical activity as part of your healthy active lifestyle Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to)1. Know  what  is  meant  by  a  PAR-­‐Q2. Assess  health-­‐related  exercise,  and  skill-­‐related  Aitness  using  a  number  of  tests Assessing your fitness PAR-­Q  (Physical  Activity  Readiness  Questionnaire) levels • Before  starting  an  exercise  programme  you  must   Assessing your fitness make  sure  you  are  ready  to  do  so levels video • Before  you  can  complete  the  questionnaire  you   need  to  be  sure  about  your  medical  history:  any   medical  conditions  or  other  concerns Health Component Skill related Component related tested fitness tests tested fitness tests Coopers 12 Cardiovascular Illinois agility Agility min run / Endurance / run Harvard step Fitness test Hand grip Muscular Stork stand Balance dynamometer Strength 1 min sit up Muscular Alternate hand Co-ordination and press up Endurance wall throw test Sit and reach Flexibility Sergeant Power jump / standing broad jump Skin fold Body Ruler drop test Reaction calipers Composition Time 30 min sprint Speed You can use the information you collect from these fitness tests to assist your exercise programme which will work towards improving your performance and fitness levels www.eezipezi.co.uk
  7. 7. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 1: Healthy Active Lifestyle - 1.4. Physical activity as part of your healthy active lifestyle Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to) 1. Explain  the  principles  of  training 2. Show  how  to  use  these  principles  to  improve  your  Aitness  in  a  personal  exercise  programme 3. Explain  the  components  of  the  FITT  principle  and  understand  how  components  overlap  with  other   principles  of  training 4. Appreciate  how  application  of  the  FITT  principle  can  improve  performance  and  Aitness 5. Understand  the  term  reversibility  and  its  impact  on  performance ISPORRRT FITT Individual Needs Specificity Matching the training to the requirements of Matching the training to the requirements of an individual an activityPrinciples of training Progressive Overload lesson To gradually increase the amount of overload so that fitness gains occur, but without potential for injury Rest Recovery the period of time allotted to recovery the time required for the repair of damage to the body caused by training or competition Thresholds of Training Reversibility within your threshold. 60% to 80% of MHR. Any adaptation that takes place as a MHR = 220-age consequence of training will be reversed when you stop training Frequency - How often you train Intensity - How hard you train Time - How long you train Type - What kind of training you do www.eezipezi.co.uk
  8. 8. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 1: Healthy Active Lifestyle - 1.4. Physical activity as part of your healthy active lifestyle Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to)1. Describe  and  explain  the  principles  of  setting  SMART  goals2. Apply  SMART  goals  (speciAic,  measurable,  achievable,  realistic,  time-­‐bound)  when  setting  up  a  personal   exercise  programme  in  order  to  gain  maximum  beneAit  from  it Setting  SMART  goals SMART  goal  setting  is  used  widely  in  sport,  work,  and  leisure  to  help   Goal make  people’s  goals  easier  to  achieve.  SMART  is  another  acronym: Setting • SpeciAic • Measurable • Achievable • Realistic • Time-­‐bound Specific Means knowing exactly what the goal is. E.g. an overall goal might be ‘I want to be fitter’, but this is not very specific. It is much better to set smaller, more specific goals; these act as a clear series of steps towards the overall goal. A more specific goal for someone who wants to be fitter might be ‘I want to run 100 metres further in my Cooper’s run test’ Measurable Means that it will be easy to know when a goal has been achieved. The goal of running an extra 100 metres in the Cooper’s Run test is clearly measurable Achievable Running an extra 100 metres in the Cooper’s run test after six weeks’ training may well be achievable. Running a 26-mile marathon after four weeks training will not. Setting unachievable goals is likely to result in feelings of demotivation Realistic A goal may well be achievable in theory, but if it is not achievable in practice it is necessary to have the time and resources to complete it. E.g. ‘I want to get stronger biceps by being able to curl an additional 2kg after a two-week training programme’ may be an achievable goal, but if the gym is not open at suitable time, it might not be very realistic Time-bound Does the goal have an end point? If not, it is easy to put off achieving it indefinitely! Personal exercise programmes run for six weeks so are time-bound, as the goals set have to be achieved within six weeks “I can accept failure, everyone fails at something. But I cant accept not trying” www.eezipezi.co.uk
  9. 9. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 1: Healthy Active Lifestyle - 1.4. Physical activity as part of your healthy active lifestyle Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to)1. Know  and  describe  the  six  different  training  methods:  Interval,  Continuous,  Fartlek,  Circuit,  Weight  and   Cross2. Know  which  sports  and  activities  each  is  most  suited  to3. Explain  how  each  can  improve  health  and  Aitness4. Understand  their  relationships  with  the  components  of  Aitness  and  principles  of  training Methods of Training CCCWIF There are 6 types of training methods. 1. CIRCUIT TRAINING – A set of 6 to 10 exercises performed at stations in an organised pattern. Each exercise is performed for specified number of repetitions or for a prescribed time before moving on to the next exercise Methods of training 2. CROSS TRAINING – Using more than one training method lesson 3. CONTINOUS TRAINING – Continuous training is steady training. The working heart rate will not be very high, there are no rest periods and the session usually lasts for at least 15 to 20 minutes 4. WEIGHT TRAINING – Weight training uses progressive resistance, either in the form of the actual weight lifted or in terms of the number of times the weight is lifted 5. INTERVAL TRAINING – High intensity periods of work followed by defined periods of rest 6. FARTLEK TRAINING – This type of training allows an athlete to run at varying speeds, over unmeasured distances, on different terrain. (Fartlek is Swedish for ‘Speed play’) 7. Circuit Continuous Cross Weight Interval Fartlek General fitness Long distance Sprinters Strength events Football, hockey, Team games athletes netball All components Cardiovascular Speed and Muscular Speed Speed fitness Muscular strength StrengthPeople of all levels Can be adapted Allows a variety Easy to monitor Suited to most Includes rest for can take part using FITT of training progress and games recovery principle overload www.eezipezi.co.uk
  10. 10. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 1: Healthy Active Lifestyle - 1.5. Your personal health and wellbeing Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to)1. Understand  the  links  between  exercise,  diet,  work  and  rest  and  how  these  factors  inAluence  your  personal   health  and  wellbeing Balanced diet video2. Explain  the  requirements  of  a  balanced  diet3. Recall  the  factors  of  balanced  diet4. Explain  how  each  of  these  factors  Aits  into  a  balanced,  healthy  lifestyle Fruit, cakes, beer, sweets, Carbohydrates granulated sugar and bread, pasta rice, potatoes. Ready source of energy when muscles need it. Athletes training Ready source of energy hard use carbohydrates quickly so Store of energy as Glycogen diet should be high in this food type.Milk, cheese, butter, oils, Source of energy (slow release)chocolate, fatty meats, soya beansand corn. Can be stored in body Fats Increase size and weight of body beneficial to performers with extra bulk e.g. Shot putter. Excess weight can inhibit performance though. Protein Growth and Repair of tissues, enzymes and hormones Meat, fish, pulses (chick peas, lentils and beans), nuts, eggs and poultry Builds muscle and repairs tissue within body. Essential after injury to heal quickly. Sportspeople who have large muscles need extra protein. Calcium a aste Minerals Fibre w nd Iron Gets rid of Micro nutrients Ke e p s u s A ,B1,C,D hydrated Vitamins Vitamin Water www.eezipezi.co.uk
  11. 11. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.1. Different body types Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to)1. Describe  the  different  body  types  (somatotypes):  Endomorph,  Mesomorph,  Ectomorph2. Explain  the  effect  each  can  have  a  participation  and  performance3. Identify  activities  where  different  body  types  are  an  advantage Different body types video Somatotypes Ectomorph Endomorph Mesomorph 1. Slightly built, 1. Round/ ‘pear drop’ shape 1. ‘Athletic Build’ delicate body 2. Narrow shoulders and 2. Muscular, large 2. Narrow shoulders broad hips trunk and hips 3. Carry weight around waist 3. Broad shoulders, 3. Lean, fragile and on hips and upper narrow hips 4. E.G. Marathon thighs 4. E.G. 100m Runner 4. E.G. Sumo wrestler Sprinter Different body types lesson www.eezipezi.co.uk
  12. 12. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.2. Optimum weight Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to)1. Optimum  weight  and  why  it  varies  according  to  height,  gender,  bone  structure  and  muscle  girth2. How  optimum  weight  can  affect  performance  and  participation  in  physical  activityFactors affecting optimum weight• Height - taller people are usually, although not always heavier than shorter people• Gender - men and women have different body composition; men tend to have more muscle and larger bones. Therefore males and females have different charts to find their optimum weight• Bone structure - bodies have different bone structures, sometimes referred to as frame size. The man with the larger frame would not have a similar optimum weight to a man with narrow shoulders and hips.• Muscle girth - people naturally have different muscle girth which means that they weigh more; simple charts that measure optimum weight only according to height may Body composition is suggest that these people are overweight. Muscle girth defined as the increases with training. percentage of body• Genetics - body weight and shape are largely passed in through the genes from parent to child weight that is fat, muscle and bone. Optimum is the Boxers must be of an most optimum weight in “favourable” or order to fight in “best their weight class compromise” People who want to lose weight usually do so by: •Decreasing calorie intake •Increasing energy expenditure •Doing both www.eezipezi.co.uk
  13. 13. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.3. Weight related conditions Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to)1. Explain  the  terms;  Anorexic,  Obese,  Overfat,  Overweight,  Underweight2. Explain  how  they  may  impact  on  achieving  a  sustained  involvement  in  physical  activity Key definitions • Overweight - having weight in excess than normal, harmless unless accompanied with over fatness • Overfat - person having more fat than recommended for gender and age • Obese - Term used to describe people who are very overfat Sumo wrestlers are at risk of being Obese even though the extra weight is beneficial for their sport Extremely thin sports people act as role models for younger people. Key definitions • Anorexia nervosa - a prolonged eating disorder due to loss of appetite • Underweight - weighing less than normal, healthy or required www.eezipezi.co.uk
  14. 14. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.4. Drugs in Sport Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to)1. Explain  the  effects  of  smoking  and  alcohol  on  general  health  and  on  physical  activity2. Know  about  different  categories  of  drugs  (anabolic  steroids,  beta  blockers,  diuretics,  narcotic  analgesics,   stimulants,  peptide  hormones  -­‐  including  erythropoitein/EPO)3. The  effects  they  may  have  on  health,  wellbeing  and  physical  performance  and  why  some  performers   might  risk  using  them Recreational Drugs Alcohol • Affects co-ordination, speech and judgement • Slows your reactions • Makes muscles tire quickly • Eventually damages heart, liver, kidneys, brain, muscles and digestive system Smoking• Causes nose, throat and chest irritations• Makes you short of breath• Increases risk of developing heart disease, lung cancer and bronchitis and other diseases Alcohol and smoking have no Performance enhancing effects whatsoever for the sports performer. In fact they have the complete opposite. They have a negative effect on performance. www.eezipezi.co.uk
  15. 15. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.4. Drugs in Sport Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to)1. Explain  the  effects  of  smoking  and  alcohol  on  general  health  and  on  physical  activity2. Know  about  different  categories  of  drugs  (anabolic  steroids,  beta  blockers,  diuretics,  narcotic  analgesics,   stimulants,  peptide  hormones  -­‐  including  erythropoitein/EPO)3. The  effects  they  may  have  on  health,  wellbeing  and  physical  performance  and  why  some  performers   might  risk  using  them Performance enhancing drugs S. N. A. P. D Advantages DisadvantagesStimulants •Speeds up reactions and increases •Feeling less pain can make athlete aggression train too hard •Make you feel less pain •Lead to high blood pressure, heart and liver problems and strokes •They’re addictiveNarcotic Analgesics Kill pain - so injuries and fatigue doesn’t Addictive with unpleasant withdrawal affect performance symptoms Feeling less pain can make athlete train too hard Lead to constipation and low blood pressureAnabolic Steroids Increase muscle size Cause high blood pressure, heart Allow athletes to train harder disease, infertility and cancer Women may facial and body hair, and their voices may deepenPeptide Hormones Most have similar effects as anabolic Cause strokes and abnormal growth steroids EPO - allows more oxygen carrying capacity due to increase of red blood cellsDiuretics Weight loss - important if competing in a Cause cramp and dehydration certain weight division Can mask traces of other drugs in body www.eezipezi.co.uk
  16. 16. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.4. Cardiovascular system Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to)1. Understand  the  immediate  and  short-­‐term  effects  of  participation  in  exercise  and  physical  activity   including:• Increased  heart  rate• systolic  /  diastolic  blood  pressure• increased  blood  pressure What is the Cardiovascular Cardiovascular Heart rate (pulse rate) system lesson the number of times the heart beats system? per minuteConsists of the HEART, BLOOD and BLOODVESSELS• Heart is a muscular pump, which pushes blood throughout the many blood vessels in the body Systolic pressure• Blood being pushed around the body by the the maximum pressure in the heart has two main functions: arteries when the heart contracts1. to supply the body with oxygen and and pushes blood out through the nutrients aorta into the body2. to remove waste products such as carbon dioxide What happens to the Blood pressure cardiovascular system duringthe force exerted by circulating blood exercise? on the walls of the blood vessels 1. Increased heart rate - Exercise makes the body work harder. As a result, the muscles require more oxygen and more Diastolic pressure nutrients. the pressure of the blood during the 2. Increased blood pressure - increases relaxation phase between heart during exercise because more blood is beats (when the heart is at rest) pumped around the body The benefits of regular exercise on the Cardiovascular system1. heart pumps more blood per beat (increased stroke volume) and become more efficient2. lower resting heart rate3. return to resting pulse rate quicker (recovery rate)4. lower blood pressure5. veins and arteries become healthier reducing the risk of coronary heart disease6. size and volume of heart increases7. resting heart rate is reduced, lowering work load on the heart Cardiac output Stroke volumethe amount of blood ejected from the the volume of the blood pumped out heart in one minute of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction www.eezipezi.co.uk
  17. 17. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.4. The respiratory system Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to)1. Understand  the  main  function  of  the  respiratory  system  and  respiration Respiratory2. know  the  immediate  effects  of  participation  in  exercise system3. the  long  term  effects  of  regular  participation  in  exercise lesson4. the  effects  of  smoking  on  the  respiratory  system The respiratory system has two main functions: ! 1. to bring oxygen into the body ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 2. to take carbon dioxide out of the body Vital capacity Tidal Volume is the greatest amount of air that can is the amount of air inspired and be made to pass into and out of the expired with each normal breath at lungs by the most forceful inspiration rest or during exercise and expiration Bronchus Trachea Alveoli Bronchioles Ribcage Lungs Diaphragm Abdominal muscles Immediate effects of exercise on the respiratory system1. Breathing quickens and deepens2. Oxygen debt long term benefits of exercise on the respiratory system1. Lung capacity increases2. Increased vital capacity3. Number of alveoli increases www.eezipezi.co.uk
  18. 18. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.5. The muscular system Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to)1. Know  the  major  muscle  groups  and  which  physical  activities  beneAit  them  and  the  role  of  muscles  in   movement Muscles are arranged in The muscles antagonistic pairs, so when one muscle contracts 1. deltoid and pulls the other relaxes to 2. trapezius allow the joint to work 3. latissimus dorsi Long term effect of participation 4. pectorals 1. Increased muscle size (hypertrophy) 5. Potential injuries abdominals 1. Soft tissue injuries (tears, pulls and strains) 6. biceps 2. Warming up and cooling down can minimise these 7. triceps injuries 3. RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation) treatment is 8. gluteals used for muscle strains 9. quadriceps 10. hamstrings Muscle Produces Example 11. gastrocnemius Deltoid Abducts upper arm Serve in tennis Trapezius Rotates shoulder Rowing Isotonic contractions Latissimus Dorsi Rotates upper arm Swimming butterfly Muscle contraction that results in limb movement Pectorals Adduction of arm Swimming front crawl Isometric contractions Abdominals Flexion and rotation Rowing Muscle contraction which of trunk results in increased tension but Biceps Flexion of the arm Throwing cricket the length does not alter at elbow ball Triceps Extension of the Throwing cricket arm ball Gluteals Extension of the leg Running Quadriceps Extension at the Kicking a football knee Hamstrings Flexion at the knee Sprinting Gastrocnemius Plantar flexion Running www.eezipezi.co.uk
  19. 19. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.6. The skeletal system Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to)1. Understand  the  three  functions  of  the  skeletal  system2. Understand  the  potential  for  injuries  such  as  fractures  and  joint  injuries Functions of the Skeletal system 1. Movement - where bones meet they form joints, which act as levers 2. Support - The bones and skeletal system give the body shape. Skeleton acts as a framework 3. Protection - Cranium protects the brain, vertebral column protects the spinal cord, ribs protect the heart and lungs Injuries to the skeletal system The R.I.C.E. process1. Rest - stop playing or training2. Ice - the cold can provide some pain relief and limits swelling by reducing blood flow to the injured area3. Compression - use pressure to hold the ice pack on the injury. This also limits swelling and may sometimes provide Injuries to joints pain relief 1. Tennis and golfer’s elbow - both are overuse injuries to the4. Elevation - raise the tendons at the elbow joint injury, and keep it raised. 2. Dislocations - when a bone at a joint is forced out of its Again, this helps to reduce swelling normal position 3. Sprain - is a damaged ligament www.eezipezi.co.uk
  20. 20. Be a GCSE PE Champion Section 2: Physical activity and your healthy mind and body - 2.7. Joints Objectives:  (you  should  be  able  to)1. Know  the  ranges  of  movement  possible  at  a  hinge  and  ball  and  socket  joint  (Alexion,  extension,  abduction,   adduction  and  rotation) Hinge joint 1. Knee 2. Elbow Movements possible at Hinge joint Flexion, Extension and Rotation Ball and Socket Flexion, joint 1. Shoulder 2. HipExtension, Movements possible at Ball and Socket jointAbduction,Adduction Rotation Movements www.eezipezi.co.uk

×