WELCOME TO THE  FEDERAL CONVENTION May, 1787
<ul><li>PENNSYLVANIA STATE HOUSE </li></ul>
WHY ARE WE HERE? <ul><li>“ for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation ” </li></ul>
<ul><li>What’s wrong with the Articles? </li></ul><ul><li>Weak central government </li></ul><ul><li>States aren’t forced t...
The Articles legislative branch A  unicameral , or one-house, legislature  Each state has one vote, regardless of size exe...
The Rules <ul><li>Secrecy </li></ul><ul><li>Courtesy </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul>
 
The divisive issues <ul><ul><li>The national or general  government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation of states </...
Which should be stronger, the state government or the national government? Why?
The decision <ul><li>A  stronger national government is necessary  </li></ul><ul><li>A  federal system  was developed – bo...
How should we determine the representation of the states in Congress? By population, money, equality ...?
The Virginia Plan <ul><li>WE NEED A NEW FORM OF GOVERNMENT </li></ul>Madison Randolph
The Virginia Plan legislative branch A  bicameral , or two-house, legislature  Representation determined by population of ...
 
The New Jersey Plan WE NEED TO STRENGTHEN THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION Paterson
The New Jersey Plan legislative branch   A  unicameral , or one-house, legislature  membership based on equality – one vot...
Hamilton’s Plan <ul><li>proposed a   government based on the British monarchy and parliament </li></ul><ul><li>All powerfu...
<ul><li>“ When a broad table is to be made, and the edge of the planks do not fit, the artist takes a little from both, an...
The Great Compromise WE NEED TO COMPROMISE Sherman
The Great Compromise legislative branch  A bicameral legislature A House of Representatives, based on population A Senate,...
Should there be one or more than one chief executive?
What power(s) should the chief executive have?
National Executive <ul><li>A single executive – the President </li></ul><ul><li>Checked by the legislative branch </li></ul>
What should be done about slavery and the slave trade in the United States?
SLAVERY <ul><li>A very divisive issue </li></ul><ul><li>Should /could the new constitution outlaw the practice of slavery ...
Slavery Compromise #1 <ul><li>What should be done with the Trans-Atlantic slave trade? </li></ul>SLAVE TRADE COMPROMISE Sl...
Should slaves count in the population toward representation? Why or why not?
 
Slavery Compromise #2 <ul><li>How should slaves count in matters of representation? </li></ul>THREE FIFTHS COMPROMISE “ Ot...
Who should select the legislators (Congress)?
COMPROMISE <ul><li>How should the members of Congress be elected? </li></ul>Compromise House of Representatives is elected...
Who should select the chief executive or executives?
COMPROMISE <ul><li>How should the Chief Executive (President) be elected? </li></ul>Compromise The Electoral College The p...
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS <ul><li>Should there be religious test or requirements for public office? </li></ul><ul><li>NO </li><...
Writing the Constitution <ul><li>July - Committee of Detail </li></ul><ul><li>August – Debate again over the document </li...
Signing the  Constitution <ul><li>39 signers </li></ul><ul><li>3 didn’t sign </li></ul><ul><li>Randolph </li></ul><ul><li>...
“… I have the happiness to know it is a rising and not a setting sun ”
 
RATIFICATION <ul><li>The Constitution was sent to states for RATIFICATION (or approval) in State Conventions – not in the ...
RATIFICATION <ul><li>9 out of 13 states had to ratify the Constitution for it to become law </li></ul><ul><li>(not 13/13) ...
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Constitutional Convention 2011

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  • When 9 out of 13 states had to ratify the Constitution for it to become law – in a state ratifying convention
  • When 9 out of 13 states had to ratify the Constitution for it to become law – in a state ratifying convention
  • Constitutional Convention 2011

    1. 1. WELCOME TO THE FEDERAL CONVENTION May, 1787
    2. 2. <ul><li>PENNSYLVANIA STATE HOUSE </li></ul>
    3. 3. WHY ARE WE HERE? <ul><li>“ for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation ” </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>What’s wrong with the Articles? </li></ul><ul><li>Weak central government </li></ul><ul><li>States aren’t forced to follow laws </li></ul><ul><li>No taxing power </li></ul><ul><li>No national executive </li></ul><ul><li>No national judicial branch </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t control interstate commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t stop conflicts between states </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t stop domestic rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to pass laws </li></ul><ul><li>Very difficult to amend </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Articles legislative branch A unicameral , or one-house, legislature Each state has one vote, regardless of size executive branch none judicial branch none
    6. 6. The Rules <ul><li>Secrecy </li></ul><ul><li>Courtesy </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul>
    7. 8. The divisive issues <ul><ul><li>The national or general government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation of states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The executive branch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery and the slave trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and others … </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Which should be stronger, the state government or the national government? Why?
    9. 10. The decision <ul><li>A stronger national government is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>A federal system was developed – both the national government and state governments have power </li></ul><ul><li>Should be limited by the constitution </li></ul><ul><li>A republican form of government is best </li></ul><ul><li>Supremacy </li></ul>
    10. 11. How should we determine the representation of the states in Congress? By population, money, equality ...?
    11. 12. The Virginia Plan <ul><li>WE NEED A NEW FORM OF GOVERNMENT </li></ul>Madison Randolph
    12. 13. The Virginia Plan legislative branch A bicameral , or two-house, legislature Representation determined by population of the state executive branch a single national executive selected by Congress Some veto power judicial branch judges selected by Congress Some ability to override laws
    13. 15. The New Jersey Plan WE NEED TO STRENGTHEN THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION Paterson
    14. 16. The New Jersey Plan legislative branch A unicameral , or one-house, legislature membership based on equality – one vote per state More powers than under the AOC executive branch a multiple national executive selected by Congress Some veto power judicial branch judges selected by the Executives Some ability to override laws
    15. 17. Hamilton’s Plan <ul><li>proposed a government based on the British monarchy and parliament </li></ul><ul><li>All powerful national government </li></ul><ul><li>Senators with life terms </li></ul><ul><li>President with life term </li></ul><ul><li>Judges with life term </li></ul>
    16. 18. <ul><li>“ When a broad table is to be made, and the edge of the planks do not fit, the artist takes a little from both, and makes a good joint.” </li></ul>Franklin
    17. 19. The Great Compromise WE NEED TO COMPROMISE Sherman
    18. 20. The Great Compromise legislative branch A bicameral legislature A House of Representatives, based on population A Senate, based on equality executive branch Determined by a committee judicial branch Determined by a committee
    19. 21. Should there be one or more than one chief executive?
    20. 22. What power(s) should the chief executive have?
    21. 23. National Executive <ul><li>A single executive – the President </li></ul><ul><li>Checked by the legislative branch </li></ul>
    22. 24. What should be done about slavery and the slave trade in the United States?
    23. 25. SLAVERY <ul><li>A very divisive issue </li></ul><ul><li>Should /could the new constitution outlaw the practice of slavery in the U.S.? </li></ul><ul><li>NO - Southern states would never support the new constitution </li></ul><ul><li>But what about the slave trade? </li></ul>
    24. 26. Slavery Compromise #1 <ul><li>What should be done with the Trans-Atlantic slave trade? </li></ul>SLAVE TRADE COMPROMISE Slave trade (importation of slaves) could be banned by Congress, but not for 20 years
    25. 27. Should slaves count in the population toward representation? Why or why not?
    26. 29. Slavery Compromise #2 <ul><li>How should slaves count in matters of representation? </li></ul>THREE FIFTHS COMPROMISE “ Other persons” would count as 3/5 of a person for matters of representation
    27. 30. Who should select the legislators (Congress)?
    28. 31. COMPROMISE <ul><li>How should the members of Congress be elected? </li></ul>Compromise House of Representatives is elected by the people Senate is elected by the state legislatures
    29. 32. Who should select the chief executive or executives?
    30. 33. COMPROMISE <ul><li>How should the Chief Executive (President) be elected? </li></ul>Compromise The Electoral College The people would vote for electors, who would then select the President
    31. 34. ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS <ul><li>Should there be religious test or requirements for public office? </li></ul><ul><li>NO </li></ul><ul><li>Who should have the power to declare war? </li></ul><ul><li>CONGRESS </li></ul><ul><li>Should there be a standing army during times of peace? </li></ul><ul><li>YES </li></ul><ul><li>Should Congress control interstate commerce? </li></ul><ul><li>YES - a big deal! </li></ul>
    32. 35. Writing the Constitution <ul><li>July - Committee of Detail </li></ul><ul><li>August – Debate again over the document </li></ul><ul><li>September – Committee of Style </li></ul><ul><li>Who wrote it? </li></ul><ul><li>Never really established, but Governeur Morris takes credit </li></ul>
    33. 36. Signing the Constitution <ul><li>39 signers </li></ul><ul><li>3 didn’t sign </li></ul><ul><li>Randolph </li></ul><ul><li>Gerry </li></ul><ul><li>Mason </li></ul>
    34. 37. “… I have the happiness to know it is a rising and not a setting sun ”
    35. 39. RATIFICATION <ul><li>The Constitution was sent to states for RATIFICATION (or approval) in State Conventions – not in the state governments </li></ul>
    36. 40. RATIFICATION <ul><li>9 out of 13 states had to ratify the Constitution for it to become law </li></ul><ul><li>(not 13/13) </li></ul>

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