WELCOME TO THE FEDERALCONVENTION     May, 1787
PENNSYLVANIA STATE HOUSE
WHY ARE              WE HERE?“for the sole and express  purpose of revising the         Articles of      Confederation”
What’s wrong     with the     Articles?    Weak central governmentStates aren’t forced to follow laws         No taxing po...
The Articles         legislative branch A unicameral, or one-house, legislatureEach state has one vote, regardless of size...
The Rules  Secrecy Courtesy Flexibility
The divisive issues   The national or general         government  Representation of states    The executive branch Slavery...
The           Virginia            PlanMadison           Randolph          WE NEED A NEW FORM             OF GOVERNMENT
Which should bestronger, the stategovernment or thenationalgovernment?Why?
The decisionA stronger national government is              necessaryA federal system was developed –  both the national go...
How should wedetermine therepresentation of thestates in Congress?Bypopulation, money, equality ...?
The Virginia Plan          legislative branch    A bicameral, or two-house, legislatureRepresentation determined by popula...
Virginia                                                   691,737                             249,073                    ...
The New     Jersey PlanPaterson   WE NEED TO STRENGTHEN THE    ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
The New Jersey Plan          legislative branch  A unicameral, or one-house, legislaturemembership based on equality – one...
Hamilton’s Plan         proposed a government          based on the British          monarchy and          parliament    ...
The Great Compromise           legislative branch            A bicameral legislatureA House of Representatives, based on p...
“When a broad             table is to be            made, and the               edge of the             planks do not     ...
WE NEED TOCOMPROMISE             Sherman The GreatCompromise
Should there  be one or more than  one chief executive?
What power(s) should the   chief executive   have?
National    ExecutiveA single executive – the        President     Checked by the    legislative branch       Veto power
What should bedone about slaveryand the slave trade   in the United      States?
Slavery and the Slave Trade
Slavery Compromise #1 What should be done with the  Trans-Atlantic slave trade?      SLAVE TRADE      COMPROMISE Slave tra...
Should slaves  count in the  population    towardrepresentation?Why or why not?
State          Population Slave popConnecticut       237,946     2,764Delaware           59,096     8,887Georgia          ...
Slavery Compromise #2How should slaves count in matters of          representation?         THREE FIFTHS         COMPROMIS...
Who should  select the legislators(Congress)?
COMPROMISEHow should the members of   Congress be elected?          Compromise House of Representatives is elected by     ...
Who should select the   chiefexecutive orexecutives?
COMPROMISEHow should the Chief Executive    (President) be elected?        Compromise       The Electoral College The peop...
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS     Should there be religious test or      requirements for public office?                   NOWho sh...
Writing the  Constitution July - Committee of Detail August – Debate again over   the  document September – Committee o...
“I confess thatthere are severalparts of thisconstitution whichI do not at presentapprove, but I amnot sure I shallnever a...
Weakness                               SolutionWeak national government               Stronger (but limited) national     ...
Signing theConstitution 39 signers (38, kinda)3 didn’t sign Randolph  Gerry  Mason
“…I have the happiness to know it is a     rising and not a setting sun”
RATIFICATION       The Constitution          was sent to           states for         RATIFICATION        (or approval) in...
RATIFICATION        9 out of 13       states had to          ratify the       Constitution           for it to       becom...
Constitutional Convention 2012
Constitutional Convention 2012
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Constitutional Convention 2012

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Constitutional Convention 2012

  1. 1. WELCOME TO THE FEDERALCONVENTION May, 1787
  2. 2. PENNSYLVANIA STATE HOUSE
  3. 3. WHY ARE WE HERE?“for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation”
  4. 4. What’s wrong with the Articles? Weak central governmentStates aren’t forced to follow laws No taxing power No national executive No national judicial branchCan’t control interstate commerce Can’t stop conflicts between states Can’t stop domestic rebellion Difficult to pass laws Very difficult to amend
  5. 5. The Articles legislative branch A unicameral, or one-house, legislatureEach state has one vote, regardless of size executive branch none judicial branch none
  6. 6. The Rules Secrecy Courtesy Flexibility
  7. 7. The divisive issues The national or general government Representation of states The executive branch Slavery and the slave trade Elections and others …
  8. 8. The Virginia PlanMadison Randolph WE NEED A NEW FORM OF GOVERNMENT
  9. 9. Which should bestronger, the stategovernment or thenationalgovernment?Why?
  10. 10. The decisionA stronger national government is necessaryA federal system was developed – both the national government and state governments have powerShould be limited by the constitutionA republican form of government is best Supremacy
  11. 11. How should wedetermine therepresentation of thestates in Congress?Bypopulation, money, equality ...?
  12. 12. The Virginia Plan legislative branch A bicameral, or two-house, legislatureRepresentation determined by population of the state executive brancha single national executive selected by Congress Some veto power judicial branch judges selected by Congress
  13. 13. Virginia 691,737 249,073 South Carolina 68,825 Rhode Island 434,373 PennsylvaniaPopulation 393,751 North Carolina 340,120 184,139 New York 141,885 New Jersey 378,787 New Hampshire 319,728 82,548 Massachusetts 59,096 Maryland 237,946 Georgia Delaware 0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 Connecticut
  14. 14. The New Jersey PlanPaterson WE NEED TO STRENGTHEN THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
  15. 15. The New Jersey Plan legislative branch A unicameral, or one-house, legislaturemembership based on equality – one vote per state More powers than under the AOC executive branch a multiple national executive selected by Congress Some veto power judicial branch
  16. 16. Hamilton’s Plan  proposed a government based on the British monarchy and parliament  all powerful national government  Senators with life terms  President with life term  Judges with life term
  17. 17. The Great Compromise legislative branch A bicameral legislatureA House of Representatives, based on population A Senate, based on equality executive branch Determined by a committee judicial branch Determined by a committee
  18. 18. “When a broad table is to be made, and the edge of the planks do not fit, the artist takes a little from both, and makes a goodFranklin joint.”
  19. 19. WE NEED TOCOMPROMISE Sherman The GreatCompromise
  20. 20. Should there be one or more than one chief executive?
  21. 21. What power(s) should the chief executive have?
  22. 22. National ExecutiveA single executive – the President Checked by the legislative branch Veto power
  23. 23. What should bedone about slaveryand the slave trade in the United States?
  24. 24. Slavery and the Slave Trade
  25. 25. Slavery Compromise #1 What should be done with the Trans-Atlantic slave trade? SLAVE TRADE COMPROMISE Slave trade (importation of slaves) could be banned byCongress, but not for 20 years NOT SLAVERY ITSELF
  26. 26. Should slaves count in the population towardrepresentation?Why or why not?
  27. 27. State Population Slave popConnecticut 237,946 2,764Delaware 59,096 8,887Georgia 82,548 29,264Maryland 319,728 103,036Massachusetts 378,787 0New Hampshire 141,885 158New Jersey 184,139 11,423New York 340,120 21,324North Carolina 393,751 100,572Pennsylvania 434,373 3,737Rhode Island 68,825 948South Carolina 249,073 107,094Virginia 691,737 292,627
  28. 28. Slavery Compromise #2How should slaves count in matters of representation? THREE FIFTHS COMPROMISE“Other persons” would count as 3/5 of a person for matters of representation
  29. 29. Who should select the legislators(Congress)?
  30. 30. COMPROMISEHow should the members of Congress be elected? Compromise House of Representatives is elected by the peopleSenate is elected by the state legislatures
  31. 31. Who should select the chiefexecutive orexecutives?
  32. 32. COMPROMISEHow should the Chief Executive (President) be elected? Compromise The Electoral College The people would vote for electors, who would then select the President
  33. 33. ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS Should there be religious test or requirements for public office? NOWho should have the power to declare war? CONGRESS Should there be a standing army during times of peace? YES Should Congress control interstate commerce? YES - a big deal! Lots o’ power for Congress
  34. 34. Writing the Constitution July - Committee of Detail August – Debate again over the document September – Committee of Style Who wrote it? Never really established, but Gouverneur Morris takes credit
  35. 35. “I confess thatthere are severalparts of thisconstitution whichI do not at presentapprove, but I amnot sure I shallnever approvethem … I agree tothis Constitutionwith all its Franklin Wilsonfaults…”
  36. 36. Weakness SolutionWeak national government Stronger (but limited) national governmentOnly one branch Three branchesNo national executive to enforce Single national executivelawsNo national judicial system National judicial branch can solve disputes between statesDifficult to pass laws (9/13 states) Simple majority in both houses (50%+1)Very difficult to amend (all 13 Easier to amend (but still astates) challenge –3/4 states)Inability to tax National government may taxNo regulation of commerce National government can regulate interstate trade
  37. 37. Signing theConstitution 39 signers (38, kinda)3 didn’t sign Randolph Gerry Mason
  38. 38. “…I have the happiness to know it is a rising and not a setting sun”
  39. 39. RATIFICATION The Constitution was sent to states for RATIFICATION (or approval) in State Conventions – not in the state governments
  40. 40. RATIFICATION 9 out of 13 states had to ratify the Constitution for it to become law (not 13/13)

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