Citizenship In The Nation


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This presentation was developed to introduce the Citizenship in the Nation Merit Badge.

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  • Welcome. This merit badge is probably one of the most important merit badges that you will earn on your way to becoming an Eagle Scout and as you grow and become a participating citizen of the United States. (plays Star Spangled Banner)
  • Citizenship In The Nation

    1. 1. Citizenship in the Nation BSA Eagle Scout Required Merit Badge Designed by: Gayla S. Keesee 2004
    2. 3. No More Kings <ul><li>According to the lyrics, what problems did the colonists have with British rule? </li></ul><ul><li>What other problems are you aware of? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the colonists attempt to solve the problems? </li></ul><ul><li>How was the government for the new United States of America different from the British government? </li></ul>
    3. 4. The Declaration of Independence
    4. 5. Four Parts <ul><li>Preamble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why writing this document </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory of government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government formed with consent of the people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If government does not serve the people, they have the right to rebel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grievances against the British government </li></ul><ul><li>Actual declaration </li></ul>
    5. 6. Basic Ideas <ul><li>Statement of the American theory of government </li></ul><ul><li>Three basic ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>God made all men equal and given them the rights of life , liberty , and the pursuit of happiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main business of government to protect these rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a government tries to withhold these rights, the people are free to revolt and set up a new government </li></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Articles of Confederation
    7. 8. Articles of Confederation 1781-1789 <ul><li>Confederation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loosely joined together group of states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First form of government </li></ul><ul><li>States retained most authority </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralized, weak union </li></ul>
    8. 9. Articles of Confederation 1781-1789 <ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No executive or judiciary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign affairs—Britain, Spain, France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No power to tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could only “request” that states pay war debts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No power to regulate interstate trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interstate bickering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>States coined own money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worthless “Continentals” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 10. The Constitution
    10. 11. Basic Ideas <ul><li>Popular Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Government </li></ul><ul><li>Federalism </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Checks and Balances </li></ul>
    11. 12. I. Popular Sovereignty <ul><li>The people hold the ultimate authority </li></ul><ul><li>A representative democracy lets the people elect leaders to make decisions for them. </li></ul>
    12. 13. II. Limited Government <ul><li>Framers wanted to guard against tyranny </li></ul><ul><li>Government is limited to the powers given in the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitution tells how leaders who overstep their power can be removed </li></ul>
    13. 14. III. Federalism <ul><li>The division of power between State and National Governments </li></ul><ul><li>Some powers are shared </li></ul><ul><li>The National Government has the “supreme power ”— Supremacy Clause </li></ul>
    14. 15. IV. Separation of Powers <ul><li>No one holds “too much” power </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative branch makes the laws </li></ul><ul><li>Executive branch carries out the laws </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial branch interprets the laws </li></ul>
    15. 16. V. Checks and Balances <ul><li>Prevents the abuse of power in government </li></ul><ul><li>Each branch can check each other </li></ul>
    16. 17. Preamble ~ Explains why the Constitution was written Articles (7) ~ Describe how the government works and how the Constitution can be changed Amendments (27) ~ Describes the rights of the citizens of the United States The Constitution
    17. 18. The Preamble We the People , in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice , insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense , promote the general welfare and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity do ordain and establish this Constitution of the United States of America.
    18. 19. What Does It Mean? We, the People of the United States, want to make a better country. We want a court system that treats people fairly and equally. We want peace in our country. We want an army to protect us. We want our people to have the things they need. We want freedom now and in the future. We are writing and signing this Constitution to guarantee we will have these things.
    19. 20. <ul><li>What are the three branches? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the main responsibility of each? </li></ul>Three-Ring Government
    20. 21. Legislative Branch—makes laws Executive Branch—enforces laws Judicial Branch—interprets laws
    21. 22. The Federal Capital Building House of Representatives The Senate
    22. 23. <ul><li>House of Representatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve 2 year terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be at least 25 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be a resident of the U.S. 7 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on state population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state has at least one representative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total = 435 members </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. <ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve 6 year terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be at least 30 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be a resident of the U.S. 9 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state has 2 senators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total = 100 members </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. Representatives—Georgia <ul><ul><li>Charles Norwood GA-9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2452 Rayburn House Office Bldg. Washington, D.C. 20515-1009 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Max Burns GA-12 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>512 Cannon House Office Bldg. Washington, D.C. 20515-1012 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 26. Senators—Georgia <ul><ul><li>Zell Miller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>257 Dirksen Senate Office Bldg. Washington DC 20510 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saxby Chambliss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>416 Russell Senate Office Bldg. Washington, DC 20510 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 27. Representative—S.C. <ul><ul><li>J. Gresham Barrett (SC 3rd) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1523 Longworth House Office Bldg. Washington, D.C. 20515-4003 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 28. Government Representatives <ul><li>Senators—South Carolina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lindsey Graham </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>290 Russell Senate Office Building Washington, D.C. 20510-4001 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ernest (Fritz) Hollings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>125 Russell Senate Office Building Washington, D.C. 20510-4002 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Enumerated Powers—Legislative Branch House of Representatives Senate
    29. 30. <ul><li>Make our laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All laws must pass both Houses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tax and spend the money raised by taxes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House must introduce all spending bills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Borrow money </li></ul><ul><li>Establish uniform bankruptcy laws </li></ul>
    30. 31. <ul><li>Provide for the nation’s defense and general welfare   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raise and support armies and a navy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize a militia (National Guard) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority to call out militia to suppress insurrections or repel invasions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Declare War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress must approve a declaration of war </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. <ul><li>Coin money and regulate its value </li></ul><ul><li>Fix the standard of weights and measures </li></ul><ul><li>Protect copyrights and patents </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Post Offices and Roads </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate Interstate Commerce and Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate Immigration and Naturalization </li></ul>
    32. 33. <ul><li>To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Constitution provides only for a Supreme Court, and left it to Congress to create lower (“inferior”) courts, and to set their jurisdictions and duties </li></ul></ul>
    33. 34. Elastic Clause <ul><li>To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof. </li></ul>
    34. 35. Types of Legislation <ul><li>Four basic types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint resolutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concurrent resolutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple resolutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All bills must pass the House and Senate in the exact same form before they are sent to the President. </li></ul>
    35. 36. <ul><li>An idea for a bill may come from anybody. </li></ul><ul><li>Only Members of Congress can introduce a bill. </li></ul>
    36. 37. <ul><li>Bills can be introduced at any time the House or Senate is in session. </li></ul><ul><li>A Representative or Senator who introduces a bill becomes that bill’s sponsor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A bill may also have cosponsors. </li></ul></ul>
    37. 38. <ul><li>Once a Bill is introduced, it is sent to committee for discussion and debate. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bill must pass both houses in the exact same form in order to be sent to the President. </li></ul>
    38. 39. Presidential Options <ul><li>Sign the bill into law </li></ul><ul><li>Veto the bill </li></ul><ul><li>Do nothing </li></ul>
    39. 40. Presidential Options <ul><li>Sign the bill into law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediately becomes law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only the Supreme Court can remove the law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Veto the bill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Return to Congress unsigned—usually with an explanation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress can override the veto with 2/3 vote of both House </li></ul></ul>
    40. 41. Presidential Options <ul><li>Do nothing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Congress is in session 10 business days after the President receives the bill, automatically becomes law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If Congress adjourns within 10 business days, the bill dies —Pocket Veto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Congress can do nothing to override this decision. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 42. <ul><li>4 year terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no more than a total of 10 years in succession </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must be at least 35 years old </li></ul><ul><li>A resident of the United States for 14 years </li></ul><ul><li>A natural-born citizen </li></ul>
    42. 43. <ul><li>President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>George W. Bush </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vice-President </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dick Cheney </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cabinet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential Advisors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 departments </li></ul></ul>
    43. 44. The Cabinet <ul><li>Secretary of State </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of the Treasury </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Attorney General </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of the Interior </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of Health and Human Services </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of Housing and Urban Development </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of Education </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of Veterans’ Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of Homeland Security </li></ul>
    44. 45. Enumerated Powers of the President National Security Powers Legislative Powers Administrative Powers Judicial Powers                                                                                                                                     
    45. 46. <ul><li>National Security Powers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can authorize the use of troops overseas. To declare war officially, he must get the approval of the Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes treaties with other nations; however, the Senate must approve any treaty before it becomes official </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominates ambassadors , with the agreement of the Senate </li></ul></ul>
    46. 47. <ul><li>Legislative Powers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presents information on the state of the union to Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommends legislation to Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenes both houses of Congress in special sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approves laws passed by Congress </li></ul></ul>
    47. 48. <ul><li>Administrative Powers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Take care that the laws be faithfully executed” -- Article II, Section 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appoints the heads of each Executive Branch department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appoints ambassadors, Supreme Court Justices, and other officials, with approval of the Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fills administrative vacancies during congressional recesses </li></ul></ul>
    48. 49. <ul><li>Judicial Powers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grants reprieves and pardons for Federal crimes (except impeachment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appoints Federal judges, with the agreement of the Senate </li></ul></ul>
    49. 50. Presidential Election: Electoral College <ul><li>Compromise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct popular election vs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Election by Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Number of electors based on total number of Senators and Representatives for each state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Georgia has 14 electors </li></ul></ul>
    50. 51. Interprets the Law
    51. 52. Supreme Court Justices <ul><li>“ Nine Players” (1869) Seven members were fine 'Till 1869 Go up then down From 10-7 But this act gave us nine. </li></ul>Back Row (left to right): Ginsburg, Souter, Thomas, Breyer Front Row (left to right): Scalia, Stevens, Rehnquist, O'Connor, Kennedy
    52. 53. <ul><li>Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eight Justices and one Chief Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed by the President and approved by the Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed for life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>as long as they want </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>” good behavior” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    53. 54. Enumerated Powers of the Supreme Court
    54. 55. <ul><li>Original Jurisdiction—hear directly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls (Diplomats) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cases in which a state shall be party </li></ul></ul>
    55. 56. <ul><li>Appellate Jurisdiction—review decisions of lower court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admiralty and maritime cases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controversies involving one or more states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controversies involving the United States </li></ul></ul>
    56. 57. Federal Court System <ul><li>Three levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>District trial courts -- lowest level of courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeals courts -- middle level of courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court -- highest court in the country </li></ul></ul>95 Trial Courts 13 Appeals Courts Supreme Court United States Court System
    57. 58. Checks and Balances No one branch has more power than another
    58. 59. Checks and Balances Executive Checks On the Legislative * Can propose laws * Can veto laws * Can call special sessions of Congress * Makes appointments * Negotiates foreign treaties * Can grant pardons to federal offenders Executive Checks On the Judicial * Appoints federal judges
    59. 60. Legislative Checks On the Judicial Legislative Checks On the Executive * Can override President’s veto * Confirms executive appointments * Ratifies treaties * Appropriates money * Can impeach and remove President * Can impeach and remove judges * Create lower federal courts * Can propose amendments to overrule judicial decisions * Approves appointments of federal judges Checks and Balances
    60. 61. * Can declare Executive actions unconstitutional Judicial Checks on the Executive Branch * Can declare acts of Congress unconstitutional Judicial Checks on the Legislative Branch Checks and Balances * Presides over impeachment proceedings
    61. 62. Relationship Between States and National Government <ul><li>Delegated powers </li></ul><ul><li>Reserved powers </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent powers </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted powers </li></ul>
    62. 63. Powers Delegated to National Government Coin money Declare War Regulate interstate & foreign trade Set standard weights & measures Create & maintain armed forces Make copyright & patent laws Establish postal offices Establish foreign policy Create federal courts Admit new states
    63. 64. Powers Reserved by States Create corporation laws Regulate trade within state Establish & maintain schools Establish local governments Make laws about marriage & divorce Conduct elections Provide for public safety
    64. 65. Provide for public welfare Administer criminal justice Charter banks Raise taxes Borrow money Powers Shared
    65. 66. Restricted Powers <ul><li>Article 1: Section 10 </li></ul><ul><li>No State shall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coin money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grant any title of nobility </li></ul></ul>
    66. 67. Restricted Powers <ul><li>No State shall, without the Consent of Congress , </li></ul><ul><ul><li>impose taxes on imports or exports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lay any duty of tonnage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in imminent danger </li></ul></ul>
    67. 68. <ul><li>Amendments to the Constitution can be either additions or changes to the original text. </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1787, over 9,000 amendments have been proposed, but only 27 have been approved . </li></ul>
    68. 69. Amendment Process <ul><li>Two Ways to Propose Amendments </li></ul><ul><li>Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constitutional Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When two thirds of the state legislatures call a Convention for proposing Amendments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ratification—Two Ways </li></ul><ul><li>Three fourths of the state Legislatures </li></ul><ul><li>Three fourths of the state Conventions </li></ul>
    69. 70. The Bill of Rights The first 10 amendments to the U. S. Constitution
    70. 71. The first amendment— 5 rights mentioned <ul><li>Freedom of Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of the Press </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Right to petition the government </li></ul>
    71. 72. Freedom of Religion <ul><li>“ Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise there of” </li></ul><ul><li>Two clauses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment clause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Exercise clause </li></ul></ul>
    72. 73. Establishment Clause—Government cannot promote religion
    73. 74. Free exercise of religion
    74. 75. Establishment clause-Government Can Cannot <ul><li>Teach about religions in school </li></ul><ul><li>Allow voluntary prayer in many examples </li></ul><ul><li>Transport students to a religious school </li></ul><ul><li>Read Bible for culture or literacy content </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a state religion </li></ul><ul><li>Order a prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Teach religious doctrine in the school </li></ul><ul><li>Pay seminary teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Teach creationism </li></ul>
    75. 76. Free Exercise—The person Can Cannot <ul><li>Choose to worship when/where one chooses </li></ul><ul><li>Lead a prayer in most examples </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions about religions </li></ul><ul><li>Worship whom or whatever he/she wants </li></ul><ul><li>Break the law and claim it is a religious belief </li></ul><ul><li>Raise children without an education </li></ul><ul><li>Deprive children of basic needs </li></ul><ul><li>Force others to follow his/her religious practices </li></ul>
    76. 77. Freedom of speech <ul><li>“ Congress shall make no laws . . . abridging the freedom of speech” </li></ul>
    77. 78. Free speech–The individual can: <ul><li>Voice any political belief </li></ul><ul><li>Protest (without getting out of control) </li></ul><ul><li>Say things about someone that are true </li></ul><ul><li>Burn the flag </li></ul><ul><li>Say racist and hate slogans </li></ul><ul><li>Free speech means someone might </li></ul><ul><li>say something you disagree with </li></ul>
    78. 79. Free speech—limits on the person <ul><li>Cannot threaten to blow up airplanes, schools, or the President </li></ul><ul><li>No sexual harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Incite riots </li></ul><ul><li>Use extremely crude language in a public forum </li></ul><ul><li>Say untrue things about someone </li></ul>
    79. 80. Freedom of the press <ul><li>Congress shall make no law . . . abridging . . . the freedom of the press.” </li></ul>
    80. 81. Freedom of the press-the press Can Cannot <ul><li>Print any political position </li></ul><ul><li>Make fun of people, especially politicians </li></ul><ul><li>Expose wrongs by the government </li></ul><ul><li>Say things you might not agree with </li></ul><ul><li>Libel – intentionally injuring a person’s reputation by false facts </li></ul><ul><li>Disclose defense-security secrets </li></ul><ul><li>Detail how to make a certain weapons </li></ul>
    81. 82. Freedom of Assembly <ul><li>Congress shall make no law . . . Abridging . . . The people to peaceably assemble” </li></ul>
    82. 83. Freedom of Assembly--Individual Can Cannot <ul><li>Protest </li></ul><ul><li>Parade (with a permit) </li></ul><ul><li>Parade chanting hate slogans </li></ul><ul><li>Gang members can congregate in public </li></ul><ul><li>Protest by throwing rocks and breaking windows </li></ul><ul><li>Hang out on private land against owners will— loitering </li></ul><ul><li>Teen curfew </li></ul>
    83. 84. Petition the Government <ul><li>“ Congress shall make no law . . . Abridging . . . the people. . . to petition the government for a redress of grievances” </li></ul>
    84. 85. Petition the government <ul><li>You may sue the government for wrongs </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot be punished for exposing wrongs committed by the government </li></ul><ul><li>The courts decide the wrongs </li></ul>
    85. 86. 2 nd Amendment— Right to bear arms <ul><li>“ A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to bear arms shall not be infringed.” </li></ul>
    86. 87. What is the debate with the right to bear arms? <ul><li>How much can the government keep guns from criminals and youth? </li></ul><ul><li>In order to keep guns away from criminals, does that limit the right of law abiding citizens? </li></ul>
    87. 88. Third Amendment—Quartering of Troops <ul><li>The Government cannot force you to shelter soldiers in your home without your consent in time of war or peace. </li></ul>
    88. 89. Rights of the Accused Amendments #4-8
    89. 90. Fourth Amendment <ul><li>What does a policeman need in order to search your home? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probable cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A warrant signed by a judge </li></ul></ul>
    90. 91. Fifth Amendment <ul><li>You cannot be tried for the same crime twice—called “Double Jeopardy” </li></ul><ul><li>You do not have to testify against yourself. “I plead the fifth” </li></ul><ul><li>You must have due process of law before you are convicted </li></ul><ul><li>The government cannot take your land unless it pays for it </li></ul>
    91. 92. Sixth Amendment <ul><li>Right to speedy trial by impartial jury </li></ul><ul><li>You must be told of charges </li></ul><ul><li>You must be provided a lawyer if you cannot afford one </li></ul>
    92. 93. Sixth Amendment <ul><li>Jury trial in civil cases as well as criminal cases. </li></ul>
    93. 94. Eighth Amendment <ul><li>No excessive bail </li></ul><ul><li>No cruel and unusual punishment </li></ul>
    94. 95. Tenth Amendment <ul><li>The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people . </li></ul>
    95. 96. The “Civil War” Amendments <ul><li>The 13 th Amendment (1865) prohibits slavery in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The 14 th Amendment (1868) establishes that all persons born or naturalized in the United States are citizens and that no state shall deprive citizens of their rights under the Constitution or deny “equal protection of the laws.” </li></ul><ul><li>The 15 th Amendment established the right of citizens to vote regardless of “race, creed, color, or previous condition of servitude.” </li></ul>
    96. 97. Voting Rights Amendments <ul><li>15 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>regardless of “race, creed, color, or previous condition of servitude” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>19th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women shall have the right to vote </li></ul></ul><ul><li>23 rd Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>District of Columbia suffrage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>24 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No one has to pay a tax to vote </li></ul></ul><ul><li>26 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18-year-olds given right to vote </li></ul></ul>TAX
    97. 98. Prohibition <ul><li>18 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal to make, sell, distribute or drink alcoholic beverages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>21 st Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repealed the 18 th Amendment </li></ul></ul>
    98. 99. Functions of Government <ul><li>Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Law Enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Postal System </li></ul><ul><li>Highways </li></ul><ul><li>Veterans Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare </li></ul><ul><li>Social Security </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul>
    99. 100. Functions of Government <ul><li>Defense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects the nation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defend our interests around the world </li></ul></ul>
    100. 101. Functions of Government <ul><li>Law Enforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserve public order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect citizens’ rights and freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal Bureau of Investigation(FBI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the U.S. Department of Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. Postal Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery of written communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle more than 165 billion pieces of mail each year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliveries to nearly 29,000 post offices in each country </li></ul></ul>
    101. 102. Functions of Government <ul><li>Highways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 3.8 million miles of interstate highways and federal roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highway Trust Fund </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helps finance construction and maintenance with funds from the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Income from taxes on gasoline, tires, and engine parts </li></ul></ul></ul>
    102. 103. Functions of Government <ul><li>Veterans’ Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Veterans Affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits to more than 25 million veterans and their families </li></ul></ul>
    103. 104. Functions of Government <ul><li>Welfare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US Department of Health and Human Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food Stamps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aid to families with Dependent Children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supplemental Security income </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pensions for retired persons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disability pay and medical insurance for the elderly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financed through fixed contributions from workers and their employers </li></ul></ul>
    104. 105. Functions of Government <ul><li>Foreign Relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assisted by the Department of State </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain diplomatic relations with other countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help encourage international trade for U.S. products and services </li></ul></ul>
    105. 106. Functions of Government <ul><li>Natural Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>550 million+ acres of land under its jurisdiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect and preserve—land, water, minerals, fish, wildlife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Park Service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bureau of Land Management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bureau of Reclamation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bureau of Indian Affairs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent agency of the federal government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control and end pollution of air, soil, and water from solid wastes, noise, radiation, and toxic substances </li></ul></ul>
    106. 107. Functions of Government <ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve farm income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand markets abroad for agricultural products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance the environment and agricultural production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce hunger and malnutrition in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural development and credit programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food inspection and grading services—food quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidies —monies paid to farmers and ranchers to regulate or stimulate the production of various agricultural products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extension agents demonstrate new methods and technologies to farmers and ranchers </li></ul></ul></ul>
    107. 108. Financing the Government <ul><li>The federal government is the nation’s largest employer, borrower, spender, and consumer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borrowing money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul>
    108. 109. Revenue <ul><li>Most government revenues are received through taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Individual taxes —largest source of money </li></ul><ul><li>Other taxes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate income taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excise taxes on goods and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customs duties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Security taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Miscellaneous income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sale of government assets—offshore drilling rights and land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of various licenses and fees </li></ul></ul>
    109. 110. Borrowing Money <ul><li>National Debt </li></ul><ul><li>The money the government owes </li></ul>
    110. 111. Tyrannosaurus Debt TOUR GUIDE : To your left, folks, is the Washington Monument , to your right, the White House . And over there, just beyond the Capitol , is the National Debt !                                                                 
    111. 112. <ul><li>TOUR GUIDE: The debt was born in 1790 when our new government took over 75 million the colonies spent in the Revolutionary War. </li></ul><ul><li>TOUR GUIDE: Alexander Hamilton, our first Secretary of the Treasury (he's on the 10, you know), wanted a federal debt to provide a reason to establish taxes to support our new nation. </li></ul>Tyrannosaurus Debt
    112. 113. <ul><li>TOUR GUIDE: The Civil War ran up a debt of almost three billion dollars that still wasn't paid off by World War One. </li></ul><ul><li>We're spending money we don't have Or so it would appear The deficit is that amount we overspend each year Though congressmen and senators Make vows to cut its size Despite their honest efforts The debt just seems to rise </li></ul>Tyrannosaurus Debt
    113. 114. Tyrannosaurus Debt <ul><li>TOUR GUIDE: And this is the U.S. Treasury. It sells Treasury Bonds , bills , and notes , and savings bonds to finance the debt. The U.S. government promises to pay the owner interest plus the value of each bond at a future date. </li></ul><ul><li>TOUR GUIDE: Feeding time is ALL the time. </li></ul>
    114. 115. Management <ul><li>Internal Revenue Service (IRS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collects all taxes imposed by the the federal government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 100 million tax returns yearly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The U.S. Customs Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collects taxes called duties, on many imported goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents illegal goods from being smuggled into the U.S </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Treasurer of the U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages all government funds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pays all bills </li></ul></ul>
    115. 116. Management <ul><li>Office of Management and Budget (OMB) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviews and alters budget requests from departments of the executive branch to comply with the preferences of the President </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal Reserve Board </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent agency of the government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates credit and borrowing in the American banking system </li></ul></ul>
    116. 117. It is our job as citizens to pay attention to politics, to question, to participate. Democracy only functions if its citizens are educated, critical thinkers.