Road to constitution

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Road to constitution

  1. 1. FAILURE OF ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION State governments too powerful: –Power to tax: –Power to regulate trade: –Power to dictate policy to national government: –Power to raise militia:
  2. 2. NEED FOR A STRONGER NATIONAL GOVERNMENT • Great Britain was waiting for the United States to fail: • Large states taking advantage of small states: • Jealousy kept states from working together: • U-N-I-T-E-D STATES was not united:
  3. 3. SOLUTION
  4. 4. Government officials realized after Shays’ Rebellion that a change was needed A convention of representatives from each state were called to Philadelphia in 1787
  5. 5. STATEHOUSE IN PHILADELPHIA SITE OF THE CONVENTION
  6. 6. There were 74 men asked to come to Philadelphia but only delegates arrived in Philadelphia
  7. 7. CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION
  8. 8. The average age of a delegate was 44 years old
  9. 9. JONATHAN DAYTON (New Jersey) was the youngest at age 26 BEN FRANKLIN (Pennsylvania) was the oldest at age 81
  10. 10. Most had some experience as politicians in their home states
  11. 11. 40 of the delegates had been members of the Continental Congress
  12. 12. 34 of the 55 were lawyers Also included soldiers, planters, educators, ministers, physicians, financiers, and merchants
  13. 13. Most were very wealthy and many owned slaves
  14. 14. All the delegates were white men
  15. 15. None of the delegates were African- Americans, Hispanic, women, poor
  16. 16. GUIDELINES FOR THE CONVENTION •Work of the Convention would remain a secret: •White, highly educated, successful men with political experience would be sent: •A majority vote was required on an issue:
  17. 17. PROBLEMS AT THE CONVENTION •Small States and Large State cannot agree on representation; •Northern States and Southern States cannot agree on the issue of slavery; •Federalist and Anti-Federalist cannot agree on the power of the
  18. 18.  Bicameral Legislature (Two – houses)  Both houses will base representation on population with equal number of representatives in each house  Will have a president, legislature, and court system—Three Branches of Government!  Chief executive chosen by legislature and court system Proposed by: Edmund Randolf
  19. 19. Unicameral Legislature (One – house) Representation in legislature will be the same for all states Congress could tax and regulate trade Proposed by: William Patterson
  20. 20.  Resolved Virginia and New Jersey Plans  Bicameral legislature (Two – houses)  Representation in one house (the House of Representatives) will be determined by population (representative elected by the people)  Representation in the other house (the Senate) will be the same for each state (two per state, elected by the state legislature) Proposed by: Roger Sherman
  21. 21. Fixing problems with commerce and trade  Congress was allowed to regulate interstate and foreign trade.  Congress could tax imports, but not exports  Congress was forbidden to restrict the importation of slaves for 20 years, but could levy a tax, for every imported slave as much as $10.  Slaves were not considered free if they ran away to a free state, but rather had to be returned if caught.
  22. 22. Three-Fifths Compromise Counted every 5 slaves as 3 free persons for taxation and representation purposes in Congress.
  23. 23. Elected by Congress?? Elected by the people?? Compromise: The Electoral College
  24. 24. Anti-Federalists disapproved Federalists fought against Anti- Federalists

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