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Engaging Students
with Inquiry
Strategies for Effective Teaching
& Engaging Students
Michael	
  M.	
  Grant	
  
Instruc(onal	
  Design	
  &	
  Technology	
  
h5p://viral-­‐notebook.com	
  
mgrant2@memphis.ed...
http://ijpbl.org
Michael M. Grant 2012
Agenda
• How learning occurs
•  Problem-based learning "
& examples
•  Project-based learning "
& examples
•  Engaging str...
How does learning occur?
Cognitive Learning
Cognitive Load
Constructivist Learning
Assimilation v.
Accommodation
Who likes learning new stuff?
Who likes going school?
We’ve got to change that!
It’s up to me & you!
Authen(c	
  Learning	
  
Ar(ficial	
   Real	
  world	
  relevance	
  
Situated	
  Cogni(on	
  
CraI	
  Appren(ceships	
  
P...
Authen(c	
  Learning	
  
Ar(ficial	
   Real	
  world	
  relevance	
  
Situated	
  Cogni(on	
  
CraI	
  Appren(ceships	
  
C...
Problem-based
Learning
1.  Students must have the
responsibility for their own
learning.
2.  The problem simulations used ...
The PBL Learning Process
Learners encounter a problem and attempt to solve it
with information they already possess, allow...
The PBL Learning Processcont’d
The learners then return to the problem and apply
what they learned to their work with the ...
The PBL Learning Processcont’d
The learners then return to the problem and apply
what they learned to their work with the ...
A more accurate title might be"
SPBIICRL
A more accurate title might be"
“student-centered, problem-
based, inquiry-based,
integrated, collaborative,
reiterative l...
Some Examples
Math & Environmental Science: !
We Need Trees
•  We need the trees — Scene One"
https://docs.google.com/document/pub?id=1O...
Genetics & Math: !
Wondering about Via, too?
•  Overview
•  Scene 1
•  Scene 2
•  Scene 3
•  Scene 4
•  Learning Grid
ijpbl.org
Analyzing the PBL Approach
1.  What is the product or artifact of learning? Can
you hold it?
2.  Is the product or artifac...
PBL Problems
•  The problems used are ill-structured, messy
problems like those the learner will encounter in the
real wor...
Generating the Problem
•  The problem must be authentic.
•  The problem has one or more solutions with one or
more pathway...
Generating the Problem
1.  What is the desired
outcome?
2.  What is the plan that
would address the
desired outcome?
3.  W...
Teacher Role
•  Facilitator, guide on the side, coach,
model, scaffold
•  Will not align with everyone’s
epistemology.
•  ...
Assessment in PBL
Who?
What?
When?
How?
Elements to consider when
planning for PBL
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Evalua(on	
  
Synthesis	
  
Analysis	
  
Applica(on	
  
Comprehension	
  
Knowledge	
  
Lower	
  
Order	
...
Course	
  Embed	
  
1	
  (me	
   Whole	
  course	
   Across	
  courses	
  
Collabora(on	
  
None/minimal	
   Essen(al	
  
...
Expert/teacher	
  role	
  
Direc(ve	
   Facilita(ve	
  
Assessment	
  Ar(facts	
  
Product	
   Process	
   Mul(ple	
  
Ass...
Goal-based Scenarios
•  Target skills have been identified for the learners.
•  Mission refers to the primary goal that the...
Components of Projects
1. Production of a
learning artifact
2. An introduction,
emotional anchor,
or mission
3. Driving qu...
(cc)	
  	
  2013	
  Michael	
  M.	
  Grant	
  |	
  	
  
Directions
1. Choose a topic.
Hands-on: Developing Driving Questio...
(cc)	
  	
  2013	
  Michael	
  M.	
  Grant	
  |	
  	
  
Directions
1. Choose a topic.
2. Think about where or how that
kno...
(cc)	
  	
  2013	
  Michael	
  M.	
  Grant	
  |	
  	
  
Directions
1. Choose a topic.
2. Think about where or how that
kno...
http://tubric.com
http://tubric.com
(cc)	
  	
  2013	
  Michael	
  M.	
  Grant	
  |	
  	
  
Directions
1. Choose a topic.
2. Think about where or how that
kno...
(cc)	
  	
  2013	
  Michael	
  M.	
  Grant	
  |	
  	
  
Directions
1. Choose a topic.
2. Think about where or how that
kno...
COMPONENTS OF PROJECTS
Projects require a task or
series of tasks.
Students follow a process or
investigation to complete
task(s) and produce artifact.
Project are not recipes.
Project task(s) afford
multiple paths to completion
and learning.
Students should have choice
in the topic(s) and/or
process of investigation.
Scaffolds help students
perform at a higher level
with project tasks.
Resources are evaluated
and synthesized to produce
artifact(s).
Collaborations allows
students to negotiate
content and receive
feedback.
Assessment encompasses
process and product.
Artifacts afford multiple
representations of
knowledge.
Projects are not recipes.
Projects should encourage
students to at least apply
knowledge.
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Evalua(on	
  
Synthesis	
  
Analysis	
  
Applica(on	
  
Comprehension	
  
Knowledge	
  
Lower	
  
Order	
...
It is practically impossible
for an artifact to represent
all that has been learned.
How Teachers Use
Project-based Learning
Reinforcer
Extender
Initiator
Navigator
FACTORS THAT WILL INFLUENCE
THE SUCCESS OF PBL
FOR FACULTY & LEARNERS
Teachers and students must
recognize and accept their
roles in project-based
learning.
Teachers and students must
be comfortable with the
physical messiness of
project-based learning.
Teachers and students must
have a tolerance for
ambiguity in project-based
learning.
Project-based learning must
be integrated with the
reality outside a teacher’s
classroom.
This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0
United States License.
Michael M. ...
Engaging Students with Inquiry
Engaging Students with Inquiry
Engaging Students with Inquiry
Engaging Students with Inquiry
Engaging Students with Inquiry
Engaging Students with Inquiry
Engaging Students with Inquiry
Engaging Students with Inquiry
Engaging Students with Inquiry
Engaging Students with Inquiry
Engaging Students with Inquiry
Engaging Students with Inquiry
Engaging Students with Inquiry
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Engaging Students with Inquiry

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Presentation for Baptist College of Health Science by Dr. Michael M. Grant. Focuses on problem-based and project-based learning.

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Engaging Students with Inquiry

  1. 1. Engaging Students with Inquiry Strategies for Effective Teaching & Engaging Students
  2. 2. Michael  M.  Grant   Instruc(onal  Design  &  Technology   h5p://viral-­‐notebook.com   mgrant2@memphis.edu   @michaelmgrant   Michael M. Grant 2012
  3. 3. http://ijpbl.org Michael M. Grant 2012
  4. 4. Agenda • How learning occurs •  Problem-based learning " & examples •  Project-based learning " & examples •  Engaging strategies online " & on ground
  5. 5. How does learning occur?
  6. 6. Cognitive Learning
  7. 7. Cognitive Load
  8. 8. Constructivist Learning
  9. 9. Assimilation v. Accommodation
  10. 10. Who likes learning new stuff?
  11. 11. Who likes going school?
  12. 12. We’ve got to change that! It’s up to me & you!
  13. 13. Authen(c  Learning   Ar(ficial   Real  world  relevance   Situated  Cogni(on   CraI  Appren(ceships   Problem-­‐based  Learning   Project-­‐based  Learning   Cogni(ve  Flexibility  Theory   Direct  Instruc(on   Cases/Case  Studies  
  14. 14. Authen(c  Learning   Ar(ficial   Real  world  relevance   Situated  Cogni(on   CraI  Appren(ceships   Cogni(ve  Flexibility  Theory   Direct  Instruc(on   Cases/Case  Studies   Problem-­‐based  Learning   Project-­‐based  Learning  
  15. 15. Problem-based Learning 1.  Students must have the responsibility for their own learning. 2.  The problem simulations used in problem-based learning must be ill-structured and allow for free inquiry. 3.  Learning should be integrated from a wide range of disciplines or subjects. 4.  Collaboration is essential. 5.  What students learn during their self-directed learning must be applied back to the problem with reanalysis and resolution. 6.  A closing analysis of what has been learned from work with the problem and a discussion of what concepts and principles have been learned is essential. 7.  Self and peer assessment should be carried out at the completion of each problem and at the end of every curricular unit. 8.  The activities carried out in problem-based learning must be those valued in the real world. 9.  Student examinations must measure student progress towards the goals of problem- based learning. 10.  Problem-based learning must be the pedagogical base in the curriculum and not part of a didactic curriculum.
  16. 16. The PBL Learning Process Learners encounter a problem and attempt to solve it with information they already possess, allowing them to appreciate what they already know. They also identify what they need to learn to better understand the problem and how to resolve it. Once they have worked with the problem as far as possible and identified what they need to learn, the learners engage in self-directed study to research the information needed, finding and using a variety of information resources.
  17. 17. The PBL Learning Processcont’d The learners then return to the problem and apply what they learned to their work with the problem in order to more fully understand and resolve the problem. This process is iterative until the problem is resolved. After they have finished their problem work, the learners assess themselves and each other to develop skills in self-assessment and the constructive assessment of peers.
  18. 18. The PBL Learning Processcont’d The learners then return to the problem and apply what they learned to their work with the problem in order to more fully understand and resolve the problem. This process is iterative until the problem is resolved. After they have finished their problem work, the learners assess themselves and each other to develop skills in self-assessment and the constructive assessment of peers. PBL Tutorial
  19. 19. A more accurate title might be" SPBIICRL
  20. 20. A more accurate title might be" “student-centered, problem- based, inquiry-based, integrated, collaborative, reiterative learning.” SPBIICRL But that’s not as sexy.
  21. 21. Some Examples
  22. 22. Math & Environmental Science: ! We Need Trees •  We need the trees — Scene One" https://docs.google.com/document/pub?id=1OP- kYkWquyMT5Kfb-k74Cu9bmvK0FwoopU0Mbw-jQ5w •  We need the trees — Scene Two" https://docs.google.com/document/pub? id=11f9nmQmUAF8QIkU2K6uzE3tALPF0i1We6CaJZDzGnOk
  23. 23. Genetics & Math: ! Wondering about Via, too? •  Overview •  Scene 1 •  Scene 2 •  Scene 3 •  Scene 4 •  Learning Grid
  24. 24. ijpbl.org
  25. 25. Analyzing the PBL Approach 1.  What is the product or artifact of learning? Can you hold it? 2.  Is the product or artifact of learning the same for everyone? 3.  Does the instructional model provide steps/guides for the elements of instruction. 4.  How is it assessed? 5.  Why would you do it?
  26. 26. PBL Problems •  The problems used are ill-structured, messy problems like those the learner will encounter in the real world. •  The learning process requires the skills expected of learners when the encounter problems in their lives and careers.
  27. 27. Generating the Problem •  The problem must be authentic. •  The problem has one or more solutions with one or more pathways to the outcome. •  Initial presentation of the problem should provide minimal information requiring the problem solver to formulate requests for vital information. •  Information should be available upon request or by progressive disclosure. •  Expert review of the case will anticipate the problem solving process and needed information. •  Expert review will predict some alternative pathways and non-productive pathways.
  28. 28. Generating the Problem 1.  What is the desired outcome? 2.  What is the plan that would address the desired outcome? 3.  What is the problem solution(s) that would generate the plan? 4.  What key pieces of information would lead to the solution(s)? 6.  What key pieces of information might be external to the solution, but related? 7.  What pieces of information might be requested but irrelevant? 8.  How does the problem present? 9.  What are the cues/clues that need to be included to prompt problem solving?
  29. 29. Teacher Role •  Facilitator, guide on the side, coach, model, scaffold •  Will not align with everyone’s epistemology. •  Pitfalls?
  30. 30. Assessment in PBL Who? What? When? How?
  31. 31. Elements to consider when planning for PBL
  32. 32. Bloom’s Taxonomy Evalua(on   Synthesis   Analysis   Applica(on   Comprehension   Knowledge   Lower   Order   Thinking   Skills   (LOTS)   Higher   Order   Thinking   Skills   (HOTS)  
  33. 33. Course  Embed   1  (me   Whole  course   Across  courses   Collabora(on   None/minimal   Essen(al   Ambiguity   Low   High   Solu(ons   Single   Mul(ple   Problem  Solving   Single  paths   Mul(ple  paths   Difficulty   Applica(on   Analysis   Evalua(on  Synthesis  
  34. 34. Expert/teacher  role   Direc(ve   Facilita(ve   Assessment  Ar(facts   Product   Process   Mul(ple   Assessment  Perspec(ves   Single/Instructor   Mul(ple   Authen(city   Ar(ficial   Real  world  relevance   Resources   Just  in  case   Just  in  (me   Instruc(onal  Purpose   Problem  Iden(fica(on   Problem  Solving     Both  
  35. 35. Goal-based Scenarios •  Target skills have been identified for the learners. •  Mission refers to the primary goal that the learner pursues within the scenario. •  Mission focus determines the class of task the learner will accomplish (i.e., Design, Diagnosis, Discovery, Control). •  Cover story refers to the premise designed by the instructor under which the mission will be pursued. •  Operations are the specific activities (tasks) learners will go through to learn the target skills in the mission.
  36. 36. Components of Projects 1. Production of a learning artifact 2. An introduction, emotional anchor, or mission 3. Driving question 4. Definition of the learning task 5. Procedure for investigation 6. Suggested resources 7. Scaffolding 8. Collaborations 9. Reflections &transfer activities
  37. 37. (cc)    2013  Michael  M.  Grant  |     Directions 1. Choose a topic. Hands-on: Developing Driving Questions practice
  38. 38. (cc)    2013  Michael  M.  Grant  |     Directions 1. Choose a topic. 2. Think about where or how that knowledge or skill is used in the real world and would matter to your students. Hands-on: Developing Driving Questions practice
  39. 39. (cc)    2013  Michael  M.  Grant  |     Directions 1. Choose a topic. 2. Think about where or how that knowledge or skill is used in the real world and would matter to your students. 3. Break out the Tubric. Hands-on: Developing Driving Questions practice
  40. 40. http://tubric.com
  41. 41. http://tubric.com
  42. 42. (cc)    2013  Michael  M.  Grant  |     Directions 1. Choose a topic. 2. Think about where or how that knowledge or skill is used in the real world and would matter to your students. 3. Break out the Tubric. 4. Translate your knowledge/skill with your context into a driving question. Hands-on: Developing Driving Questions practice
  43. 43. (cc)    2013  Michael  M.  Grant  |     Directions 1. Choose a topic. 2. Think about where or how that knowledge or skill is used in the real world and would matter to your students. 3. Break out the Tubric. 4. Translate your knowledge/skill with your context into a driving question. 5. Try 2-3 questions to see which one is the best. Hands-on: Developing Driving Questions practice
  44. 44. COMPONENTS OF PROJECTS
  45. 45. Projects require a task or series of tasks.
  46. 46. Students follow a process or investigation to complete task(s) and produce artifact. Project are not recipes.
  47. 47. Project task(s) afford multiple paths to completion and learning.
  48. 48. Students should have choice in the topic(s) and/or process of investigation.
  49. 49. Scaffolds help students perform at a higher level with project tasks.
  50. 50. Resources are evaluated and synthesized to produce artifact(s).
  51. 51. Collaborations allows students to negotiate content and receive feedback.
  52. 52. Assessment encompasses process and product.
  53. 53. Artifacts afford multiple representations of knowledge. Projects are not recipes.
  54. 54. Projects should encourage students to at least apply knowledge.
  55. 55. Bloom’s Taxonomy Evalua(on   Synthesis   Analysis   Applica(on   Comprehension   Knowledge   Lower   Order   Thinking   Skills   (LOTS)   Higher   Order   Thinking   Skills   (HOTS)  
  56. 56. It is practically impossible for an artifact to represent all that has been learned.
  57. 57. How Teachers Use Project-based Learning Reinforcer Extender Initiator Navigator
  58. 58. FACTORS THAT WILL INFLUENCE THE SUCCESS OF PBL FOR FACULTY & LEARNERS
  59. 59. Teachers and students must recognize and accept their roles in project-based learning.
  60. 60. Teachers and students must be comfortable with the physical messiness of project-based learning.
  61. 61. Teachers and students must have a tolerance for ambiguity in project-based learning.
  62. 62. Project-based learning must be integrated with the reality outside a teacher’s classroom.
  63. 63. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. Michael M. Grant, PhD 2013

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