Sound Pedagogies Online in Blended, Synchronous & Asynchronous Courses


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Strategies for designing and teaching blended, synchronous, and asynchronous online courses. Presented at Cengage Learning Computing Conference by Dr. Michael M. Grant

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Sound Pedagogies Online in Blended, Synchronous & Asynchronous Courses

  1. 1. Michael  M.  Grant,  PhD   Assistant  Professor  &  Program  Coordinator   Educa5onal  Technology   University  of  South  Carolina   Sound  Pedagogies  Online  in  Blended,   Synchronous  &  Asynchronous  Courses  
  2. 2. Michael M. Grant The University of South Carolina @michaelmgrant
  3. 3. THISSESSIONISNOT… Image  from  h>ps://    
  4. 4. AndDefinitelyNOT… Image  from  h>ps://  
  5. 5. It’salsoNOT… Image  from  h>ps://  
  6. 6. ButWhatthissessionis… Image  from  h>p://    
  7. 7. 4  Things   to  Tackle 1.  Course  Planning  &   Organiza5on   2.  SeYng  Student   Expecta5ons  &   Encouraging  Engagement   3.  Grading  &  Assessment   4.  Synchronous/Web   Conferencing  
  8. 8. Course  Planning   &  Organiza>on 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference   1  
  9. 9. Online  teachers  clearly  organize  and   structure  content.   (Crews  &  Bu>erfield,  2014;  DiPietro,  et  al.,  2008)     Many  ins>tu>ons  use  a  course  design   template  for  online  courses  because   it  provides  students  a  standardized   web  naviga>on  experience.   (Collins,  Weber  &  Zambrano,  2014)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  10. 10. Course  Planning 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference   (Adapted  from  University  of  Maryland-­‐College  Park)  
  11. 11. Course  Planning 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference   (McGee  &  Reis,  2012)  
  12. 12. Online  Course  Organiza>on 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference   Introduc5on  or   overview   Provide  a  brief  introduc5on  or  overview  of  the  unit  or  topic.     Provide  your  own  voice  here.    Emphasize  your  personality.    Use   media  (e.g.,  slideshows,  videos,  graphics,  graphic  organizers)  to   gain  the  learner’s  a>en5on.    Reference  the  media  in  your   introduc5on.    Use  links.     Standards  or   Objec5ves/SPIs   Share  the  objec5ves/standards:  “At  the  end  of  this  unit,   YSBAT…”   This  is  helpful  for  accredita5on.   Readings  &  Media   List  here  the  texts  and  other  media  you  would  like  the  learners   to  digest.    Be  sure  you’ve  considered  how  these  KSAs  will  be   embedded  within  other  learning  ac5vi5es.    (Use  other  media   beyond  the  text.    Embed  others’  content.)   Addi5onal  Learning   Resources   Consider  adding  a  sec5on  for  addi5onal  learning  (i.e.,   differen5a5on).    For  example,  bookmarks  to  tools  and   instruments,  par5cipa5on  in  a  blog  conversa5on,  links  to   relevant  sites  or  examples.       Ac5vi5es   List  here  the  ac5vi5es  learners  will  engage  in  to  apply  and   process  the  KSAs  from  the  Readings  &  Media  (e.g.,  projects,   discussions,  interviews,  assessments,  summaries).  Consider  a   cafeteria  plan  op5on.     Developed  in  collabora5on  with  Lee  Allen,  Trey  Mar5ndale  &  Clif  Mims.  
  13. 13. 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  14. 14. 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  15. 15. 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  16. 16. Introductory  Pages 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  17. 17. Use  a  Modular  Syllabus 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  18. 18. Only  post  due  dates  in  one  place   (probably,  the  course  schedule);   separate  due  dates  from   requirements. (Smith,  2015)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  19. 19. SeNng  Student   Expecta>ons  &   Encouraging   Engagement 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference   2  
  20. 20. SeNng  Expecta>ons § LeYng  students  know  at  the  beginning  of  a  course   what  to  expect  will  curtail  the  anxiety  they  might   feel.     § Consider  specifying  email  response  5mes.   § Consider  specifying  when  grading  &  feedback   will  be  posted/available.   (Hoffman,  2010)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  21. 21. Expecta>ons  for  Access SeYng  Student  Expecta5ons   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  22. 22. Specify  expecta>ons  for  professional   communica>ons. 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  23. 23. Secondary  students’  wri>ng  in   discussion  board,  journals,  and  blogs   showed  severe  misuse  of  grammar. (Kerr,  2011)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  24. 24. Overall,  posi>ve  effect  size  of  0.38  for   achievement  outcomes  favoring   more  interac>ve  treatments  over  less   interac>ve  ones. (Abrami  et  al.,  2011,  p.  85-­‐86)     2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  25. 25. BeVer  learning  outcomes  are   stronger  in  courses  with  a  high   faculty  teaching  and  social  presence,   and  peer  collabora>on,  as  opposed   to  a  student  learning  independently   by  watching  videos  or  reading   materials.   (Collins,  Weber  &  Zambrano,  2014)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  26. 26. Instructors  must  consider  how  they   will  infuse  themselves  into  the  course   materials  throughout  the  semester (Hoffman,  2010)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  27. 27. Using  a  screen  and  video  capturing  program,  I   post  a  short  weekly  video  announcement  to:   (1)  let  students  see  me  and  recognize  that  I  am   a  real  person;  (2)  conduct  housekeeping   ac>vi>es,  such  as  reminders  of  upcoming   assignments  and  due  dates;  (3)  provide  “just-­‐ in-­‐>me”  comments  and  discussion  about   topics  that  need  further  explana>on  or   clarifica>on;  and  (4)  discuss  current  events.   These  weekly  video  announcements  reinforce   …  that  I  am  here,  ac>ve,  and  enthusias>c   about  the  course. (Hoffman,  2010)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  28. 28. Video  Introduc>on 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  29. 29. hVps:// 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  30. 30. Students  felt  courses  that   emphasized  text-­‐based  content,   individualized  learning,  and  limited   interac>on  with  others  were  less   helpful  than  those  that  were  more   interac>ve  and  incorporated  the  use   of  mul>media.   (Boling  et  al.,  2012)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  31. 31. Embed  Media 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  32. 32. Image  from  Stephen  Poff  at   CSMs Leverage  email
  33. 33. Write  more  frequent,  descrip>ve   group  email  announcements  for  the   whole  class,  summarizing  and   drawing  conclusions  from  online   discussions,  providing  overarching   feedback  for  an  assignment,  and/or   offering  reminders  of  upcoming   projects  and  deadlines.   (Cerniglia,  2011)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  34. 34. Create  short  videos  that  draw  on   weekly  reading  assignments  so  the   online  students  can  see  me  in  ac>on   and  hear  my  perspec>ve  on  the   readings. (Cerniglia,  2011)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  35. 35. “It’s  one  thing  to  listen  to  an   accoun>ng  instructor  siNng  in  a   classroom  for  two  hours.  It’s  a   completely  different  thing  to  have  to   do  that  same  experience  if  you're   siNng  behind  a  computer  monitor   and  you  don't  have  any  feedback  or   other  students  siNng  around  you.” (Shanauser,  2015)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  36. 36. Consider  mini-­‐lectures,  videos  that   last  2  to  5  minutes  and  introduce  a   par>cularly  difficult  topic  or  provide   background. (Shanauser,  2015)     2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  37. 37. Record  video  descrip>ons  of   individual  assignments  to  help   students  beVer  understand   expecta>ons.   (Cerniglia,  2011)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  38. 38. Video  descrip>ons 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference   Talking  through  individual  assignments  
  39. 39. Narrated  slideshows  to  embed/link iSpring  Free  as  a  plugin  to  Powerpoint  on  Windows  
  40. 40. Screen  recording  to  embed/link
  41. 41. Strategies  for  Meaningful  Discussions § Use  guiding  ques5ons.   Tips  for  Asynchronous  Discussion  
  42. 42. MANIC  Discussion  Strategy § What  was  the  Most  important  thing  in  the  reading?     § What  was  something  you  Agree  with  in  the   reading?     § What  was  something  you  do  Not  agree  with  in  the   reading?     § What  was  something  you  found  Interes5ng  in  the   reading?     § What  was  something  you  found  Confusing  in  the   reading?       (Curry  &  Cook,  2014)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference   Strategies  for  Meaningful  Discussions  
  43. 43. Strategies  for  Meaningful  Discussions § Use  guiding  ques5ons.   § Provide  students  with  guidelines  on  how  to  write   quality  pos5ngs.   Tips  for  Asynchronous  Discussions  
  44. 44. SeNng  Expecta>ons 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  45. 45. SeNng  Expecta>ons § When  responding  to  someone  with  whom  they   disagree,  students  are  instructed  to     (1)  state  the  person’s  name  to  create  some   in5macy,     (2)  paraphrase  the  other  person’s  point  to   demonstrate  understanding  the  post,  and  then   (3)  provide  an  alterna5ve  perspec5ve  or   construc5ve  cri5cism.       (Collins,  Weber  &  Zambrano,  2014)     2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference   Tips  for  Asynchronous  Discussions  
  46. 46. Strategies  for  Meaningful  Discussions § Use  guiding  ques5ons.   § Provide  students  with  guidelines  on  how  to  write   quality  pos5ngs.   § Consider  3-­‐7  different  ques5ons  for  each  discussion   topic.   Tips  for  Asynchronous  Discussions  
  47. 47. Strategies  for  Meaningful  Discussions § Use  guiding  ques5ons.   § Provide  students  with  guidelines  on  how  to  write   quality  pos5ngs.   § Consider  3-­‐7  different  ques5ons  for  each  discussion   topic.   § Push  for  deeper  discussions.   Tips  for  Asynchronous  Discussions  
  48. 48. Assign  roles  to  students  (e.g.,  ques>oner,   responder,  reviewer)  for  online   discussions  that  would  require  students   to  facilitate  and  monitor  course   discussions.   (Kerr,  2011)     Use  online  role  play  with  different  points  of   view  (e.g.,  sage,  devil’s  advocate,  supporter,   etc.)  and  consider  debates  from  differing  POVs   (e.g.,  manager,  developer,  end  user,  client,  etc.)   (Bonk,  2015;  McGee  &  Reis,  2012)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  49. 49. Strategies  for  Meaningful  Discussions § Use  guiding  ques5ons.   § Provide  students  with  guidelines  on  how  to  write   quality  pos5ngs.   § Consider  3-­‐7  different  ques5ons  for  each  discussion   topic.   § Push  for  deeper  discussions.   § Remember  what  it  means  to  be  a  student.   Tips  for  Asynchronous  Discussions  
  50. 50. Use  a  Wednesday  to   Wednesday  schedule  so   that  students  could   maximize  the  weekend   ajer  receiving  instruc>on.   (Boling  et  al.,  2012)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  51. 51. Grading  &   Assessment 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference   3  
  52. 52. Provide  opportuni>es  for  student   choice  to  present  their   understanding.       Teachers  use  mul>ple  strategies  to   assess  student  learning,  based  on  the   content  area  of  the  course.     Encourage  student  interac>on  with   the  content  by  offering  mul>ple   assessment  opportuni>es  (i.e.,  short   quizzes,  exercises,  ac>vi>es).   (DiPietro,  et  al.,  2008;  Hoffman,  2010;  Kerr,  2011)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  53. 53. Students  did  not  like  it  when  they   received  liVle  to  no  feedback  from   their  instructors.   (Boling  et  al.,  2012)       Include  rubrics  for  assessment.   (Kerr,  2011)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  54. 54. Project  Page  Template Collabora5on  with  Lee  Allen,  Trey  Mar5ndale  &  Clif  Mims.  
  55. 55. 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  56. 56. An  instructor  who  requires  students   to  engage  in  online  discussions   should  take  the  >me  to  provide   guidelines  regarding  both  the   expected  quality  and  quan>ty  of   student  par>cipa>on. (Hoffman,  2010)     2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  57. 57. Grading  Discussions § Clarify  in  advance  how  students  will   be  graded.       1.  Quan5ty  of  informa5on  or  posts   is/is  not  a  criterion  for  discussion   grades.       2.  Both  quan5ty  and  quality  of   student  posts  will  be  graded.     2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference   Discussion  Posts  
  58. 58. Grading  Discussions 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference   Discussion  Boards   (Wei,  Peng,  &  Chou,  2015)  
  59. 59. Synchronous   Mee>ngs/Web   Conferencing 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference   4  
  60. 60. To  help  foster  a  personal  connec>on   between  instructors  and  students,   every  online  course  developed   internally  at  U  of  Southern  California   includes  a  one-­‐hour  real-­‐>me   session. (Shanauser,  2015)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  61. 61. What  I’ve  Learned  &  Researched § Video  adds  li>le  instruc5onally.   § Switching  students  wastes  5me.   Tips  for  Synchronous  Mee5ngs/Web  Conferencing  
  62. 62. 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  63. 63. 2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  64. 64. What  I’ve  Learned  &  Researched § Video  adds  li>le  instruc5onally.   § Switching  students  wastes  5me.   § Use  the  text-­‐based  chat,  too.   Tips  for  Synchronous  Mee5ngs/Web  Conferencing  
  65. 65. Image  from  h>p://   Using  Chat,  too.
  66. 66. Analyze  learners   Analyze  context   Define  performance  gap   POLLEnter in Chat. Quick Poll Task E is dependent on which task(s)?
  67. 67. Analyze  learners   Analyze  context   Define  performance  gap   POLLEnter in Chat. Quick Poll In this example, Task E might be what task for instructional design?
  68. 68. What  I’ve  Learned  &  Researched § Video  adds  li>le  instruc5onally.   § Switching  students  wastes  5me.   § Use  the  text-­‐based  chat,  too.   § Video  costs  more.   Tips  for  Synchronous  Mee5ngs/Web  Conferencing  
  69. 69. Only  64  percent  of  African-­‐ Americans,  53  percent  of  Hispanics,   and  54  percent  of  lower-­‐income   Americans  overall  (meaning  those   making  less  than  $30,000  a  year)   have  broadband  access  at  home. (Pew  Research  Internet  Project,  2013;  Eng,  2015)   2015  Cengage  Learning  Compu5ng  Conference  
  70. 70. What  I’ve  Learned  &  Researched § Video  adds  li>le  instruc5onally.   § Switching  students  wastes  5me.   § Use  the  text-­‐based  chat,  too.   § Video  costs  more.   § Fast  finger  ques5oning  makes  it  fun.   Tips  for  Synchronous  Mee5ngs/Web  Conferencing  
  71. 71. Images  from  h>p://daves-­‐  &  h>p://­‐content/uploads/2009/07/milllogo3101finalcl.JPG.   Fast  Finger  Ques>ons
  72. 72. Directions: Type your answer into the chat box but do not hit “Enter” until Dr. Grant says to. This is like Scattergories. Try not to name the same one as someone else.
  73. 73. Name one reason elearning projects fail. Directions: Type your answer into the chat box but do not hit “Enter” until Dr. Grant says to.
  74. 74. What  I’ve  Learned  &  Researched § Video  adds  li>le  instruc5onally.   § Switching  students  wastes  5me.   § Use  the  text-­‐based  chat,  too.   § Broadcas5ng  is  be>er  but  …   § Video  costs  more.   § Fast  finger  ques5oning  makes  it  fun.   § Calling  on  students  makes  them  be>er  prepared.   § Handouts  are  helpful  to  focus  students.   § A  web  conference  can  eliminate  a  flurry  of  emails.   § Make  students  complete  the  diagnos5cs.   Tips  for  Synchronous  Mee5ngs/Web  Conferencing  
  75. 75. Image  from  h>p://   Diagnos>cs
  76. 76. What  I’ve  Learned  &  Researched § Video  adds  li>le  instruc5onally.   § Switching  students  wastes  5me.   § Use  the  text-­‐based  chat,  too.   § Broadcas5ng  is  be>er  but  …   § Video  costs  more.   § Fast  finger  ques5oning  makes  it  fun.   § Calling  on  students  makes  them  be>er  prepared.   § Handouts  are  helpful  to  focus  students.   § A  web  conference  can  eliminate  a  flurry  of  emails.   § Make  students  complete  the  diagnos5cs.   § Build  in  extra  5me  the  first  5me.  Begin  broadcas5ng   early  with  a  window  to  check  in.   Tips  for  Synchronous  Mee5ngs/Web  Conferencing  
  77. 77. Ques>ons?
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  79. 79. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. Michael M. Grant, PhD 2015