Notice the words in all uppercase. These words can also be found throughout Common Core, Essential Standards, and Bloom’s Taxonomy.Basic and simple tenants that any student needs to filter through and use information.
By the time they leave us, our students should be able to do these things.
Bird Units – The term coined for units of study where students cut and paste facts from information sources (books, Internet, etc…) to worksheets. Little learning occurs and these types of units usually result in plagiarism. They usually focus on topics like explorers, old famous dead men, state capitals, branches of government, etc…Questions do not equal copy and paste factual information from resources to a worksheet.What process did students use to access and use this information? It should be deeper than a simple Google search.Computer is a tool to teach information literacy skills, it’s not the skill itself.
Information literacy is not about learning how to use a computer or other types of technology. It is about learning skills that utilize technology as a tool.
Classroom/library skills are generally isolated to specific content, while information literacy skills are geared more towards integrated curriculum and collaboration.
Where do you see the definitions of information literacy on RBT?
Introduce how the standards are set up and divide the group to briefly explain/summarize each standard. Then discuss briefly each standard and ask for questions.
Have each person mark each standard with a number 1-6, recording any of the 6 things information literate students should do.
One of the easiest and most seamless ways to incorporate and teach information literacy skills is through research projects that require a process in order to complete them. This means formulating a research question that is more than Who was _____? or Why is ______ important? It means providing opportunities for guided inquiry.
At this point, have each person review their research project/question that they brought and identify any parts of the research process that they already require students to complete. If parts are missing, they can brainstorm ways in which they can include them.
Mention that Tech Tuesdays Website has links for more information on PBL.
Information literacy and research process
Tavia Clark, Media CoordinatorPasquotank County High School
There are many definitions of informationliteracy. Simply put, information literacy is: The ability to RECOGNIZE a need The ability to ACCESS, FIND, EVALUATE, USE, and COMMUNICATE information (Taylor, 2006)
When and to what extent information is needed How to locate the information they need How to evaluate information and its sources How to synthesize and incorporate information Legal and ethical practices in the use of this information (Gorman and Suellentrop, 2009)
Information literacy is not computer literacy “Bird Units” “My students use the computer all the time to answer questions.” What thought is involved in accessing and using information? Keyboarding skills and ability in using the computer to manipulate software and the Internet are not enough A computer is a tool to facilitate learning of information literacy skills
“It is not enough to provide accessto selected Internet sites and anarray of print resources. We mustprovide the skills and resourcesteens need to become independentsuccessful researchers.” (Gorman and Suellentrop, 2009)
Classroom/Library Skills Information Literacy SkillsSkills taught in isolation Skills integrated with other curriculaSkills taught on a specific schedule Skills taught when neededEmphasis on locating and accessing Emphasis on evaluating and usingresources resources and learning search strategiesEither Teacher or Librarian makes Collaboration between Teacher andall decisions LibrarianTeacher/Librarian responsible for Student responsible for learninglearningTeacher/Librarian directed Student more self-directedPrinted resources Resources in multiple formatsEvaluation of product Evaluation, including self- evaluation, of process and product (Taylor, 2006)
“Ideally, they [students]should develop a CONSCIOUSapproach to their research.” (Gorman and Suellentrop, 2009)
The ability to RECOGNIZE a need The ability to ACCESS, FIND, EVALUATE, USE, and COMMUNICATE informationImage Credit: http://edorigami.wikispaces.com/file/view/blooms_revised_taxomony.jpg
NC Essential Standards, Grades 9-12, Information and TechnologySI: Sources of InformationIN: Informational TextTT: Technology as a ToolRP: Research ProcessSE: Safety and Ethical Issues
1. When and to what extent information is needed2. How to locate the information they need3. How to evaluate information4. How to evaluate sources of information5. How to synthesize and incorporate information6. Legal and ethical practices in the use of this information How do these match with NC Information and Technology Essential Standards, Grades 9-12?
Students need to learn a process for doing research A process approach to doing research ensures consistent development and application of information literacy skills Learning a research process is learning how to solve problems within various curriculum areas“Students cannot be taught all the facts thatthey will ever need to know, but they can be taught a process for solving information problems.” (Taylor, 2006)
1. The Research Problem2. Finding Information3. Extracting Information4. Product/Project5. Evaluation
What does the student do?Define the keywords and search terms to be usedHow does the student do it? Brainstorming Think about and relating what is already known Generating keywords to be used in finding and extracting information Synonyms and like terms
What does the student do?Decides on the best “place” to look forinformationHow does the student do it? Avoiding the answer, “The Internet” Finding the right source(s) for the questions to be answered
What does the student do?Extracts the information from the resources foundHow does the student do it? Literacy skills Graphic organizers Various methods for taking notes Highlighting Developing appropriate interview questions Students must understand that different types of resources require different skills to extract information.
What does the student do?Synthesize and organize information in somemanner to convey what was learnedHow does the student do it? Avoid producing products/projects that are merely factual Apply critical thinking skills by creating products/projects that require making inferences and coming to conclusions (applying real-life skills)
What does the student do?Think about and reflect on the research processand how this process workedHow does the student do it? Asks questions of him/herself Think about improvements, what worked, and what did not work Think about time management Reflect, reflect, reflect throughout the process, not just at the end
1. The Research Problem2. Finding Information3. Extracting Information4. Product/Project5. Evaluation What parts of the research process can you see evident in your research problem/project?
It’s important to know the steps inthe research process, but it is alsoimportant to understand how theprocess integrates into what isalready being taught.Teaching research skills should bean enhancement that helps studentssucceed in their learning even afterleaving school.
This method can be implemented forany type of research based activity,but to have students develop andutilize higher order thinking skills,project based learning can be used.
Students go through an extended process of inquiry in response to a complex question, problem, or challenge. Rigorous projects help students learn key academic content and practice 21st Century Skills (such as collaboration, communication & critical thinking). Teacher usually presents a driving question. Students are not handed "content", so learning becomes active in the sense that they discover and work with content that they determine to be necessary to solve the problem or answer the question. Teacher acts as facilitator and mentor, rather than a source of "solutions." Adapted from: http://www.bie.org/about/what_is_pbl and http://www.studygs.net/pbl.htm
Qualities of Rigorous and in-depth Project Based Learning: organized around an open-ended driving question or challenge creates need to know essential content and skills requires inquiry to learn and/or create something new requires critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, and various forms of communication allows some degree of student voice and choice incorporates feedback and revision results in a publicly presented product or performance students examine and try out what they know develop people skills for achieving higher performance in teams state and defend positions with evidence and sound argument practice skills that they will need after leaving school Adapted from: http://www.bie.org/about/what_is_pbl and http://www.studygs.net/pbl.htm
A driving question is one that gives a sense of focus and purpose for a project based learning or researching. For the teacher: Helps to initiate and focus inquiry Helps to focus the teaching and learning throughout the project Captures and communicates the purpose of the project in a succinct question Guides planning and reframes standards or big content and skillsRemember, a driving question should not be a standardreimagined into the form of a question. It should be a question that reframes standards to make them accessible to both the teacher and the student.
For the student: Creates interest and a feeling of challenge Guides the project work, including the final project and all lessons and activities in between to create a sense of purpose for everything in the project unit Helps students answer the question, “Why are we doing this?” Helps them articulate the reason behind daily lessons and activities Adapted from: http://www.edutopia.org/blog/pbl-how-to-write-driving-questions-andrew-miller
Driving questions are just essential questions on caffeine. Driving questions demand authenticity and rigorous problem-solving, which essential questions can do, but dont always. Essential questions are often created to be more like enduring understands or learning targets and do not always drive the learning. Driving questions must be accessible to the students and engage them. Essential questions are written for the teacher. Adapted from: http://www.edutopia.org/blog/pbl-how-to-refine-driving-questions-andrew-miller
What is epic poetry? Howdoes probability relate to games? Why is science important and how can it save people?
Philosophical or Debatable: These types of questions are honestly debatable questions that have complex possible answers. Require complex, rigorous thought, and corresponding student products. If you have an agenda, and want students to get to a certain place, this isnt the type of question to use. Example: Can a dog live in the desert? Adapted from: http://www.edutopia.org/blog/pbl-how-to-refine-driving-questions-andrew-miller
Product-Oriented: How do we create ______ to ______? Use if you have a specific student product in mind. It isnt just about the product, but the purpose as well. Examples: How do we create a podcast to debunk myths and stereotypes of world religions? How do I create an epic poem about an important episode in my daily life? Adapted from: http://www.edutopia.org/blog/pbl-how-to-refine-driving-questions-andrew-miller
Role-Oriented: Students love to take on roles and pretend to be things they are not, even high school students. Give students an authentic or real-world role with a problem to solve or project to accomplish. Examples: How do we as architects design an outdoor classroom for our school? How can I, as a scientist, design an experiment to debunk a common scientific myth? Adapted from: http://www.edutopia.org/blog/pbl-how-to-refine-driving-questions-andrew-miller
What is epic poetry? How do I write an epic poem about an important episode of my life? How does probability relate to games? How do we create a new gambling game to create more revenue for the casino without customers noticing? Why is science important and how can it help save people? Should we allow for genetic engineering to prevent diseases and illnesses?
Now that you know EVERYTHING about Information Literacy and the Research Process you can reevaluate your research project/problem to make it more focused on the research process and inclusion of information literacy skills. Consider your driving question (or lack there of) and make sure its focused and geared towards inquiry. Complete the homework assignment located on the Tech Tuesday Website.
Gorman, M. & T. Suellentrop. (2009). Connecting young adults and libraries. New York: Neal- Schuman Publishers. Taylor,J. (2006). Information literacy and the school library media center. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.