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How to do backward curriculum design
Charlie Inskip | Alison Hicks
Department of Information Studies, UCL
Liverpool, April...
overview
This Masterclass will focus on backward design, an approach to curriculum design
developed by Wiggins and McTighe...
learning outcomes
Apply theoretical principles and
practical examples in order to
create and evaluate a lesson
plan releva...
librarian-as-teacher
• Professional competences
• Library school curriculum
• Professional identity
What is teaching?
What is learning?
what is teaching?
“A teaching activity is the activity of a
person, A (the teacher), the intention of
which is to bring ab...
what is learning?
“making meaning” (Marton and Booth, 1997)
“relatively permanent change in behaviour as a
consequence of ...
Learning
Goal oriented
Influenced by development
Occurs in phases, yet is
non-linear
Uses cognitive and
metacognitive stra...
schools of thought
Behaviourism Cognitivism Constructivism
behaviourism
• B.F. Skinner (1961)
– Learning: change in behaviour
– Environment shapes behaviour
– Timely events and rein...
cognitivism
• Jean Piaget (1929)
• Children
• 4 stages of development
– Active engagement
– Present challenges
– Perform t...
constructivism
• Jerome Bruner (1966)
– Learning is an active process
– Individuals create new ideas or concepts
based on ...
Bloom’s taxonomy
Create
Evaluate
Analyse
Apply
Understand
Remember
Bloom, B. (1956) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Ne...
Cognitivedomain
Knowledge Remembering without
understanding
Comprehension Demonstrating
understanding
Application Solving ...
SOLO Prestructural
Unistructural
Memorise,
identify, recognise
Count, order
Multistructural Classify, describe
Compute,
il...
thresholdconcepts
transformative changes your views
troublesome counter-intuitive
irreversible cannot be unlearned
integra...
1. Backward
Design
2. Learning
Outcomes
3.
Assessment
4. Active
Learning
Backward Design
1. Backward Design
A focus on learning…
…rather than teaching, activities or content
What is backward design?
Stage 1: Identify Desired
Results
Stage 2: Determine
Acceptable Evidence
Stage 3: Plan Learning
Experiences and Instruction
Backward design can help:
• Avoid activity or coverage
focused instructional design
• Make the most of time frame
• Centre...
2. Learning Outcomes
learner centered teaching
Describes what
students should be
able to demonstrate,
represent, or produce
as a result of their
learning
(Maki, 2004).
S...
• build a structure for the
unit/session
• communicate to
students how to be
successful
why SLO’s matter...
today’s outcomes...
Instead of…
• Learn about backward
design
Apply theoretical
principles and practical
examples in order...
from goal to outcome…
• Match the two halves
of an outcome
• Choose one outcome
to focus on for the
rest of this session
try it…
3. Assessment
Assessment for:
● Teaching
● Learning
● Legitimisation...
reflective, authentic assessment
Assessment
For teaching
and learning
Quantifiable
Authentic
and reflective
For
legitimisation
Formative or
summative?
Assessment
For teaching and
learning
Quantifiable
Authentic and
reflective
Formative
Classroom
assessment
techniques
Summa...
“Simple, non-graded, anonymous, in-class
activities designed to give you and your
students useful feedback on the teaching...
“known as alternative or authentic assessment,
it’s a form of testing that requires students to
perform a task rather than...
Develop topic-relevant vocabulary in order to search
databases with maximum flexibility and effectiveness.
• Classroom: Se...
Distinguish between scholarly, trade and popular
resources in order to think critically about the
authority of sources
• C...
Take a look through the list of
assessments. Choose one that
aligns with and will help you
assess your learning outcome.
•...
4. Active Learning
how will your students learn that?
SLO: Develop topic-relevant vocabulary in order
to search databases with maximum flexib...
Active learning: teaching in a half-ass way that makes
students have to go home and learn it on their own…
much more than…
• Hands-on activity
• Having students move
around the room
• Shiny technology
• “Engage” students
“Active learning is a process
whereby students engage in
activities, such as reading,
writing, discussion, or
problem solv...
¡ojo!
challenges
1. How will I cover all of the
necessary content?
2. I will have to abandon
everything I have learned to do
ove...
SLO: Develop topic-relevant vocabulary in order to search databases
with maximum flexibility and effectiveness.
Assessment...
your turn!
Take a look through the list of active
learning ideas. Choose one that aligns with
your learning outcome and as...
Thanks for attending our masterclass!
c.inskip@ucl.ac.uk | @charlieinskip
a.hicks@ucl.ac.uk | @alisonhicks0
Images
https://www.flickr.com/photos/missnita/380929930
https://www.flickr.com/photos/sveinhal/2488694307
https://www.flic...
How to do backward curriculum design - Inskip & Hicks
How to do backward curriculum design - Inskip & Hicks
How to do backward curriculum design - Inskip & Hicks
How to do backward curriculum design - Inskip & Hicks
How to do backward curriculum design - Inskip & Hicks
How to do backward curriculum design - Inskip & Hicks
How to do backward curriculum design - Inskip & Hicks
How to do backward curriculum design - Inskip & Hicks
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How to do backward curriculum design - Inskip & Hicks

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How to do backward curriculum design - Inskip & Hicks

  1. 1. How to do backward curriculum design Charlie Inskip | Alison Hicks Department of Information Studies, UCL Liverpool, April 4th – 6th 2018
  2. 2. overview This Masterclass will focus on backward design, an approach to curriculum design developed by Wiggins and McTighe (2006) and adopted by the new ACRL Framework. This approach, which uses learning outcomes to determine assessment approaches and course content, will be explained and demonstrated There will be an informed discussion on its relevance and validity in teaching information literacy. The workshop will take a practical approach, devising learning outcomes, assessment and content for a learning intervention to be agreed in the session. It will draw from our experience in learning and teaching across a wide range of higher educational and professional contexts in the UK and the USA. Attendees will be able to take away a backward-designed lesson-plan which they can then use as a basis for running a session in their workplace.
  3. 3. learning outcomes Apply theoretical principles and practical examples in order to create and evaluate a lesson plan relevant to your work
  4. 4. librarian-as-teacher • Professional competences • Library school curriculum • Professional identity
  5. 5. What is teaching?
  6. 6. What is learning?
  7. 7. what is teaching? “A teaching activity is the activity of a person, A (the teacher), the intention of which is to bring about an activity (learning), by a person, B (the pupil), the intention of which is to achieve some end-state (e.g. knowing, appreciating) whose object is X (e.g. a belief, attitude, skill).” (Hirst, 1971)
  8. 8. what is learning? “making meaning” (Marton and Booth, 1997) “relatively permanent change in behaviour as a consequence of experience” (Haselgrove, 2016) “mastering abstract principles, understanding proofs, remembering factual information, acquiring methods, techniques and approaches, recognition, reasoning, debating ideas, or developing behaviour appropriate to specific situations” (Fry et al., 2009)
  9. 9. Learning Goal oriented Influenced by development Occurs in phases, yet is non-linear Uses cognitive and metacognitive strategies Organises information Links new information to prior knowledge Characteristics of learning (Crane, 2014)
  10. 10. schools of thought Behaviourism Cognitivism Constructivism
  11. 11. behaviourism • B.F. Skinner (1961) – Learning: change in behaviour – Environment shapes behaviour – Timely events and reinforcement • Conditioning • Rote learning Skinner, B. (1968). The technology of teaching (Century psychology series). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
  12. 12. cognitivism • Jean Piaget (1929) • Children • 4 stages of development – Active engagement – Present challenges – Perform tasks just beyond capabilities Piaget, J. (1929) The child’s conception of the world
  13. 13. constructivism • Jerome Bruner (1966) – Learning is an active process – Individuals create new ideas or concepts based on their current and past knowledge – Learning should focus on real world problems • Collaboration and reflective thinking • Teacher as facilitator Bruner, J. (1966) Toward a theory of instruction
  14. 14. Bloom’s taxonomy Create Evaluate Analyse Apply Understand Remember Bloom, B. (1956) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York : David McKay
  15. 15. Cognitivedomain Knowledge Remembering without understanding Comprehension Demonstrating understanding Application Solving problems Analysis Finding evidence Synthesis Creating a new structure Evaluation Making judgements Blooms Taxonomy
  16. 16. SOLO Prestructural Unistructural Memorise, identify, recognise Count, order Multistructural Classify, describe Compute, illustrate Relational Argue, analyse, explain Construct, translate Extended abstract Theorise, hypothesize Invent, create Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO), Biggs & Collis, 1982
  17. 17. thresholdconcepts transformative changes your views troublesome counter-intuitive irreversible cannot be unlearned integrative bring together previously unrelated ideas bounded has special terminology discursive extends language use reconstitutive shifts your perceptions liminality have an unstable 'in- between' state Threshold concepts, Meyer & Land, 2003
  18. 18. 1. Backward Design 2. Learning Outcomes 3. Assessment 4. Active Learning
  19. 19. Backward Design 1. Backward Design
  20. 20. A focus on learning… …rather than teaching, activities or content What is backward design?
  21. 21. Stage 1: Identify Desired Results Stage 2: Determine Acceptable Evidence Stage 3: Plan Learning Experiences and Instruction
  22. 22. Backward design can help: • Avoid activity or coverage focused instructional design • Make the most of time frame • Centre on big ideas rather than mechanics • Design for understanding Wiggins & McTighe: Understanding by Design
  23. 23. 2. Learning Outcomes
  24. 24. learner centered teaching
  25. 25. Describes what students should be able to demonstrate, represent, or produce as a result of their learning (Maki, 2004). SLOs, defined:
  26. 26. • build a structure for the unit/session • communicate to students how to be successful why SLO’s matter...
  27. 27. today’s outcomes... Instead of… • Learn about backward design Apply theoretical principles and practical examples in order to create and evaluate a lesson plan relevant to your work
  28. 28. from goal to outcome…
  29. 29. • Match the two halves of an outcome • Choose one outcome to focus on for the rest of this session try it…
  30. 30. 3. Assessment
  31. 31. Assessment for: ● Teaching ● Learning ● Legitimisation...
  32. 32. reflective, authentic assessment
  33. 33. Assessment For teaching and learning Quantifiable Authentic and reflective For legitimisation
  34. 34. Formative or summative?
  35. 35. Assessment For teaching and learning Quantifiable Authentic and reflective Formative Classroom assessment techniques Summative Performance assessment techniques For legitimisation
  36. 36. “Simple, non-graded, anonymous, in-class activities designed to give you and your students useful feedback on the teaching- learning process as it is happening” • Background knowledge probe • Muddiest Point • Minute Paper • Paraphrasing • Defining features classroom assessment techniques
  37. 37. “known as alternative or authentic assessment, it’s a form of testing that requires students to perform a task rather than select an answer from a ready-made list.” • Open-ended or extended response exercises • Solve problems • Often measured by rubrics performance assessment techniques
  38. 38. Develop topic-relevant vocabulary in order to search databases with maximum flexibility and effectiveness. • Classroom: Self Assessment – What is the best search tip you will take away from today? What changes will you make to your approach to searching? • Performance-Informal – Develop a search statement at the beginning of class. Write an improved statement at the end of class and 1 sentence about why it is better. • Performance-Formal – Complete a worksheet that guides through a search process and ask students to reflect on changes they make to a search statement. Graded by librarian/returned with feedback
  39. 39. Distinguish between scholarly, trade and popular resources in order to think critically about the authority of sources • Classroom: Defining Features Matrix – Students match characteristics in a table • Classroom: Informal – Students sort periodicals in groups and report on criteria • Performance: Authentic – If you were researching a company you wanted to work for, what information would each of the following sources provide about that company?
  40. 40. Take a look through the list of assessments. Choose one that aligns with and will help you assess your learning outcome. • What are its benefits and drawbacks? • How could the librarian respond to the results from this assessment? your turn!
  41. 41. 4. Active Learning
  42. 42. how will your students learn that? SLO: Develop topic-relevant vocabulary in order to search databases with maximum flexibility and effectiveness. Assessment: What is the best search tip you will take away from today? What changes will you make to your approach to searching?
  43. 43. Active learning: teaching in a half-ass way that makes students have to go home and learn it on their own…
  44. 44. much more than… • Hands-on activity • Having students move around the room • Shiny technology • “Engage” students
  45. 45. “Active learning is a process whereby students engage in activities, such as reading, writing, discussion, or problem solving that promote analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of class content.” Michigan Center for Teaching and Learning
  46. 46. ¡ojo!
  47. 47. challenges 1. How will I cover all of the necessary content? 2. I will have to abandon everything I have learned to do over the years 3. Students resist non-lecture environments. 4. My colleagues will criticise me. 5. It is scary. 6. It is just too hard! FACULTY PERCEPTIONS ABOUT BARRIERS TO ACTIVE LEARNING Joel Michael
  48. 48. SLO: Develop topic-relevant vocabulary in order to search databases with maximum flexibility and effectiveness. Assessment: What is the best search tip you will take away from today? What changes will you make to your approach to research? • Active Learning: Have students write down their topic and keywords. Exchange with person next to them for critique/brainstorming. • Active Learning: Display a noun on the screen. Have students shout synonyms to a guesser. • Active Learning: Have students explore a visual dictionary to come up with synonyms.
  49. 49. your turn! Take a look through the list of active learning ideas. Choose one that aligns with your learning outcome and assessment • What are its benefits and drawbacks? • What resources would you need to use this idea?
  50. 50. Thanks for attending our masterclass! c.inskip@ucl.ac.uk | @charlieinskip a.hicks@ucl.ac.uk | @alisonhicks0
  51. 51. Images https://www.flickr.com/photos/missnita/380929930 https://www.flickr.com/photos/sveinhal/2488694307 https://www.flickr.com/photos/derekbruff/6286735551 https://www.flickr.com/photos/joybot/7747594318 https://www.flickr.com/photos/96dpi/1063145950 https://www.flickr.com/photos/dkuropatwa/2097911609 https://www.flickr.com/photos/empowernetwork-gerardoalmaraz/7779017198 https://www.flickr.com/photos/electropod/3869271590

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