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Activity 2

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Histology and Integument

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Activity 2

  1. 1. Activity 2: Histology and Integument Chapter 4 & 5 – Human Anatomy (4e) textbook Objectives: • Identify each tissue (26 tissues) in a histology photo or microscope slide. • Sketch each tissue in your lab manual. • Identify the features of the integument (skin) on a slide and/or model. 1 Compilation: Benjamin Sparks & Claudia Gonzales Last Revision: Mohammad Tomaraei
  2. 2. Basic Tissue Types • We’re going to look at four different tissue types: 1. Epithelium tissue 2. Connective tissue 3. Muscle tissue 4. Nervous tissue 2
  3. 3. Epithelium Tissues • Epithelium is a tissue composed of cells that line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body. • Epithelial cells have three general cell shapes: squamous, cuboidal, and columnar. • They are also found in varying number of cell layers, namely: simple, stratified, and pseudostratified. 3
  4. 4. How to identify Epithelium? 1. Determine how many cell layers are there: • If only one layer, it’s simple. • If more than one layer, it’s stratified. 2. Determine the shape of the epithelial cells (look at cells near the apical surface): • Squamous • Cuboidal • Columnar 4
  5. 5. Epithelium Tissues Identification Flowchart 5
  6. 6. Types of Epithelium Tissues 6
  7. 7. Important Note! • After you have determined the number of cell layers and their general shape, make sure to write the word “epithelium” at the end as well! • For example, Simple Squamous Epithelium 7
  8. 8. Simple Squamous Epithelium • Structure: • Single layer of thin, flat, irregularly-shaped cells resembling floor tiles • The single nucleus of each cell bulges at its center • Function: • Rapid diffusion, filtration, and some secretion in serous membranes • Location: • Air sacs in lungs (alveoli) • Lining lumen of blood vessels (endothelium) • Serous membranes of body cavities (mesothelium) • Textbook References: • Table: p. 86, table 4.3a • Description: pp. 84-85 8
  9. 9. Simple Squamous Epithelium 9
  10. 10. Simple Squamous Epithelium 10
  11. 11. Simple Squamous Epithelium 11
  12. 12. Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium • Structure: • Multiple layers of cells • Basal cells are typically cuboidal or columnar, while apical (superficial) cells appear squamous • More superficial cells are dead and filled with the protein keratin • Function: • Protection of the underlying tissue • Location: • Epidermis of the skin • Textbook References: • Table: p. 89 table 4.4a, b • Description: pp. 87-88 12
  13. 13. Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium 13
  14. 14. Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium 14
  15. 15. Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium 15
  16. 16. Nonkeratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium • Structure: • Multiple layers of cells • Basal cells are typically cuboidal or polyhedral, while apical cells are squamous • Surface cells are alive (visible nuclei) and kept moist • Function: • Protection of the underlying tissue • Location: • Lining of oral cavity, part of pharynx, esophagus, vagina, and anus • Textbook References: • Table: p. 89 table 4.4a, b • Description: pp. 87-88 16
  17. 17. Nonkeratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium 17 Note: the apical surface is on top of the image (lumen isn’t quite visible).
  18. 18. Nonkeratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium 18
  19. 19. Nonkeratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium 19
  20. 20. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium • Structure: • Single layer of cells as tall as they are wide • Contains spherical, centrally located nucleus • Function: • Absorption and secretion • Location: • Thyroid gland follicles • Kidney tubules • Ducts and secretory regions of most glands • Textbook References: • Table: p. 86 table 4.3b • Description: p. 85 20
  21. 21. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium 21
  22. 22. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium 22
  23. 23. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium 23
  24. 24. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium 24 Identify the structures at the arrows.
  25. 25. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium 25 basement membrane lumen
  26. 26. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium • Structure: • Two or more layers of cells • Cells at apical surface are cuboidal • Function: • Protection and secretion • Location: • Found in large ducts in most exocrine glands and in some parts of the male urethra • Textbook References: • Table: p. 90 table 4.4 • Description: p. 88 26
  27. 27. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium 27
  28. 28. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium 28
  29. 29. Simple Columnar Epithelium (Ciliated and Non-Ciliated) • Structure: • Single layer of tall, narrow cells • Oval shaped nucleus in the basal region of cells • Function: • Absorption and secretion (non-ciliated) • Secretion of mucin and movement of mucus along apical surface of epithelium by action of cilia (ciliated) • Location: • Lining of most of the digestive tract (non-ciliated) • Lining of uterine tubes and larger bronchioles of respiratory tract (ciliated) • Textbook References: • Table: p. 86 table 4.3c, d • Description: pp. 85-86 29
  30. 30. Simple Columnar Epithelium (Ciliated) 30
  31. 31. Simple Columnar Epithelium (Ciliated) 31
  32. 32. 32 Simple Columnar Epithelium (Non-Ciliated w/ Microvilli)
  33. 33. Simple Columnar Epithelium (Non-Ciliated w/ Microvilli) 33
  34. 34. Simple Columnar Epithelium (Non-Ciliated) 34
  35. 35. Stratified Columnar Epithelium • Structure: • Two or more layers of cells • Cells at the apical surface are columnar • Function: • Protection and secretion • Location: • Rare, found in large ducts of some exocrine glands and in some regions of the male urethra • Textbook References: • Table: p. 90 table 4.4d • Description: p. 88 35
  36. 36. Stratified Columnar Epithelium 36
  37. 37. Stratified Columnar Epithelium 37
  38. 38. Stratified Columnar Epithelium 38
  39. 39. Stratified Columnar Epithelium 39
  40. 40. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium • Structure: • Single layer of cells with varying heights that appear multi-layered • All cells connect to the basement membrane but not all cells reach the apical surface • Function: • Protection • Ciliated form also involved with secretion of mucin and movement of mucus across surface with ciliary action • Location: • Ciliated form lines most of the respiratory tract • Non-ciliated form is rare and lines the epididymis and part of male urethra • Textbook References: • Table: p. 91 table 4.5a • Description: p. 88 40
  41. 41. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium (Ciliated) 41
  42. 42. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium (Ciliated) 42
  43. 43. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium (Ciliated) 43
  44. 44. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium (Non-Ciliated) 44Lining of male epididymis. Stereocilia (labeled stci) are elongated microvilli.
  45. 45. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium (Non-Ciliated) 45 Lining of male epididymis. Stereocilia are elongated microvilli.
  46. 46. Transitional Epithelium • Structure: • Epithelial appearance varies, depending on whether the tissue is stretched or relaxed • Shape of cells on the apical surface changes • Function: • Distention and relaxation to accommodate urine volume changes in the bladder, ureters, and urethra • Location: • Lining of urinary bladder, ureters, and part of urethra • Textbook References: • Table: p. 91 table 4.5b • Description: p. 88 46
  47. 47. Transitional Epithelium 47
  48. 48. Transitional Epithelium 48
  49. 49. Transitional Epithelium 49
  50. 50. Connective Tissues • Connective tissue is the most diverse tissue. It is widespread although not exposed to the outside of the body. Except for cartilage, it is highly vascular. It has widely scattered cells with lots of space between each cell. • Functions: Protection (bone, fat), support (bone, cartilage), binding together (tendons, ligaments), storage of fat (bone marrow), disease fighting (blood), and production of certain blood cells. 50
  51. 51. Types of Connective Tissues 51 Blood Fluid connective tissue Connective Tissue Classification Common origin (mesenchyme) Connective tissue proper Supporting connective tissue Bone (solid matrix) Cartilage (semisolid matrix) Dense connective tissue (more fibers, less ground substance) Loose connective tissue (fewer fibers, more ground substance) 1. Areolar 2. Adipose 3. Reticular 1. Regular 2. Irregular 3. Elastic 1. Hyaline 2. Fibrocartilage 3. Elastic 1. Compact 2. Spongy Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  52. 52. Blood (Fluid Connective Tissue) • Structure: • Contains erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets • Soluble (dissolved) protein fibers and a watery ground substance form a fluid extracellular matrix called plasma • Function: • Erythrocytes transport gases, leukocytes control immune response, platelets help with blood clotting • Plasma transports nutrients, wastes, and hormones throughout the body and contains clotting elements to stop blood loss • Location: • Primarily found within blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries), and the heart • Textbook References: • Table: p. 108 table 4.13 • Description: p. 105 52
  53. 53. Blood (Fluid Connective Tissue) 53Identify the structures at the arrows.
  54. 54. Blood (Fluid Connective Tissue) 54Identify the structures at the arrows. leukocyte (white blood cell) erythrocyte (red blood cell) platelet plasma (matrix)
  55. 55. Areolar Connective Tissue (Loose Connective Tissue) • Structure: • Vascularized • Ground substance is gel-like and contains fibroblasts, collagen fibers, and elastic fibers • Function: • Surrounds and protects tissues and organs • Loosely binds epithelium to deeper tissues • Provides nerve and blood vessel packing • Location: • Subcutaneous layer under the skin • Surrounds organs • Textbook References: • Table: p. 102 table 4.9a • Description: p. 100 55
  56. 56. Areolar Connective Tissue 56
  57. 57. Areolar Connective Tissue 57Identify the structures at the arrows.
  58. 58. Areolar Connective Tissue 58Identify the structures at the arrows. elastic fiber (purple) collagen fiber (pink) fibroblast ground substance
  59. 59. Areolar Connective Tissue 59
  60. 60. Reticular Connective Tissue (Loose Connective Tissue) • Structure: • Ground substance is a gel-like liquid • Contains a scattered arrangement of reticular fibers and extracellular matrix • Function: • Provides a supportive framework for spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, and bone marrow • Location: • Forms stroma of lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and bone marrow • Textbook References: • Table: p. 103 table 4.9c • Description: p. 100 60
  61. 61. Reticular Connective Tissue (Loose Connective Tissue) 61
  62. 62. Reticular Connective Tissue (Loose Connective Tissue) 62
  63. 63. Reticular Connective Tissue (Loose Connective Tissue) 63
  64. 64. Adipose Connective Tissue (Loose Connective Tissue) • Structure: • Closely packed adipocytes (with nucleus squeezed to one side) containing lipid vacuoles (fat droplets) within them • Function: • Stores energy • Protects, cushions, and insulates • Location: • Subcutaneous layer • Covers and surrounds some organs • Textbook References: • Table: p. 102 table 4.9b • Description: p. 100 64
  65. 65. Adipose Connective Tissue (Loose Connective Tissue) 65Hint: appreciate the squeezed (almost invisible) nuclei as compared to simple squamous epithelium
  66. 66. Adipose Connective Tissue (Loose Connective Tissue) 66Hint: appreciate the squeezed (almost invisible) nuclei as compared to simple squamous epithelium
  67. 67. Adipose Connective Tissue (Loose Connective Tissue) 67
  68. 68. Dense Regular Connective Tissue (Dense Connective Tissue) • Structure: • Contains densely packed and parallel collagen fibers, fibroblast nuclei, and scarce ground substance • Function: • Attaches muscle to bone and bone to bone • Resists stress applied in one direction • Location: • Forms tendons • Most ligaments • Textbook References: • Table: p. 104 table 4.10a • Description: p. 101 68
  69. 69. Dense Regular Connective (Dense Connective Tissue) 69 Hint: notice the unidirectional pattern of this type of connective tissue and relate it to its one-directional support
  70. 70. Dense Regular Connective (Dense Connective Tissue) 70 Hint: notice the unidirectional pattern of this type of connective tissue and relate it to its one-directional support
  71. 71. Dense Regular Connective (Dense Connective Tissue) 71 Hint: notice the unidirectional pattern of this type of connective tissue and relate it to its one-directional support
  72. 72. Elastic Connective Tissue (Dense Connective Tissue) • Structure: • Contains parallel elastic fibers, fibroblast nuclei, and ground substance • Function: • Allows stretching of some organs • Location: • Walls of elastic arteries • Trachea • Bronchial tubes • True vocal cords • Suspensory ligaments of penis • Textbook References: • Table: p. 105 table 4.10c • Description: p. 101 72
  73. 73. Elastic Connective Tissue (Dense Connective Tissue) 73 Hint: note the wave-like, rubber-band structure of elastic fibers and relate it to their flexibility
  74. 74. Elastic Connective Tissue (Dense Connective Tissue) 74
  75. 75. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue (Dense Connective Tissue) • Structure: • Predominantly contains collagen fibers (bundled and randomly arranged), fibroblasts, and ground substance (more than in dense regular connective tissue) • Function: • Withstands stresses applied in all directions • Durable • Location: • Dermis • Periosteum covering bone • Perichondrium covering cartilage • Organ capsules • Textbook References: • Table: p. 104 table 4.10b • Description: p. 101 75
  76. 76. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue (Dense Connective Tissue) 76 Hint: notice the multidirectional pattern of this type of connective tissue; you can remember dense irregular connective tissue by its resemblance to steak
  77. 77. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue (Dense Connective Tissue) 77
  78. 78. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue (Dense Connective Tissue) 78
  79. 79. Compact Bone (Osseous Tissue) • Structure: • Calcified matrix arranged in osteons, osteocytes in lacunae, lamellae (concentric), central canal, and canaliculi • Function: • Supports soft structures • Protects vital organs • Provides levers for movement • Stores minerals • Location: • On the exterior surface of bones • Textbook References: • Table: p. 107 table 4.12 • Description: pp. 104-105 79
  80. 80. Compact Bone (Osseous Tissue) 80
  81. 81. Compact Bone (Osseous Tissue) 81
  82. 82. Compact Bone (Osseous Tissue) 82Identify the structures at the arrows.
  83. 83. Compact Bone (Osseous Tissue) 83 osteocyte (in lacunae) central canal lamellae (concentric) canaliculi Identify the structures at the arrows.
  84. 84. Hyaline Cartilage (Cartilage Tissue) • Structure: • Contains extracellular matrix, lacunae, chondrocytes, perichondrium (often visible) • Function: • Smooth surfaces for movement at joints • Model for bone growth • Supports soft tissue • Location: • Most of fetal skeleton • Covers articular ends of long bones • Costal cartilages • Most of larynx, trachea, and nose • Textbook References: • Table: p. 106 table 4.11a • Description: p. 103 84
  85. 85. Hyaline Cartilage (Cartilage Tissue) 85
  86. 86. Hyaline Cartilage (Cartilage Tissue) 86
  87. 87. Hyaline Cartilage (Cartilage Tissue) 87
  88. 88. Fibrocartilage (Cartilage Tissue) • Structure: • Contains parallel collagen fibers, extracellular matrix, lacunae, and chondrocytes • Function: • Resists compression • Absorbs shock in some joints • Location: • Intervertebral discs • Pubic symphysis • Menisci of knee joints • Textbook References: • Table: p. 106 table 4.11b • Description: p. 103 88
  89. 89. Fibrocartilage (Cartilage Tissue) 89
  90. 90. Fibrocartilage (Cartilage Tissue) 90
  91. 91. Fibrocartilage (Cartilage Tissue) 91
  92. 92. Elastic Cartilage (Cartilage Tissue) • Structure: • Contains abundant elastic fibers (branching), lacunae, and chondrocytes • Function: • Maintains structure and shape while permitting flexibility • Location: • External ear • Epiglottis of the larynx • Textbook References: • Table: p. 107 table 4.11c • Description: p. 103 92
  93. 93. Elastic Cartilage (Cartilage Tissue) 93 Identify the structures at the arrows.
  94. 94. Elastic Cartilage (Cartilage Tissue) 94 chondrocyte (in lacunae) Identify the structures at the arrows.
  95. 95. Elastic Cartilage (Cartilage Tissue) 95
  96. 96. Elastic Cartilage (Cartilage Tissue) 96
  97. 97. Muscle Tissues • Cells are long and narrow and are called fibers • Functions through contraction in motion, posture, and heat production 97
  98. 98. Types of Muscle Tissues 98 Type of Muscular Tissue Skeletal Muscle Smooth Muscle Cardiac Muscle Shape of Fibers Elongated; blunt ends Elongated, Tapered ends Elongated; Blunt ends Nucleus: # and Location Multinucleated, peripheral Uninucleated, central Uninucleated, central Striated or Non-striated Striated Non-striated Striated Branched or Unbranched Unbranched Unbranched Branched (Bifurcated and Intercalated Discs) Involuntary or Voluntary Voluntary Involuntary Involuntary Location in Body Attached to bones Walls of hollow, internal organs, and tubes Only in wall of Heart (Myocardium) Speed of Contraction Fastest Slowest Intermediate Ability to Remain Contracted Least Greatest Intermediate
  99. 99. Smooth Muscle • Structure: • Contains spindle-shaped muscle fibers that have a centrally located nucleus • Function: • Involuntary movements and motion • Moves materials through internal organs • Location: • Walls of hollow internal organs, such as vessels, airways, stomach, bladder, and uterus • Textbook References: • Table: p. 111 table 4.14c • Description: p. 109 99
  100. 100. Smooth Muscle 100
  101. 101. Smooth Muscle 101 Hint: note that smooth muscle tissue is non-striated
  102. 102. Skeletal Muscle • Structure: • Contains long, cylindrical, unbranched muscle fibers with multiple nuclei per fiber • Striations are visible in each muscle fiber • Function: • Moves skeleton • Responsible for voluntary body movements, locomotion, and heat production • Location: • Attaches to bones or sometimes skin • Textbook References: • Table: p. 110 table 4.14a • Description: p. 109 102
  103. 103. Skeletal Muscle 103 Identify the structures at the arrows.
  104. 104. Skeletal Muscle 104 Identify the structures at the arrows. nuclei (multiple) striations
  105. 105. Skeletal Muscle 105
  106. 106. Cardiac Muscle • Structure: • Contains short and branched muscle fibers (also known as cardiomyocytes) with one nucleus per cell • Each muscle fiber exhibits striations • Intercalated discs are located between cells • Function: • Involuntary contractions and relaxations pump blood in the heart • Location: • Heart wall (myocardium) • Textbook References: • Table: p. 110 table 4.14b • Description: p. 109 106
  107. 107. Cardiac Muscle 107
  108. 108. Cardiac Muscle 108 Identify the structures at the arrows. branch of the fiber intercalated disc
  109. 109. Nervous Tissue • Structure: • Neurons contain dendrites and an axon attached to the soma (cell body) • Neuroglia (glial cells) present • Function: • Control communication between tissues • Location: • Brain • Spinal cord • Peripheral nervous tissue • Textbook References: • Table: p. 112 table 4.15 • Description: p. 111 109
  110. 110. Nervous Tissue 110
  111. 111. Nervous Tissue 111
  112. 112. Integumentary System - Epidermis • Description: • Most superficial layer of the skin • Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium • Layers (from basement membrane to apical surface): • Stratum basale (with melanocytes and keratinocytes) • Stratum spinosum (with epidermal dendritic / Langerhans cells) • Stratum granulosum • Stratum lucidum (thick skin only) • Stratum corneum • Epidermal ridges • Textbook References: • Table: p. 119 table 5.2; • Fig: p. 119 fig 5.1; p. 121 fig 5.2 112
  113. 113. Integument Layers 113
  114. 114. Integument Layers Model 114
  115. 115. Integument Layers Model 115
  116. 116. Integument Layers Model - Key 116 1 - Stratum corneum 2 - Stratum lucidum 3 - Stratum granulosum 4 - Stratum spinosum 5 - Stratum basale 6 - Epidermis (layers 1-5) 7 - Apocrine sweat gland 8 - Eccrine sweat gland 9 - Sebaceous gland 10 - Arrector pili muscle 11 - Meissner's corpuscle 12 - Follicle around hair root 13 - Bulb of hair root 14 - Hair shaft
  117. 117. Integumentary System - Dermis • Description: • Deep to the epidermis • Layers: • Papillary layer (areolar connective tissue) • Dermal papillae • Reticular layer (dense irregular connective tissue) • Hair follicles • Sebaceous glands • Sudoriferous glands • Sensory receptors • Textbook References: • Fig: p. 126 fig 5.6 117
  118. 118. Integumentary System – Hypodermis / Subcutaneous Layer • Description: • Not part of the integument proper • Made of areolar connective tissue and adipose tissue • Often called superficial fascia 118

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