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connective tissue.

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connective tissue.

  1. 1. GOOD MORNING 1
  2. 2. CONNECTIVE TISSUE CHECKED BY: PRESENTED BY: DR. NEHA MAHAJAN DR. VIRSHALI GUPTA PG.1ST YEAR 2
  3. 3. CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  DEFINITION  ORIGIN  FEATURES - a. MATRIX b. FIBRES c. CELLS  CLASSIFICATION  FUNCTIONS  DISORDERS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE  CONCLUSION  REFRENCES 3
  4. 4. WHAT IS CONNECTIVE TISSUE??  Connective tissue is the group of tissues that fills the interstices b/w more specialised elements & serves to hold them together & support them. BY- ‘’GP PAL 3rd edition’’  Defined as that group of tissues predominantly composed of intercellular matrix , secreted mainly by its cells which are therefore , usually widely spread. BY – ‘’HAMS 9th edition’’ 4
  5. 5. ORIGIN OF CELLS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE 5
  6. 6. FEATURES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE  CONSISTS OF 2 BASIC COMPONENTS CELLS MATRIX FIBERS GROUND SUBSTANCE 6
  7. 7. FIBERS COLLAGEN FIBERS RETICULAR FIBERS ELASTIC FIBERS OXYTALAN FIBRES 7
  8. 8. FIBERS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE COLLAGEN FIBERS RETICULAR FIBERS ELASTIC FIBERS OXYTALAN FIBERS DIAMETE R 2-10nm 0.5 -2µm 0.1-2µm 0.2-1.5µm LOCATION Walls of blood vessels Developing matrices of dentin & pulp Lungs & large arterioles PDL, gums, dental pulp COURSE Run in bundles which may branch and anastomose with neighbouring bundles. Mesh like pattern or network. Run singly & branch to form network. 3D meshwork extends from cementum to peripheral blood vessels. OTHER NAME White fibers Argyrophilic fibers Yellow fibers ------- 8
  9. 9. SYNTHESIS OF COLLAGEN FIBERS 9
  10. 10. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT COLLAGEN TYPES COLLAGEN TYPE TISSUE DISTRIBUTION SITE OF SYNTHESIS MAIN FUNCTION 1 DERMIS, BONE, TENDON, DENTIN, SCLERA, PDL, LAMINA PROPRIA FIBROBLAST, OSTEOBLAST, ODONTOBLAST, CHONDROBLAST RESISTANCE TO TENSION 11 HYALNE AND ELASTIC CARTILAGES CHONDROBLAST RESISTANCE TO INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE 111 SMOOTH MUSCLE, SPLEEN, LIVER, KIDNEY , LUNG, PDL, LAMINA PROPRIA SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, FIBROBLAST, RETICULAR CELLS STRUCTURAL MAINTAINANCE IN EXPANSIBLE ORGANS 1V EPITHELIAL AND ENDOTHELIAL BASAL LAMINAE AND BASEMEMENT MEMBRANES ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, EPITHELIAL CELLS, MUSCLE CELLS SUPPORT AND FILTRATION V MUSCLE BASAL ----- ----- 10
  11. 11. CELLS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE  2 TYPES FIXED CELLS (LONG- LIVED) • MESENCHYMAL CELLS • FIBROBLASTS • FAT CELLS • MACROPHAGES • PERICYTES FREE CELLS (SHORT- LIVED) • EOSINOPHILS • NEUTROPHILS • MONOCYTES • LYMPHOCYTES • MAST CELLS • PLASMA CELLS 11
  12. 12. CELL TYPE MAIN PRODUCT OR ACTIVITY MAIN FUNCTION FIBROBLASTS, CHONDROBLASTS, OSTEOBLASTS, ODONTOBLASTS PRODUCTION OF FIBERS AND GROUND SUBSTANCE STRUCTURAL PLASMA CELL PRODUCTION OF ANTIBODIES IMMUNOLOGIC LYMPHOCYTE PRODUCTION OF IMMUNE CELLS IMMUNOLOGIC EOSINOPHILIC LEUKOCYTE PHAGOCYTOSIS OF ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEX IMMUNOLOGIC MACROPHAGE, NEUTROPHIL PHAGOCYTOSIS OF FOREIGN SUBSTANCES, BACTERIA DEFENSE MAST CELL, BASOPHIL LIBERATION OF PHARMACOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES (HISTAMINE) DEFENSE ADIPOSE CELL STORAGE OF NEUTRAL FATS ENERGY RESERVOIR, HEAT PRODUCTION 12
  13. 13. DIAGRAM SHOWING CELLS AND FIBRES OF CONNECTIVE FIBERS 13
  14. 14. GROUND SUBSTANCE  Occupies the space b/w the cells & fibers.  The enzyme hyaluronidase increase the fluidity of ground substance.  Consists of: proteoglycans glycosaminoglycans  These are responsible for physical properties of ground substance.  Granular in appearance.  Consistency: varies, fluid to gel. 14
  15. 15. CLASSIFICATION OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER A. EMBRYONAL CT i.Mesenchymal ii. Mucous B. REGULAR CT i. Loose CT ii. Dense CT C. SPECIAL FORMS i . Elastic ii. Adipose iii. Reticular SPECIALISED CONNECTIVE TISSUE A. FLUID CT i. Blood B. RIGID i. Mineralized ii. Non- mineralized 15
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  17. 17. CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER 17
  18. 18. EMBRYONIC CONNECTIVE TISSUE  It consist of two varieties 1.mesenchymal and 2. mucous .  Present for most of the parts during embryonic and foetal development.  When present post- natally , associated with healing of injured tissue or tumorous lesion.  Made up of small cells with slender branching processes that join to form a fine network. MESENCHYMAL CELLS 18
  19. 19. CARTILAGE  Type of connective tissue composed of special cells known as chondrocytes along with collagen or yellow elastic fibers.  Types – Hyaline Fibrous Elastic 19
  20. 20. BONE COMPACT BONE SPONGY BONE OTHER NAME CORTICAL BONE TRABECULAE BONE DENSITY COMPACT POROUS LOCATION OUTER BONE INNER BONE FUNCTIONAL UNIT OSTEON TRABECULAE 20
  21. 21.  DENTIN  3 TYPES- PRIMARY SECONDARY TERTIARY  CEMENTUM –  2 TYPES ACELLULAR CELLULAR 21
  22. 22. FUNCTIONS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE  SUPPORT- To epithelium e.g.: lamina propria.  STRENGTH- Provides tensile strength to mechanical stress e.g.: dermis of skin , ligament.  STORAGE- Fat cells store fat while ground substance store water , ions and inorganic materials.  TRANSPORT- Water, ions and inorganic materials are transported from blood to various tissues of body through connective tissue matrix.  PACKING- They fill spaces e.g.: loose connective tissue and adipose tissue.  REPAIR- Helps in wound healing  DEFENSE- Cells helps in defense action e.g.: plasma cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils. 22
  23. 23. GINGIVAL CONNECTIVE TISSUE  The gingival connective tissue provides strength to gums and make the gums to cement root and alveolar bone.  The dense gingival connective tissue is referred to as a lamina propria.  Consists of 2 layers: Papillary layer reticular layer 23
  24. 24. HOW EPITHELIUM CONNECTS WITH CONNECTIVE TISSUE ?? 24STRUCTURE OF BASEMENT MEMBRANE
  25. 25. DISORDERS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE  MARFAN’S SYNDROME – 25
  26. 26. SCURVY  Deficiency of vitamin C  Characteristic features:  Bleeding gums, loosening of teeth with grade 1 – 2 mobility , gingivitis n sometimes bluish pigmentation. 26
  27. 27. EHLERS- DANLOS SYNDROME  Skin hyperextensibility.  Joint hypermobility.  Tissue fragility. SCLERODEMA  Difficulty in opening mouth due to involvement of perioral skin. PEMPHIGUS  Blisters in mouth which erupts later.  Blisters are painful, but don’t itch.  Difficulty in swallowing. 27
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  30. 30. SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOTHORAX 30
  31. 31. CONCLUSION  Basic tissue of the body.  Includes fat, cartilage, bone and blood.  Provides support, fills the spaces between organs, protecting organs and aiding in the transport of materials around the body. 31
  32. 32. REFERENCES  Textbook of histology GP Pal 3rd edition.  Textbook of human histology 3rd edition by Inderbir Singh.  Tencate’s oral histology.  Ham’s histology 9th edition by David.  Textbook of oral histology & embryology (orban’s) 12th edition by GS Kumar.  Textbook of oral histology by D.Vincent Provenza 2nd edition. 32
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