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Activity 3 - Axial Skeleton

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Axial Skeleton

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Activity 3 - Axial Skeleton

  1. 1. Activity 3: Axial Skeleton Chapter 7 – McKinley et al., Human Anatomy, 4e. Objectives: • Observe and dissect a fresh long bone from a cow • Identify the cranial and facial bones and important bone markings on each • Identify the vertebrae and other features of the vertebral column, and important bone markings on each • Identify ribs and sternum, and important bone markings on each 1 Compilation: Kathryn Watson & Claudia Gonzales Last Revision: Mohammad Tomaraei
  2. 2. Axial Skeleton (green) vs Appendicular Skeleton (yellow) 2
  3. 3. Axial Skeleton vs Appendicular Skeleton (next activity) 3 • Axial Skeleton – forms the long axis of body • Skull • Vertebral column • Thoracic cage • Appendicular Skeleton – appendages and what they attach to • Upper limbs (arms) • Pectoral girdle (shoulder) • Lower limbs (legs) • Pelvic girdle
  4. 4. Axial Skeleton (green) 4
  5. 5. Axial Skeleton 5
  6. 6. Sutures 6 • Largest 4 skull sutures – where cranial bones articulate with each other • Coronal suture • Sagittal suture • Squamous suture • Lambdoid suture
  7. 7. Sutures 7
  8. 8. Sutures 8
  9. 9. Paranasal Sinuses 9 • Air-filled chambers named after the bone in which they are housed • “Paranasal” because they cluster around and connect to the nasal cavity
  10. 10. Fontanelles 10 • Unossified remnants of membranes • Present at birth • Anterior fontanelle is the largest • Called “soft spots” • Ossify by 1 ½ - 2 years • Continue to ossify into adulthood • The sutures can become fused in old age
  11. 11. Cranial and Facial Bones 11 • Frontal bone • Supraorbital foramen: supraorbital artery and nerve go through this foramen • Frontal sinus: moistens air • Parietal bones • Nasal bones
  12. 12. Cranial and Facial Bones 12 • Frontal bone • Supraorbital foramen: supraorbital artery and nerve go through this foramen • Frontal sinus: moistens air • Parietal bones • Nasal bones
  13. 13. Cranial and Facial Bones 13
  14. 14. Cranial and Facial Bones 14 For labeled photographs of the human skeleton go to this website: http://homepage.smc.edu/wissm ann_paul/bones/EBbonestutorial .html
  15. 15. Cranial and Facial Bones 15 • Sphenoid bone: • Greater wing • Lesser wing • Sella turcica: houses the pituitary gland • Optic foramen / canal: contains the optic nerve (CN II) • Foramen ovale: contains the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) • Foramen rotundum: contains the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) • Foramen spinosum: contains the middle meningeal vessels • Foramen lacerum
  16. 16. Cranial and Facial Bones 16 • Sphenoid bone: • Superior orbital fissure: contains CN III, the ophthalmic branch of CN V, and CN VI • Inferior orbital fissure: contains the maxillary branch of CN V • Sphenoidal sinus: moistens air • Lateral and medial plates • Pterygoid plates
  17. 17. Sphenoid Bone 17
  18. 18. Cranial and Facial Bones 18 • Ethmoid bone: • Perpendicular plate: superior part of the nasal septum • Superior and middle nasal concha(e): increase surface area for warming and filtering air • Cribriform plate and foramina: passageway for olfactory nerves • Crista galli: attachment site for dura mater to skull
  19. 19. Ethmoid Bone 19
  20. 20. Cranial and Facial Bones 20 • Inferior nasal conchae bones • Lacrimal bone: • Lacrimal groove • Zygomatic bone: • Temporal process of zygomatic bone: forms anterior portion of the zygomatic arch (cheekbone) • Maxilla: • Infraorbital foramen: passageway to infraorbital artery and maxillary branch of CN V • Alveolar processes: contain upper teeth • Palatine processes: form anterior portion of hard plate • Incisive foramen (fossa): passageway to branches of nasopalatine nerve from CN V
  21. 21. Cranial and Facial Bones 21
  22. 22. Maxilla 22
  23. 23. Cranial and Facial Bones 23 • Mandible: • Body • Ramus • Alveolar processes: contain lower teeth • Angle • Mental foramen: passageway for the mandibular branch of CN V and blood vessels • CoroNOID process: insertion point of the temporalis muscle • Mandibular condyle or condylar process: forms a joint with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone • Mandibular notch
  24. 24. Mandible 24
  25. 25. Cranial and Facial Bones 25 • Temporal bone: • Zygomatic process of temporal bone: forms the posterior portion of the zygomatic arch (cheekbone) • Squamous region: squamous means flat – flat part of the bone • Styloid process: attachment for hyoid and tongue muscles • Mastoid process: insertion for sternocleidomastoid muscle • External auditory / acoustic meatus: opening of auditory canal • Petrous part: petrous means rock • Internal auditory / acoustic meatus: passageway for CN VII and CN VIII nerves, and blood vessels to inner ear • Jugular foramen: passageway for internal jugular vein, CN IX, CN X, and CN XI nerves • Carotid canal: passageway for internal carotid artery • Mandibular fossa: forms a joint with mandibular condyle of mandible
  26. 26. Temporal Bone 26
  27. 27. Cranial and Facial Bones 27 • Occipital bone: • Foramen magnum: passageway for spinal cord, vertebral arteries, and CN XI nerve • Hypoglossal canal: passageway for CN XII (hypoglossal) nerve • External occipital protuberance and crest: attachment site for neck / back muscles • Occipital condyles: articulate with C1 (atlas)
  28. 28. Cranial and Facial Bones 28
  29. 29. Cranial and Facial Bones 29
  30. 30. Cranial and Facial Bones 30
  31. 31. Cranial and Facial Bones 31
  32. 32. Cranial and Facial Bones 32 • Palatine bone: • Horizontal plates: form posterior portion of the hard palate • Vomer: forms the inferior part of the nasal septum
  33. 33. Cranial and Facial Bones 33
  34. 34. Cranial and Facial Bones 34
  35. 35. Cranial and Facial Bones 35
  36. 36. Skull = Cranial Bones + Facial Bones 36 Cranial bones • Frontal bone • Parietal bones (paired) • Sphenoid bone • Ethmoid bone • Temporal bones (paired) • Occipital bone Facial bones • Nasal (paired) • Inferior nasal conchae (paired) • Lacrimal (paired) • Zygomatics (paired) • Maxillae (paired) • Mandible • Palatines (paired) • Vomer
  37. 37. Cranial Bones 37 parietal parietal frontal temporal parietal occipital _________sphenoid _______ ethmoid occipital
  38. 38. Vertebrae 38 • Typical vertebrae (32): • Lamina: connects transverse process to spinous process • Pedicle: connects body to transverse process • Transverse process: process directed laterally • Spinous process: process directed posteriorly • Superior and inferior articular processes: form joints between adjacent vertebrae • Vertebral foramen: contains spinal cord • Body: largest part of the vertebra • Intervertebral foramen: formed when 2 vertebrae come together; contains spinal nerves • Intervertebral disc (not a bone): fibrocartilage found between adjacent vertebral bodies
  39. 39. Vertebrae 39
  40. 40. Vertebrae 40 • Cervical vertebrae (7) – have bifurcated spinous processes • Transverse foramen: cervical vertebrae have transverse foramen which contains the vertebral arteries • Atlas (C1): • Arch: contains articulation point for dens of C2 (axis) • Body: C1 has no body – it has become the dens of axis • Axis (C2): • Body: has odontoid process (dens) • Odontoid process (dens): fused body of C1 (atlas); articulates with atlas • Vertebra prominens (C7): • Spinous process: very large and easily felt under the skin
  41. 41. Cervical Vertebrae 41
  42. 42. C1, C2, and C7 42
  43. 43. Vertebrae 43 • Thoracic vertebrae (12): • Transverse process: on thoracic vertebrae, transverse processes contain costal facets for articulation with angle of a rib • Lumbar vertebrae (5) • Sacrum (5 bones fused): • Anterior sacral foramina: contain ventral rami of the sacral spinal nerves • Posterior sacral foramina: contain dorsal rami of the sacral spinal nerves • Median sacral crest: represents fused spinous processes of sacral vertebrae • Auricular surfaces: ear-like processes, articulate with the iliac bones • Superior articular processes: articulate with inferior articular processes of L5 • Coccyx (2-3 bones fused): • Cornu or horns: small horns that point superiorly
  44. 44. Thoracic Vertebrae 44
  45. 45. Lumbar Vertebrae 45
  46. 46. Sacrum and Coccyx 46
  47. 47. Sternum and Ribs 47 • Sternum: • Manubrium (top): • Sternal or jugular notch • Sternal angle: division between manubrium and body • Clavicular notch: articulates with clavicles • Costal notch: articulates with ribs • Body • Costal notches: articulates with ribs • Xiphoid process (bottom): xiphoid means shaped like a sword
  48. 48. Sternum 48
  49. 49. Sternum and Ribs 49 • Ribs: • True ribs (1-7): • Head (capitulum) • Neck • Tubercle • Angle • Costal groove • Shaft (body) • False ribs (8-12) • Floating ribs (11-12)
  50. 50. Ribs 50

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