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Activity 8-spinal cord-eye-ear-2

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Spinal cord, selected spinal nerves, eye and ear anatomy

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Activity 8-spinal cord-eye-ear-2

  1. 1. Activity #8: Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, & Sensory Organs Chapters 16 & 19 – McKinley et al., Human Anatomy, 4e. Objectives: • Identify structures in the gross anatomy of the spinal cord on both models and cadavers or wet specimens. • Identify structures in the cross section of the spinal cord on classroom models. • Identify the nerve plexuses and specific nerves from each. • Identify structures from the human eye on models. • Dissect a cow eye and identify the structures listed. • Identify structures of the ear on classroom models. • Histology: Observe and identify structures in a histology slide of the cochlea. 1Compilation: Lisa Radmall
  2. 2. Spinal Cord: Gross Anatomy 2 • Cervical enlargement • Thoracic region • Lumbar enlargement • Conus medullaris • Cauda equina • Filum terminale • Spinal Nerves • Cervical (C1-C8) • Thoracic (T1-T12) • Lumbar (L1-L5) • Sacral (S1-S5) • Coccygeal (Co1) • Denticulate Ligaments Fig. 16.1
  3. 3. Spinal Cord: Cross Section 3
  4. 4. Spinal Cord: Cross Section 4
  5. 5. Spinal Cord: Meninges & Spaces 5Fig. 16.2a
  6. 6. Spinal Cord: Meninges & Spaces 6 Subdural space Arachnoid mater
  7. 7. Spinal Nerves: Plexuses 7 • All ventral rami except T2-T12 form interlacing nerve networks called plexuses. • Major nerve plexuses are found in the cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral regions of the spinal cord. • Each resulting branch of a plexus contains fibers from several spinal nerves. • Thoracic spinal nerves T2-T12 do not form a plexus; branch to intercostal nerves. • You will be responsible to know the listed nerves and (only) the muscles they innervate from your muscle anatomy labs.
  8. 8. Spinal Nerves: Cervical Plexus 8Fig. 16.8
  9. 9. Phrenic Nerve – Innervation of Diaphragm 9
  10. 10. Spinal Nerves: Brachial Plexus 10Fig. 16.9a
  11. 11. Spinal Nerves: Brachial Plexus 11 • Axillary nerve • Median nerve (center of “M”) • Musculotaneous nerve (lateral on “M”) • Radial nerve • Ulnar nerve (medial on “M”) • Long thoracic nerve • Medial pectoral nerve • Lateral pectoral nerve Fig. 16.9c
  12. 12. Brachial Plexus – Axillary Nerve 12 • Axillary nerve • Innervation • Deltoid • Teres minor Table 16.4
  13. 13. Brachial Plexus – Median Nerve 13 • Median nerve (center of “M”) • Innervation: Anterior forearm muscles • Pronator teres • Flexor capri radialis • Palmaris longus • Flexor digitorum superficialis • Flexor digitorum profundus • Flexor pollicis longus Table 16.4
  14. 14. Brachial Plexus – Musculocutaneous Nerve 14 • Musculotaneous nerve (lateral on “M”) • Innervation • Biceps brachii (both heads) • Brachialis Table 16.4
  15. 15. Brachial Plexus – Radial Nerve 15 • Radial nerve • Innervation: Posterior arm muscles • Triceps brachii (3 heads) • Innervation: Posterior forearm muscles • Brachioradialis • Supinator • Extensor carpi radialis • Extensor carpi ulnaris • Extensor digitorum • Extensor pollicis longus • Extensor pollicis brevis • Abductor pollicis longus Table 16.4
  16. 16. Brachial Plexus – Ulnar Nerve 16 • Ulnar nerve (medial on “M”) • Innervation • Flexor carpi ulnaris • Flexor digitorum profundus • Most hand muscles Table 16.4
  17. 17. Brachial Plexus – Long Thoracic Nerve 17 • Long thoracic nerve • Innervation • serratus anterior
  18. 18. Brachial Plexus – Pectoral Nerves 18 • Medial pectoral nerve • Innervation • Pectoralis Major • Pectoralis Minor • Lateral pectoral nerve • Innervation • Pectoralis Major
  19. 19. Spinal Nerves: Intercostal Nerves 19 • Intercostal Nerves • Branch from spinal nerves • Do NOT form a plexus • Innervation: intercostal muscles Fig. 16.7
  20. 20. Spinal Nerves: Lumbar Plexus 20Fig. 16.10
  21. 21. Lumbar Plexus – Femoral Nerve 21 • Femoral nerve • Innervation: Anterior thigh muscles • Illiacus • Psoas major • Pectineus • Sartorius • Rectus femoris • Vastus lateralis • Vastus medialis • Vastus intermedius Table 16.5
  22. 22. Lumbar Plexus – Obturator Nerve 22 • Obturator nerve • Innervation: Medial thigh muscles • Gracilis • Adductor longus • Adductor brevis • Adductor magnus • Pectineus Table 16.5
  23. 23. Spinal Nerves: Sacral Plexus 23Fig. 16.11
  24. 24. Sacral Plexus – Gluteal Nerves 24 • Inferior gluteal nerve • Innervation • Gluteus maximus • Superior gluteal nerve • Innervation • Tensor fasciae latae • Gluteus medius • Gluteus minimus
  25. 25. Sacral Plexus – Tibial Nerve 25 Sciatic nerve (branches into tibial and common fibular nerve) • Tibial nerve • Innervation: Posterior thigh & leg muscles • Biceps femoris long head • Semitendinosus • Semimembranosus • Adductor magnus • Gastrocnemius • Soleus • Popliteus • Flexor digitorum longus • Flexor hallicus longus • Plantar surface of foot Table 16.6
  26. 26. Sacral Plexus – Common Fibular Nerve 26 • Common fibular nerve • Innervation: Biceps femoris (short head) • Branches into deep and superficial fibular nerve • Deep fibular nerve • Innervation: Dorsal surface of foot • Innervation: Anterior leg muscles • Tibialis anterior • Extensor digitorum longus • Extensor hallicus longus • Superficial fibular nerve • Innervation: Lateral compartment • Fibularis longus • Fibularis brevis Table 16.6
  27. 27. 27 Extrinsic Eye Muscles - Lateral view Orbital fat pad Palpebra (eyelid)
  28. 28. 28 Extrinsic Eye Muscles - Medial view
  29. 29. Extrinsic Eye Muscles – Innervation & Movement 29 The six (6) extrinsic eye muscles, innervation, and movement of the eye: 1. Inferior Oblique • (CNIII) elevates and turns eye laterally 2. Inferior Rectus • (CNIII) pulls eye inferiorly 3. Superior Rectus • (CNIII) pulls eye superiorly 4. Medial Rectus • (CNIII) pulls eye medially 5. Lateral Rectus • (CNVI) pulls eye laterally 6. Superior Oblique • (CNIV) depresses and turns eye laterally
  30. 30. Accessory Structures of the Eye 30Fig. 19.10
  31. 31. Layers of the Eye Wall 31 • Conjunctiva • Surrounds most of eye, covers sclera • Fibrous Tunic (outermost layer) • Anterior cornea – Transparent and avascular. Nourished by lacrimal fluid. • Posterior sclera – “White” of eye. Gives shape and protection to eye. • Vascular Tunic (middle layer) • Choroid – Capillary network. Supplies nutrients and oxygen to retina. • Ciliary body & muscles – Smooth muscle & epithelium affect tension on suspensory ligaments, altering shape of lens. • Iris – Color of eye. Smooth muscle, controls pupil size & diameter. • Neural Tunic (innermost layer) • Retina – Pigmented layer provides vitamin A for photoreceptor cells in Neural layer.
  32. 32. Layers of the Eye Wall 32
  33. 33. Structures of the Eye 33 Ora serrata
  34. 34. Cavities of the Eye 34Fig. 19.16
  35. 35. Cow Eye: External & Internal Anatomy 35
  36. 36. Sensory Organ: The Ear 36 The ear is composed of three regions: the external ear, located mostly on the outside of the head, and the middle and inner ear, which are housed within the petrous portion of the temporal bone
  37. 37. Sensory Organ: The Ear 37Fig. 19.19
  38. 38. Structure of the Middle Ear 38Fig. 19.20
  39. 39. Structure of the Inner Ear 39Fig. 19.21
  40. 40. Structure of the Cochlea and Spiral Organ 40Fig. 19.26
  41. 41. Histology of Cochlea 41
  42. 42. Sensory Organ: The Ear 42Fig. 19.19
  43. 43. Auditory Transduction 43
  44. 44. Image References 44 3- studyblue.com 5-www.slccanatomy.com 6- 9- studyblue.com 17- 18- 24- https://web.duke.edu/anatomy/Lab13-15/lab13images/lab13-step4a.jpg 27-30- http://medical-transcriptionist-reference.blogspot.com/2012/05/eye-muscles.html https://droualb.faculty.mjc.edu 33- google 43- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PeTriGTENoc
  45. 45. Accessory Structures of the Eye 45 Lacrimal caruncle Nasolacrimal duct Palpebra (eyelid)

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