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Activity 5 6

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Appendicular and Axial Musculature

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Activity 5 6

  1. 1. Activities 5 & 6: Appendicular & Axial Muscles Chapters 11 & 12 – McKinley et al., Human Anatomy, 4e. Objectives: • Identify muscles listed on models and/or cadavers • When indicated, identify the action and attachments for each muscle Compilation: Mohammad Tomaraei 1
  2. 2. Appendicular Muscles – Pectoral Girdle Muscles [6] • Trapezius • Action: • Superior: elevates & superiorly rotates scapula; elevates clavicle • Middle: retracts scapula • Inferior: depresses scapula, extends head • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 354-355 • Figures: 11.1b, 12.2, 12.4 2
  3. 3. Appendicular Muscles – Pectoral Girdle Muscles [6] • Levator scapulae • Action: • Elevates scapula • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 355 • Figures: 12.2, 12.3, 12.4b 3
  4. 4. Appendicular Muscles – Pectoral Girdle Muscles [6] • Serratus anterior • Action: • Protracts & stabilizes scapula • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 354 • Figures: 11.1b, 11.14a, 12.1, 12.4a 4
  5. 5. Appendicular Muscles – Pectoral Girdle Muscles [6] • Pectoralis minor • Action: • Protracts & depresses scapula • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 354 • Figures: 12.1, 12.4a 5
  6. 6. Appendicular Muscles – Pectoral Girdle Muscles [6] • Rhomboid major • Action: • Elevates & retracts (adducts) scapula • Rotates scapula inferiorly • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 355 • Figures: 12.2, 12.4b 6
  7. 7. Appendicular Muscles – Pectoral Girdle Muscles [6] • Rhomboid minor • Action: • Elevates & retracts (adducts) scapula • Rotates scapula inferiorly • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 355 • Figures: 12.2, 12.4b 7
  8. 8. Appendicular Muscles – Rotator Cuff Muscles [4] • Supraspinatus • Origin: • Supraspinous fossa of scapula • Insertion: • Greater tubercle of humerus • Action (rotator cuff muscles together): • Stabilize & rotate the glenohumeral joint • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 359 • Figures: 12.2, 12.4a & b 8
  9. 9. Appendicular Muscles – Rotator Cuff Muscles [4] • Infraspinatus • Origin: • Infraspinous fossa of scapula • Insertion: • Greater tubercle of humerus • Action (rotator cuff muscles together): • Stabilize & rotate the glenohumeral joint • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 359 • Figures: 12.2, 12.4b 9
  10. 10. Appendicular Muscles – Rotator Cuff Muscles [4] • Teres minor • Origin: • Lateral border of scapula • Insertion: • Greater tubercle of humerus • Action (rotator cuff muscles together): • Stabilize & rotate the glenohumeral joint • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 359 • Figures: 12.2, 12.4b 10
  11. 11. Appendicular Muscles – Rotator Cuff Muscles [4] • Subscapularis • Origin: • Subscapular fossa of scapula • Insertion: • Lesser tubercle of humerus • Action (rotator cuff muscles together): • Stabilize & rotate the glenohumeral joint • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 359 • Figures: 12.4a, 12.5a 11
  12. 12. Appendicular Muscles – Other Glenohumeral Joint Muscles [4] • Teres major • Origin: • Lateral border & angle of scapula • Insertion: • Lesser tubercle & intertubercular sulcus of humerus • Action: • Extends, adducts, & medially rotates arm • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 359 • Figures: 12.2, 12.4b 12
  13. 13. Appendicular Muscles – Other Glenohumeral Joint Muscles [4] • Latissimus dorsi • Origin: • Spinous processes of lower thoracic vertebrae • Lower ribs (8-12) • Iliac crest • Insertion: • Intertubercular sulcus of humerus • Action: • Extends, adducts, & medially rotates arm • Draws arm inferiorly & posteriorly • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 358 • Figures: 11.1, 12.1, 12.2, 12.4a & b 13
  14. 14. Appendicular Muscles – Other Glenohumeral Joint Muscles [4] • Deltoid • Origin: • Acromial end of clavicle • Acromion & spine of scapula • Insertion: • Deltoid tuberosity of humerus • Action: • Abducts, flexes, extends, & rotates arm • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 358 • Figures: 11.1, 12.1, 12.2, 12.4a & b 14
  15. 15. Appendicular Muscles – Other Glenohumeral Joint Muscles [4] • Pectoralis major • Origin: • Clavicle • Costal cartilages • Insertion: • Greater tubercle & lateral intertubercular sulcus of humerus • Action: • Flexes, adducts, & medially rotates arm • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 358 • Figures: 11.1, 12.1, 12.4a 15
  16. 16. Appendicular Muscles – Posterior Arm Compartment [1] • Triceps brachii (3 heads) • Origin: • Long head: Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula • Lateral head: posterior shaft of humerus • Medial head: posterior shaft of humerus, distal to radial groove • Insertion: • Olecranon process of ulna • Action: • Extends forearm & assists in arm adduction • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 364 • Figures: 12.8a & b 16 Right arm, posterior view
  17. 17. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Arm Compartment [5] • Biceps brachii (2 heads) • Origin: • Long head: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula • Short head: coracoid process of scapula • Insertion: • Radial tuberosity • Action: • Flexes arm (glenohumeral joint) • Flexes & supinates forearm (elbow joint) • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 363 • Figures: 12.7a & b, table 12.4 17
  18. 18. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Arm Compartment [5] • Coracobrachialis • Origin: • Coracoid process of scapula • Insertion: • Middle medial shaft of humerus • Action: • Adducts & flexes arm (glenohumeral joint) • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 363 • Figures: 12.7a & b 18
  19. 19. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Arm Compartment [5] • Brachialis • Origin: • Distal, anterior surface of humerus • Insertion: • Coronoid process of ulna • Action: • Flexes forearm (elbow joint) • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 363 • Figures: 12.7a & b 19
  20. 20. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Arm Compartment [5] • Brachioradialis • Origin: • Lateral humerus • Insertion: • Styloid process of radius • Action: • Flexes forearm (elbow joint) • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 363 • Figures: 12.7a, 12.11a • Landmark importance: • Separates anterior forearm flexors from posterior forearm extensors 20
  21. 21. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Forearm Compartment [6+1] • Pronator teres • Action: • Pronates forearm • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 364 • Figures: 12.9, 12.11, 12.12 21
  22. 22. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Forearm Compartment [6+1] • Flexor carpi radialis • Action: • Flexes wrist • Abducts hand • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 369 • Figures: 12.11, 12.12 22
  23. 23. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Forearm Compartment [6+1] • Palmaris longus • Action: • Weakly flexes wrist • Tenses fascia of palm • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 369 • Figures: 12.11, 12.12 • Cadaver hint: • Not all cadavers have this muscle (for genetic reasons) • Ends in a slender, flattened tendon, passing over the upper part of the flexor retinaculum 23
  24. 24. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Forearm Compartment [6+1] • Flexor carpi ulnaris • Action: • Flexes wrist • Adducts hand • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 369 • Figures: 12.11, 12.12, 12.13a 24
  25. 25. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Forearm Compartment [6+1] • Flexor digitorum superficialis • Action: • Flexes wrist • Flexes the 2nd to 5th metacarpophalangeal (MP) & proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 369 • Figures: 12.11b 25
  26. 26. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Forearm Compartment [6+1] • Flexor digitorum profundus • Action: • Flexes wrist • Flexes the 2nd to 5th metacarpophalangeal (MP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP), & distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 369 • Figures: 12.11c 26
  27. 27. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Forearm Compartment [6+1] • Flexor retinaculum (associated structure) • Significance: • Fibrous band of connective tissue that covers the palmar surface of the carpals • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 366 • Figures: 12.11a, 12.14a 27
  28. 28. Appendicular Muscles – Posterior Forearm Compartment [8+1] • Extensor carpi radialis longus • Action: • Extends wrist • Abducts hand • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 369, 371 • Figures: 12.13a & b 28
  29. 29. Appendicular Muscles – Posterior Forearm Compartment [8+1] • Extensor carpi radialis brevis • Action: • Extends wrist • Abducts hand • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 369, 371 • Figures: 12.13a & b 29
  30. 30. Appendicular Muscles – Posterior Forearm Compartment [8+1] • Extensor carpi ulnaris • Action: • Extends wrist • Adducts hand • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 369, 371 • Figures: 12.13a & b 30
  31. 31. Appendicular Muscles – Posterior Forearm Compartment [8+1] • Extensor digitorum • Action: • Extends wrist • Extends the 2nd to 5th metacarpophalangeal (MP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP), & distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 369, 371 • Figures: 12.13a & b 31
  32. 32. Appendicular Muscles – Posterior Forearm Compartment [8+1] • Abductor pollicis longus • Action: • Abducts thumb • Weakly extends wrist • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 369, 371 • Figures: 12.13a & b 32
  33. 33. Appendicular Muscles – Posterior Forearm Compartment [8+1] • Extensor pollicis longus • Action: • Extends metacarpophalangeal (MP) & interphalangeal (IP) joints of thumb • Weakly extends wrist • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 369, 371 • Figures: 12.13a & b 33
  34. 34. Appendicular Muscles – Posterior Forearm Compartment [8+1] • Extensor pollicis brevis • Action: • Extends metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint of thumb • Weakly extends wrist • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 369, 371 • Figures: 12.13a & b 34
  35. 35. Appendicular Muscles – Posterior Forearm Compartment [8+1] • Supinator • Action: • Supinates forearm • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 364 • Figures: 12.9, 12.13b • Cadaver hint: • Visible on a well-dissected cadaver 35
  36. 36. Appendicular Muscles – Posterior Forearm Compartment [8+1] • Extensor retinaculum • Significance: • Fibrous band of connective tissue that covers the dorsal surface of the carpals • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 369 • Figures: 12.13b, 12.14c 36
  37. 37. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Thigh Compartment [5] Quadriceps Femoris Group [4] • Rectus femoris • Origin: • Anterior inferior iliac spine • Insertion: • Patella via quadriceps tendon and then tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament • Action: • Extends leg • Flexes thigh • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 381 • Figures: 12.71a & b 37
  38. 38. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Thigh Compartment [5] Quadriceps Femoris Group [4] • Vastus lateralis • Insertion: • Patella via quadriceps tendon and then tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament • Action: • Extends leg • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 381 • Figures: 12.17a & b, 12.15 38
  39. 39. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Thigh Compartment [5] Quadriceps Femoris Group [4] • Vastus medialis • Insertion: • Patella via quadriceps tendon and then tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament • Action: • Extends leg • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 381 • Figures: 12.17a & b 39
  40. 40. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Thigh Compartment [5] Quadriceps Femoris Group [4] • Vastus intermedius • Insertion: • Patella via quadriceps tendon and then tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament • Action: • Extends leg • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 381 • Figures: 12.17a & b • Cadaver hint: • This muscle is deep to rectus femoris 40
  41. 41. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Thigh Compartment [5] • Sartorius • Origin: • Anterior superior iliac spine • Insertion: • Tibial tuberosity, medial side • Action: • Flexes, abducts, & laterally rotates thigh • Flexes leg & rotates leg medially (sitting cross-legged on the floor) • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 375, 381 • Figures: 12.17a & b • Trivia: • Longest muscle in the body 41
  42. 42. Appendicular Muscles – Iliopsoas Group [2] • Iliacus • Origin: • Iliac fossa • Insertion: • Lesser trochanter of femur • Action: • Flexes thigh • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 375 • Figures: 12.15a, 12.17a • Cadaver hint: • Look inside the abdominopelvic cavity • Has a common insertion with psoas major muscle 42
  43. 43. Appendicular Muscles – Iliopsoas Group [2] • Psoas major • Origin: • T12-L5 vertebrae • Insertion: • Lesser trochanter of femur • Action: • Flexes thigh • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 375 • Figures: 12.15a, 12.17a • Cadaver hint: • Look inside the abdominopelvic cavity • Has a common insertion with iliacus muscle 43
  44. 44. Appendicular Muscles – Medial Thigh Compartment [5] • Pectineus • Action: • Adducts thigh • Weakly flexes thigh • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 376 • Figures: 12.15, 12.17 44 Mnemonic: Great Major League Baseball Players
  45. 45. Appendicular Muscles – Medial Thigh Compartment [5] • Adductor longus • Action: • Adducts thigh • Weakly flexes thigh • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 376 • Figures: 12.15, 12.17 45 Mnemonic: Great Major League Baseball Players
  46. 46. Appendicular Muscles – Medial Thigh Compartment [5] • Adductor brevis • Action: • Adducts thigh • Weakly flexes thigh • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 376 • Figures: 12.15, 12.17 46 Mnemonic: Great Major League Baseball Players
  47. 47. Appendicular Muscles – Medial Thigh Compartment [5] • Adductor magnus • Action: • Adducts thigh • Flexes or extends, and laterally rotates thigh (depending on starting position) • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 376 • Figures: 12.15, 12.18 47 Mnemonic: Great Major League Baseball Players
  48. 48. Appendicular Muscles – Medial Thigh Compartment [5] • Gracilis • Origin: • Inferior ramus & body of pubis • Insertion: • Upper medial surface of tibia • Action: • Weakly adducts & weakly flexes thigh • Flexes leg • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 376, 381 • Figures: 12.15a, 12.17a • Cadaver hint: • NOT to be confused with sartorius (compare origins) 48 Mnemonic: Great Major League Baseball Players
  49. 49. Appendicular Muscles – Posterior Thigh Compartment [3] Hamstrings Group [3] • Semitendinosus • Origin: • Ischial tuberosity • Insertion: • Proximal medial surface of tibia • Action: • Extends thigh • Flexes leg • Medially rotates leg • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 381 • Figures: 12.18a & b • Identification hint: • Semi (half) tendinosus (tendon), means half of this muscle consists of a tendon 49
  50. 50. Appendicular Muscles – Posterior Thigh Compartment [3] Hamstrings Group [3] • Semimembranosus • Origin: • Ischial tuberosity • Insertion: • Medial condyle of tibia • Action: • Extends thigh • Flexes leg • Medially rotates leg • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 381 • Figures: 12.18a & b, 12.15b • Identification hint: • Semi (half) membranosus (membrane), means that half of this muscle has a broad membranous tendon 50
  51. 51. Appendicular Muscles – Posterior Thigh Compartment [3] Hamstrings Group [3] • Biceps femoris (2 heads) • Origin: • Long head: ischial tuberosity • Short head: linea aspera of femur • Insertion: • Head of fibula • Action: • Extends thigh • Flexes leg • Laterally rotates leg • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 381 • Figures: 12.18a & b, 12.15b • Cadaver hint: • By touching the origin of the short head of biceps femoris, you can feel the linea aspera of femur 51
  52. 52. Appendicular Muscles – Gluteal Muscles [5+1] • Tensor fasciae latae • Origin: • Iliac crest • Anterior superior iliac spine • Insertion: • Iliotibial tract • Action: • Abducts thigh • Medially rotates thigh • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 396 • Figures: 12.15b, 12.17 52
  53. 53. Appendicular Muscles – Gluteal Muscles [5+1] • Gluteus maximus • Origin: • Iliac crest • Sacrum • Coccyx • Insertion: • Iliotibial tract • Linea aspera • Action: • Extends thigh • Laterally rotates thigh • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 377 • Figures: 12.15b, 12.18 53
  54. 54. Appendicular Muscles – Gluteal Muscles [5+1] • Gluteus medius • Origin: • Iliac crest • Insertion: • Greater trochanter of femur • Action: • Abducts thigh • Medially rotates thigh • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 377 • Figures: 12.15b, 12.18a 54
  55. 55. Appendicular Muscles – Gluteal Muscles [5+1] • Gluteus minimus • Origin: • Lateral surface of ilium • Insertion: • Greater trochanter of femur • Action: • Abducts thigh • Medially rotates thigh • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 377 • Figures: 12.15c 55
  56. 56. Appendicular Muscles – Gluteal Muscles [5+1] • Piriformis • Origin: • Anterolateral surface of sacrum • Insertion: • Greater trochanter of femur • Action: • Laterally rotates thigh • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 377 • Figures: 12.15c 56
  57. 57. Appendicular Muscles – Gluteal Muscles [5+1] • Iliotibial tract / band (associated structure) • Significance: • Thick band of fascia continuous with the tensor fasciae latae muscle • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 376 • Figures: 12.15, 12.17, 12.18 57 Mnemonic: Follow the Iliotibial Tract to reach Starbucks & get a Tensor Fasciae Latae
  58. 58. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Leg Compartment [3] • Tibialis anterior • Origin: • Lateral condyle & proximal shaft of tibia • Insertion: • Metatarsal I • Medial cuneiform • Action: • Dorsiflexes foot • Inverts foot • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 383 • Figures: 12.20a & b, 12.21 58 Mnemonic (anterior, medial to lateral): Tom – Harry – Dick
  59. 59. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Leg Compartment [3] • Extensor digitorum longus • Action: • Extends toes 2-5 • Dorsiflexes foot • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 383 • Figures: 12.20a & b, 12.21 • Identification hint: • Think of how the tendons of this muscle insert over the digits to extend them 59 Mnemonic (anterior, medial to lateral): Tom – Harry – Dick
  60. 60. Appendicular Muscles – Anterior Leg Compartment [3] • Extensor hallucis longus • Action: • Extends hallux • Dorsiflexes foot • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 383 • Figures: 12.20a & b, 12.21 60 Mnemonic (anterior, medial to lateral): Tom – Harry – Dick Harry likes to hide!
  61. 61. Appendicular Muscles – Lateral Leg Compartment [2] • Fibularis longus • Action: • Everts foot • Weakly plantar flexes foot • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 383 • Figures: 12.21a & b, 12.22b • Identification hint: • Thinking logically, the name of fibularis longus suggests that this muscle sits on top of fibula, and has a longer tendon relative to another muscle of similar name and location 61
  62. 62. Appendicular Muscles – Lateral Leg Compartment [2] • Fibularis brevis • Action: • Everts foot • Weakly plantar flexes foot • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 383 • Figures: 12.21a & b, 12.22b • Identification hint: • This muscle is deep to fibularis longus and has a relatively shorter tendon 62
  63. 63. Appendicular Muscles – Posterior Leg Compartment [5] • Gastrocnemius • Origin: • Lateral & medial condyles of femur • Insertion: • Calcaneus via calcaneal (Achilles) tendon • Action: • Plantar flexes foot • Flexes leg • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 383 • Figures: 12.20a, 12.21a, 12.22a 63
  64. 64. Appendicular Muscles – Posterior Leg Compartment [5] • Soleus • Origin: • Head & proximal shaft of fibula • Medial border of tibia • Insertion: • Calcaneus via calcaneal (Achilles) tendon • Action: • Plantar flexes foot • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 383 • Figures: 12.21a, 12.22a 64
  65. 65. Appendicular Muscles – Posterior Leg Compartment [5] • Tibialis posterior • Action: • Plantar flexes foot • Inverts foot • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 383 • Figures: 12.22b & c • Identification hint: • Since the posterior leg muscles have relatively deep bodies, it’s easier to look at their tendons near the medial malleolus of tibia 65 Mnemonic (posterior, medial to lateral): Tom – Dick – Harry
  66. 66. Appendicular Muscles – Posterior Leg Compartment [5] • Flexor digitorum longus • Action: • Plantar flexes foot • Flexes toes 2-5, metacarpophalangeal (MP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP), & distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 383 • Figures: 12.22b & c • Identification hint: • Since the posterior leg muscles have relatively deep bodies, it’s easier to look at their tendons near the medial malleolus of tibia 66 Mnemonic (posterior, medial to lateral): Tom – Dick – Harry
  67. 67. Appendicular Muscles – Posterior Leg Compartment [5] • Flexor hallucis longus • Action: • Plantar flexes foot • Flexes metacarpophalangeal (MP) and interphalangeal (IP) joints of hallux • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 383 • Figures: 12.22b & c • Identification hint: • Since the posterior leg muscles have relatively deep bodies, it’s easier to look at their tendons near the medial malleolus of tibia 67 Mnemonic (posterior, medial to lateral): Tom – Dick – Harry Harry likes to hide!
  68. 68. Axial Muscles – Facial Expression Muscles [8] • Frontalis (fontal belly of occipitofrontalis) • Action: • Draws scalp forward • Raises eyebrows • Wrinkles forehead • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 322 • Figures: 11.2a & b 68
  69. 69. Axial Muscles – Facial Expression Muscles [8] • Occipitalis (occipital belly of occipitofrontalis) • Action: • Draws scalp backward • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 322 • Figures: 11.1b, 11.2b 69
  70. 70. Axial Muscles – Facial Expression Muscles [8] • Orbicularis oris • Action: • Compresses & purses lips (kiss muscle) • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 322 • Figures: 11.2a & b 70
  71. 71. Axial Muscles – Facial Expression Muscles [8] • Orbicularis oculi • Action: • Closes eye (blink muscle) • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 322 • Figures: 11.2a & b 71
  72. 72. Axial Muscles – Facial Expression Muscles [8] • Platysma • Action: • Pulls lower lip inferiorly • Tenses skin of neck • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 322 • Figures: 11.2a & b 72
  73. 73. Axial Muscles – Facial Expression Muscles [8] • Zygomaticus major • Action: • Pulls corners of mouth superiorly (smiling muscle) • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 322 • Figures: 11.2a & b • Identification hint: • Typically, muscles ending with major are below those ending with minor (be careful of exceptions) 73
  74. 74. Axial Muscles – Facial Expression Muscles [8] • Zygomaticus minor • Action: • Pulls corners of mouth superiorly (smiling muscle) • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 322 • Figures: 11.2a & b • Identification hint: • Typically, muscles ending with major are below those ending with minor (be careful of exceptions) 74
  75. 75. Axial Muscles – Facial Expression Muscles [8] • Buccinator • Action: • Presses cheeks against molar teeth, as in chewing, whistling, playing a wind instrument, and suckling in infants • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 327 • Figures: 11.2a & b 75
  76. 76. Axial Muscles – Mastication (Chewing) Muscles [2] • Temporalis • Origin: • Parietal bone • Frontal bone • Insertion: • Coronoid process of mandible • Action: • Elevates & retracts mandible • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 331 • Figures: 11.2b, 11.5 76
  77. 77. Axial Muscles – Mastication (Chewing) Muscles [2] • Masseter • Origin: • Zygomatic arch • Insertion: • Coronoid process, angle, & ramus of mandible • Action: • Elevates & protracts mandible • Jaw closure • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 331 • Figures: 11.2a & b, 11.5 77
  78. 78. Axial Muscles – Neck Muscles [3] • Sternocleidomastoid • Origin: • Manubrium of sternum • Sternal end of clavicle • Insertion: • Mastoid process of temporal bone • Action: • One side: lateral flexion with rotation of head to opposite side • Both sides: flexes head & neck • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 336 • Figures: 11.8, 11.9 78
  79. 79. Axial Muscles – Neck Muscles [3] • Splenius capitis • Origin: • Ligamentum nuchae (connective tissue covering the spinal processes of the cervical vertebrae) • Insertion: • Occipital bone • Mastoid process of temporal bone • Action: • One side: turns head to same side • Both sides: extends head & neck • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 336 • Figures: 11.10, 11.11 79 Mnemonic: PUT THE CAP ON TOP OF CERVICIS
  80. 80. Axial Muscles – Neck Muscles [3] • Splenius cervicis • Origin: • Spinous processes of T3-T6 vertebrae • Insertion: • Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae • Action: • One side: turns head to same side • Both sides: extends head & neck • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 336 • Figures: 11.10, 11.11 80 Mnemonic: PUT THE CAP ON TOP OF CERVICIS
  81. 81. Axial Muscles – Vertebral Column Muscles [3+1] • Erector spinae groups • Muscles • Iliocostalis group (lateral) • Longissimus group (middle) • Spinalis group (medial) • Action • One side: laterally flexes the vertebral column • Both sides: extends vertebral column • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 339 • Figures: 11.11 81
  82. 82. Axial Muscles – Vertebral Column Muscles [3+1] • Quadratus lumborum • Action: • One side: laterally flexes the vertebral column • Both sides: extends vertebral column • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 339 • Figures: 11.11 82
  83. 83. Axial Muscles – Respiration Muscles [3] • External intercostals • Action: • Elevates ribs during normal inspiration (inhalation) • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 342 • Figures: 11.11, 11.13 • Cadaver hint: • Looking from bottom to top, notice that external intercostals point in a direction away from the body (to the shoulders) 83
  84. 84. Axial Muscles – Respiration Muscles [3] • Internal intercostals • Action: • Depresses ribs during forced exhalation • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 342 • Figures: 11.13 • Cadaver hint: • Looking from bottom to top, notice that internal intercostals point in a direction into the body (to the chin) 84
  85. 85. Axial Muscles – Respiration Muscles [3] • Diaphragm • Action: • Expands the thoracic cavity during normal inspiration • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 342 • Figures: 11.13 85
  86. 86. Axial Muscles – Abdominal Wall Muscles [4+1] • External oblique • Action: • Both sides: flexes vertebral column & compresses abdominal wall • One side: laterally flexes vertebral column • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 344 • Figures: 11.14a & b • Cadaver hint: • Looking from bottom to top, notice that external oblique points in a direction away from the body (to the shoulders) 86
  87. 87. Axial Muscles – Abdominal Wall Muscles [4+1] • Internal oblique • Action: • Both sides: flexes vertebral column & compresses abdominal wall • One side: laterally flexes vertebral column • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 344 • Figures: 11.14a & b • Cadaver hint: • Looking from bottom to top, notice that internal oblique points in a direction into the body (to the chin) 87
  88. 88. Axial Muscles – Abdominal Wall Muscles [4+1] • Transversus abdominis • Action: • Both sides: flexes vertebral column & compresses abdominal wall • One side: laterally flexes vertebral column • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 344 • Figures: 11.14a & b • Cadaver hint: • Notice the horizontal direction of this muscle’s fibers 88
  89. 89. Axial Muscles – Abdominal Wall Muscles [4+1] • Rectus abdominis • Action: • Flexes vertebral column & compresses abdominal wall • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 344 • Figures: 11.14a & b • Trivia: • This is the six-pack abs muscle 89
  90. 90. Axial Muscles – Abdominal Wall Muscles [4+1] • Inguinal ligament (associated structure) • Significance: • Formed by the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle • Contains tissues coursing from the trunk to the lower limb • Textbook Reference: • Description: p. 344 • Figures: 11.14a & b 90
  91. 91. 91 Pectoral Girdle Muscles
  92. 92. 92 Glenohumeral Joint Muscles
  93. 93. 93 Anterior Arm Muscles
  94. 94. 94 Posterior Arm Compartment
  95. 95. 95 Forearm Muscles
  96. 96. 96 Anterior and Medial Thigh Compartments
  97. 97. 97 Posterior Thigh & Gluteal Muscles
  98. 98. 98 Anterior & Lateral Lower Leg Compartments
  99. 99. 99 Posterior Lower Leg Compartment
  100. 100. Anterior Face Muscles 100
  101. 101. Anterior Face Muscles 101
  102. 102. Lateral Face Muscles 102
  103. 103. Lateral Face Muscles 103
  104. 104. Facial Expressions 104
  105. 105. Muscles of Mastication 105
  106. 106. Neck Muscles 106
  107. 107. Posterior Neck Muscles 107
  108. 108. Posterior Neck Muscles 108
  109. 109. Respiration Muscles 109
  110. 110. Respiration Muscles 110
  111. 111. Respiration Muscles 111
  112. 112. Respiration Muscles 112
  113. 113. Abdominal Wall Muscles 113
  114. 114. Abdominal Wall Muscles 114
  115. 115. Abdominal Wall Muscles 115

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