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Our group members..
1. A. F. M. Foysal Islam(151-15-4808)
2.Pias Ahmmed(151-15-5198)
3.Md. Abed Ceum(151-15-5309)
4.Md. Farhan Islam(151-15-5312)
5.Pronay Kumar Tarafdaer(151-15-5119)
Capacitor
 A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical
component used to store energy in its electric field.
 When a capacitor is attached across a battery. An
electric field develops across the dielectric, causing
positive charge +Q to effect on one plate and negative
charge –Q to collect on the other plate.
Effect of Dimensions
 Increasing surface area of the plates.
 Decreasing spacing between plates.
And
increasing the relative dielectric constant of the
insulator between the two plates.
Types of Capacitors
#Fixed capacitors.
 Non polarized.
 Maybe connected into circuit with either terminal to
capacitor connected to the high voltage side of the
circuit.
Insulator: Paper, Mica, Ceramic, Polymer.
#Electrolytic.
The negative terminal must always be at a lower voltage
than the positive terminal.
Plates or electrocodes, Aluminium, Tantalum.
Non polarized
 Difficult to make non polarized capacitors that store a
large amount of charge or operate at high voltages.
 Tolerance on capacitance value is very large.
 +50%/-25% is not unusual.
Electrolytic
Variable capacitors
 Cross sectional area is changed as one set of plates are related
with respect to the other.
MEMS capacitor
 MEMS(Microelectromechanical system)
 Can be a variable capacitor by changing the distance
between electrodes.
 Use in sensing applications as well in RF electronics.
Electric Double Layer Capacitor
 Also known as a super capacitor or ultra capacitor.
 Used in high voltage/ high current applications.
 Energy storage for alternate energy systems.
Electrical Properties of A Capacitor
 Acts like an open circuit at steady when connected to a
D.C voltage or current source.
 Voltage on a capacitor must be continuous
 There are no abrupt changes to the voltage, but there
may be discontinuities in the current.
 An ideal capacitor does not dissipate energy. It takes
power when storing energy and returns it when dis-
charging.
Properties of A Real Capacitor
 A real capacitor does dissipate energy due leakage of
charge through its insulator.
 This is modeled by putting a resistance in parallel with
an ideal capacitor.
Energy Storage
 Charge is stored on the plates of the capacitor.
 Equation: Q = CV
 Units:
Farad = Coulomb/voltage.
Farad is abbreviated as F.
Sign conventions
 The sign convention used with a capacitor is
the same as for a power dissipating device.
 When current flows the positive side of the voltage across the
capacitor is dissipating power.
 When the capacitor releases energy back into the circuit, the sign
of the current will be negative
Charging a Capacitor
 At first, it is easy to store charge in the capacitor.
 As more charge is stored on the plates of the capacitor, it
becomes increasingly difficult to place additional charge on
the plates.
• Coulombic repulsion from the charge already on the plates
creates an opposing force to limit the addition of more
charge on the plates.
• Voltage across a capacitor increases rapidly as charge is moved onto
the plates when the initial amount of charge on the capacitor is small
 Voltage across the capacitor increases more slowly as it becomes
difficult to add extra charge to the plates.
Adding Charge to Capacitor
 The ability to add charge to a capacitor depends on:
 The amount of charge already on the plates of the
capacitor
And
the force (voltage) driving the charge towards the plates
(i.e., current)
Capacitors in Parallel
Capacitors are said to be connected together “in parallel” when
both of their terminals are respectively connected to each
terminal of the other capacitor or capacitors.
Capacitors in Series
Capacitors are said to be connected together “in series” when
they are effectively “daisy chained” together in a single line.
Summary
 Capacitors are energy storage devices.
 An ideal capacitor act like an open circuit at steady state
when a D.C voltage or current has been applied.
 The voltage across a capacitor must be a continuous
function; the current flowing through a capacitor can be
discontinuous.
 The equations for equivalent capacitance for

1
1
t
t
CC
C
C
o
dti
C
v
dt
dv
Ci
1
1
1








 
S
s s
eq
C
C

P
p
Peq CC
1
Thanks everyone For Watching

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Mechanism of-a-capacitor

  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3. Our group members.. 1. A. F. M. Foysal Islam(151-15-4808) 2.Pias Ahmmed(151-15-5198) 3.Md. Abed Ceum(151-15-5309) 4.Md. Farhan Islam(151-15-5312) 5.Pronay Kumar Tarafdaer(151-15-5119)
  • 4.
  • 5. Capacitor  A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in its electric field.  When a capacitor is attached across a battery. An electric field develops across the dielectric, causing positive charge +Q to effect on one plate and negative charge –Q to collect on the other plate.
  • 6. Effect of Dimensions  Increasing surface area of the plates.  Decreasing spacing between plates. And increasing the relative dielectric constant of the insulator between the two plates.
  • 7. Types of Capacitors #Fixed capacitors.  Non polarized.  Maybe connected into circuit with either terminal to capacitor connected to the high voltage side of the circuit. Insulator: Paper, Mica, Ceramic, Polymer. #Electrolytic. The negative terminal must always be at a lower voltage than the positive terminal. Plates or electrocodes, Aluminium, Tantalum.
  • 8. Non polarized  Difficult to make non polarized capacitors that store a large amount of charge or operate at high voltages.  Tolerance on capacitance value is very large.  +50%/-25% is not unusual.
  • 10. Variable capacitors  Cross sectional area is changed as one set of plates are related with respect to the other.
  • 11. MEMS capacitor  MEMS(Microelectromechanical system)  Can be a variable capacitor by changing the distance between electrodes.  Use in sensing applications as well in RF electronics.
  • 12. Electric Double Layer Capacitor  Also known as a super capacitor or ultra capacitor.  Used in high voltage/ high current applications.  Energy storage for alternate energy systems.
  • 13. Electrical Properties of A Capacitor  Acts like an open circuit at steady when connected to a D.C voltage or current source.  Voltage on a capacitor must be continuous  There are no abrupt changes to the voltage, but there may be discontinuities in the current.  An ideal capacitor does not dissipate energy. It takes power when storing energy and returns it when dis- charging.
  • 14. Properties of A Real Capacitor  A real capacitor does dissipate energy due leakage of charge through its insulator.  This is modeled by putting a resistance in parallel with an ideal capacitor.
  • 15. Energy Storage  Charge is stored on the plates of the capacitor.  Equation: Q = CV  Units: Farad = Coulomb/voltage. Farad is abbreviated as F.
  • 16. Sign conventions  The sign convention used with a capacitor is the same as for a power dissipating device.  When current flows the positive side of the voltage across the capacitor is dissipating power.  When the capacitor releases energy back into the circuit, the sign of the current will be negative
  • 17. Charging a Capacitor  At first, it is easy to store charge in the capacitor.  As more charge is stored on the plates of the capacitor, it becomes increasingly difficult to place additional charge on the plates. • Coulombic repulsion from the charge already on the plates creates an opposing force to limit the addition of more charge on the plates. • Voltage across a capacitor increases rapidly as charge is moved onto the plates when the initial amount of charge on the capacitor is small  Voltage across the capacitor increases more slowly as it becomes difficult to add extra charge to the plates.
  • 18. Adding Charge to Capacitor  The ability to add charge to a capacitor depends on:  The amount of charge already on the plates of the capacitor And the force (voltage) driving the charge towards the plates (i.e., current)
  • 19. Capacitors in Parallel Capacitors are said to be connected together “in parallel” when both of their terminals are respectively connected to each terminal of the other capacitor or capacitors.
  • 20. Capacitors in Series Capacitors are said to be connected together “in series” when they are effectively “daisy chained” together in a single line.
  • 21. Summary  Capacitors are energy storage devices.  An ideal capacitor act like an open circuit at steady state when a D.C voltage or current has been applied.  The voltage across a capacitor must be a continuous function; the current flowing through a capacitor can be discontinuous.  The equations for equivalent capacitance for  1 1 t t CC C C o dti C v dt dv Ci 1 1 1           S s s eq C C  P p Peq CC 1