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Learning theories


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Learning theories

  1. 1. Behaviorism<br />By: Marisa<br />
  2. 2. Behaviorism - definition<br />Behaviorism is the prediction and control of human behavior in which introspection and/ or independent thinking play no essential part of its teaching methods.<br />
  3. 3. Behaviorism - facts<br />To a behaviorist, human learning is purely an objective and experimental branch of natural science. There is no internal cognitive processing of information.<br />The behaviorist recognizes no dividing line between man and animal — both learn to behave solely through a system of positive and negative rewards.<br />
  4. 4. Behaviorism – key people<br />Pavlov<br />Skinner<br />Bandura<br />
  5. 5. Ivan Pavlov <br />Pavlov used conditioning to teach dogs to salivate when he rang a bell.<br />When he provided the stimulus ( food) and he achieved his desired reflex ( salivation), he rang a bell. Eventually, the dogs associated the bell with food and they began to salivate when Pavlov rang the bell even if food was not present.<br />This process was termed classic conditioning and refers to the natural reflex that occurs in response to a stimulus.<br />
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  7. 7. B.F. Skinner<br />Skinner conducted experiments with pigeons and rewarded them when he saw them behaving in a desired manner.<br />When a stimulus- response pattern occurs, such as a pigeon turning ( the stimulus), a reward is given ( the response). Eventually, Skinner was able to teach pigeons to dance using this technique.<br />This is called Operant conditioning which describes learning that is controlled and results in shaping behavior through the reinforcement of stimulus-response patterns.<br />
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  9. 9. Albert Bandura<br />Bandura focuses on those motivational factors and self- regulatory mechanisms that contribute to a person’s behavior.<br />Bandura believes that people acquire behaviors, first, through the observation of others and then, by using those observations to imitate what they have observed<br />
  10. 10. Albert Bandura <br />His most famous experiment was the 1961 “Bobo Doll” study. In the experiment, he made a film in which a woman was shown beating up a bobo doll and shouting aggressive words. The film was then shown to a group of children. Afterwards, the children were allowed to play in a room that held a bobo doll. The children immediately began to beat the doll, imitating the actions and words of the woman in the film.<br />The children received no encouragement or incentives to beat up the doll; they were simply imitating the behavior they had observed. Bandura termed this phenomena observational learning and characterized the elements of effective observational learning as attention, retention, reciprocation, and motivation.<br />
  11. 11. Classroom Implications<br />When the teacher is rewarding good behavior it can decrease bad behavior, and the behaviors rewarded will increase.<br />Teachers avoid the use of punishment<br />In behaviorism the teacher believes that learning is just memorizing information not acquiring knowledge. <br />
  12. 12. Credits<br />Gunter, Shelly. "Chapter 6." Teachers Discovering Computers. Course Technology Ptr, 2009.<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />