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  2. 2.  TEACHING is not about filling up the pail, is about LIGHTING A FIRE.
  3. 3. What is CONSTRUCTIVISM? Constructivism refers to the idea that learners construct knowledge for themselves---each learner individually (and socially) constructs meaning---as he or she learns. Constructing meaning is learning; there is no other kind. Constructivism — particularly in its "social" forms — suggests that the learner is much more actively involved in a joint enterprise with the teacher of creating ("constructing") new meanings.
  4. 4.  The dramatic consequences of this view are twofold;1) We have to focus on the learner in thinking about learning (not on the subject/lesson to be taught):2) There is no knowledge independent of the meaning attributed to experience (constructed) by the learner, or community of learners.
  6. 6. INDIVIDUAL CONSTRUCTIVISM This is also called cognitive constructivism It emphasizes individual, internal construction of knowledge. It is largely based on Piaget’s theory. Learners should be allowed to discover principles through their own exploration rather than direct instruction by the teacher
  7. 7. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVSM This view emphasizes that “knowledge exist in a social context and is initially shared with others instead of being represented solely in the mind of an individual.” It is based on Vygotsky’s theory. Construction of knowledge is shared by two or more people
  8. 8.  The opportunity to interact and share among learners help to share and refine their ideas Knowledge construction becomes social, not individual
  9. 9. Characteristics of CONSTRUCTIVISM According to Eggen and Kauchak:1. Learners construct understanding2. New learning depends on current understanding3. Learning is facilitated by social interaction4. Meaningful learning occurs within authentic learning task.
  10. 10. Organizing Knowledge: Concepts is a way of grouping or categorizing objects or events in our mind.
  11. 11. Concept as Feature Lists  Learning a concept involves learning specific feature that characterize positive instances 1. Defining features is characteristics present in ALL instances. example; triangles has three sides.
  12. 12. 2. Correlational feature is one that is present in may positive instances but not essential for concept commonly membership. example; a mother is loving
  13. 13. Concepts as Prototypes o A prototype is an idea or a visual image of a “typical example.” o It is usually formed based on the positive instances that learners encounter most often.
  14. 14. Concepts as Exemplars o Exemplars represent a variety of examples. o It allows learners to know that am example under concept may have variability. example; a learner’s concept of vegetable may include a wide variety of different examples like cauliflower, kangkong, cabbage, string beans, squash, potatoes.
  15. 15. Making Concept- Learning Effective1. Provide a clear definition of the concept2. Make the defining features very concrete and prominent3. Give a variety of positive instances4. Give negative instances5. Cite a “beat example” or prototype
  16. 16. 6. Provide opportunity for learners to identify positive and negative instances7. Ask learners to think of their own example of the concept8. Point out how concepts can be related to each other
  17. 17.  Schemas and Scripts A schema is an organized body of knowledge about something.  A script is a schema that includes a series of predictable events about a specific activity. o example; knowing the series of steps done when we visit a doctor or what transpires at the beginning of the class when teacher arrives.
  18. 18. APPLYING CONSTRUCTIVSM IN FACILITATING LEARNING1. Aim to make learners understand a few key ideas in an-depth manner, rather than taking up so many topics superficially.2. Give varied examples3. Provide opportunities for experimentation.4. Provide lots of opportunities for quality interaction.
  19. 19. 5. Have lots of hand-on activities.6. Relate your topic to real life situations.7. Do not depend on the explanation method all the time.
  20. 20. END .