Linguistics and language teaching


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Linguistics and language teaching

  1. 1. By: • Tiandto Hangga A. N 1101050044 •Febrian Miftah A 1101050030 •Yuda Bayu Pratama 1101050026 •Lusia LianTrisna 1101050014
  2. 2.  We are all language teacher by profession, to be more precise English language teachers. We are angeged in teaching English to our students, whose native language is quite different both phonologically from that foreign language, it is therefore, understandable why it is difficult for Indonesian students to learn English.
  3. 3.  Linguistics is the name of science, just like “aconomics”,“ physics”, and “mathematics”. The name comes from the word “language” which gets the suffix “-ics” to denote the name of science study of language or a science about language.To emphasize its scientific feature lingiuistic is sometimes called “linguistic science”
  4. 4.  Linguistics is the most important feature of language  To learn a language means to learn the habits of using certain speech sound characteristic of that particular language as a communication  We know about English speech sounds, its phonemic and morphemic
  5. 5.  Different linguistics background will meet different problem  By learning Linguistics, teacher will be able not only to predict the problem of his teaching, but also he will be able to solve it  Linguistics will provide and equip teachers with the skill of analyzing languages of their morphemes and phonemes
  6. 6. 1. Disagreement among linguists. 2. Contribution of linguistics to foreign language teaching. 3. Contrastive analysis has come value.
  7. 7. 4. Contrastive analysis of English and Indonesia. 5. Selecting and grading the material is still necessary. 6. Use of language is partly a cognitive process, and partly a habit. 7. Communicative practice through contextualization or situationalization. 8. Conclusions.
  8. 8. Cognitive Approach(CA) uses the cognitive-code- learning-theory/mentalistic theory that is based on the view that language is rule-governed behavior. The mind does not only receive stimuli from outside, giving responses,getting reinforcement, and than become a habit as the mechanistic theory in Oral Approach, but it’s the mind process ( understanding ) The special characteristic of CA is understanding the grammar and linguistic competence or the rules first before speaking the language/ performance or emphasizing the understanding rather than habit formation. Spesial Characteristic of Cognitive Approach
  9. 9. CA is sometimes regarded as a modernized version of the Grammar-Translation Method (GTM). Both of them stress the understanding grammatical rules before doing exercises, use deductive approach in teaching,and stressing to the mind’s role in processing informations from the outside. How about the difference? GTM does not train the student to use the TL for communication and there is more oral activity in CA than GTM. What is the goal of this approach? To help the student get the ability as the native speaker have in using his language. CA and GTM
  10. 10. These are some principles that can be derived fromTG: Language is rule-governed behavior. ‘ from competence to performance’ There are strong reactions against the concept of language in Desccriptive Linguistics ( DL) that interpret language is verbal behavior which is formed through habit formation. According to TG, language is rule-governed behavior. It means, our productions have rules that governed the uses of those and we have to know first by understanding the knowledge of rules first as the basis ( competence ) for performance. IMPLICATION ofTRANSFORMATIONAL-GENERATIVEGRAMMAR for COGNITIVEAPPROACH
  11. 11. Language is creative Although the rules in language for production is finite, but they can be used to create unlimited sentences or utterances. Language is a communication system Language is introduced from very beginning since childhood for communication with a proper environment or community which is fixed to the age of the language user. Being mature has better communication with the larger scope of community that use language as communicative purpose.
  12. 12.  Language Consist of Deep Structure and Surface Structure SS of sentences deals with what we produced or heard. DS of sentences deals with the meaning of the sentences we produced or heard. For example: Edison killed the robber; the robber was killed by Edison; who killed the robber? “Edison killed the robber” is also considered as kernel sentences. The changes from the kernel sentences is the transformation sentences.
  13. 13. The essence of cognitive learning is that learning must be meaningful. The material to be taught should be wellorganized into meaningful units for use of learning. On the basis of student’s activity, psychologist distinguish two other kind of learning: Reception learning, receiving information from the outside without involving much mind’s activity. Discovery learning, engaging the mind in total learning process. The advantages of using Discovery learning are: the knowledge we have, can be retained for a longer time than through reception learning. Second, the teachers can recognize the mental activity of the students.
  14. 14. Teaching Procedure in CA As has been known that CA has relation to the principles ofTG and CP, which can be summarized as follows: Language is rule-governed behavior. The teachers should assist the students by giving understanding about the grammatical rules at first to have knowledge as the basis or competences for performance. Language is creative and innovative Teachers should be able to stimulate their students to produce more sentences as we know that language provides the unlimited sentences with the limited rules that governed them. Language is a means of communication Language has a function as a communication tool. It means how we will use language to interact with our environment. Speaking practice more and having a lot of vocabularies will bail you out to improve your ability in using language to communicate with others.
  15. 15. Teaching Procedure in CA As has been known that CA has relation to the principles ofTG and CP, which can be summarized as follows: Learning should be meaningful Meaningful learning will be long remembered. Teachers should be able to make every meeting, every given materials impressed to the students heart and mind. Try to deliver the new materials with a proper strategy such as using objects in their common or fancy, connecting the materials to what they like, and etc. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotoric use of language These three aspects of learning above can not be separated as it will be automatically undergone by the learners. First, we use cognitive aspect in comprehending about the rules of using language ( mental activity). Then, when it has been infiltrated well in our heart and mind, the students will be able to use the language in everything in their mind. Making sounds that create a language is resulted by manipulating the speech organs ( psychomotoric aspect).
  16. 16.  Therefore, the teaching procedure in CA can be explained as follows : For example, A teacher wants to teach his students about passive and active voice of sentence. According to the CA’s principles, he can take some steps as follows: •First, start your teaching by writing two or some active and passive sentences. •After that, invite and help your students to translate the written sentences together. •Third, Give the explanation about the rules or grammatical points so that your students will have understanding about it. •Then, try to distinguish which one is active and which is the passive one. •Let your students to write some notes about your explanation. •Next, stimulate your students to produce another examples of the use of active and passive sentences. •Last thing that could not be forgotten is giving more practice. It can be done by practicing some conversations or dialog. Make your teaching as interesting as possible to your students.