Nine twentieth century approaches to language teaching


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Nine twentieth century approaches to language teaching

  1. 1. Seven twenty first-century approaches to language teaching Enrique Arias Castaño
  2. 2. Approach – method Technique <ul><li>Approach reflects a certain model or research paradigm WHY . (Grammar-translation approach, reading approach, communicative approach) </li></ul><ul><li>Method is a set of procedures, i.e a system that spells out rather precisely how to teach a second or a foreign language. Methods are typically compatible with one (Two) approaches. HOW (Silent way, Total Physical Response TPR, Suggestopedia) </li></ul><ul><li>Technique is classroom device or activity. STEPS (dictation, imitation, repetition,etc.) </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are Anthony’s distinctions among approach, method and technique?
  4. 4. Approach <ul><li>Theories of language </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of language learning </li></ul><ul><li>Structural view – how the language is approached-coding </li></ul><ul><li>Functional view – semantic and communicative-meaning and functions of the language. </li></ul><ul><li>Interactional theories </li></ul><ul><li>What are the psycholinguistic and cognitive processes involved in language learning? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the conditions that need to be met in order for these leaning processes to be activated? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Exemplify a theory of language and theory of language learning relationship
  6. 6. Design <ul><li>Objectives – competences: language aims </li></ul><ul><li>Content choices – syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Learner roles </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher roles </li></ul><ul><li>Material </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul>
  7. 7. Procedure <ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of teaching activites (drills, dialogues, information gaps activities, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of taching activities for practicing language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The procedures and techniques used in giving feedback to learners concerning the form and content. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Summary of elements of a Method
  9. 9. Grammar-translation approach <ul><li>Instruction in the native language of the learners </li></ul><ul><li>There is little use of the target language for communication </li></ul><ul><li>There is early reading of difficult texts </li></ul><ul><li>A typical exercise to translate sentences from the Tlge into the mother tongue (viceversa) </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to use the Lge for communication </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher does not have to be able to use the target Lge. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Direct approach <ul><li>No use of the mother tongue is permitted(i.e, teacher does not need to know the student’s native language) </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson begin with dialogues and anecdotes in modern conversational style. </li></ul><ul><li>Actions and pictures are used to make meanings clear. </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar is learned inductively </li></ul><ul><li>Literary texts are read for pleasure and are analyzed grammatically. </li></ul><ul><li>The target must be a native speaker or have nativelike proficiency in the target language. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Reading approach <ul><li>Only the grammar useful for reading comprehension is taught. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary is controlled at first(based on frequency and usefulness) and hen expanded. </li></ul><ul><li>Translation is once more a respectable classroom procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading comprehension is the only language skill emphasized. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher does not need to have a good oral proficiency in the target language. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Total Physical Response <ul><li>TPR is a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action. </li></ul><ul><li>It attempts to teach language through physical(motor) activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San Jose State University, California. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>It draws on several traditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanictic pedagogy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language teaching procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>According to James Asher adult second language learning is parallel to child first language acquisiton. </li></ul><ul><li>Commands  Physical Response  Verbal Response </li></ul><ul><li>The less stress the more learning </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Grammar based </li></ul><ul><li>Skillful use of imperative  Grammatical structure and vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>The more intensively and the more often the trace, the stronger memory association will be. </li></ul>APPROACH:THE THEORY OF LANGUAGE AND LEARNING
  15. 15. Audiolingualism <ul><li>Lessons begins with dialogues </li></ul><ul><li>Mimicry and memorization are used, based on the assumption that language is habit formation </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical structures are sequenced and rules are taught inductively. </li></ul><ul><li>Skills are sequenced:listening, speaking-reading, writing postponed. </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation is stressed from the begining </li></ul><ul><li>Language is often manipulated without regard to meaning or context. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher must be proficient only in the structures, vocabulary, etc. That s/he is teaching since learning activities and materials carefully controlled. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Communicative approach <ul><li>It is assumed that the goal of language teaching is learner ability to communicate in the target language. </li></ul><ul><li>… that the content of a Lge course will include semantic notionsand social functions, not just linguistic structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Students work in groups or pairs ti transfer (if necessary to negotiate) meaning in situations in which one person has information that the other(S) lack. </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom materials and activities are often authentic to reflect real-life situations and demands. </li></ul><ul><li>Skills are integrated ffro the begining a given activity might involve reading, peaking, listening, and also writing (Ls are educated and literate) </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers’ role is to facilitate communication, and should be able to use the target Lge fluently and appropriately. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Critiques of CLT <ul><li>Swan (1985) Widdowson (1985) More recently other writers (e.g. Bax [ have critiqued CLT for paying insufficient attention to the context in which teaching and learning take place, though CLT has also been defended against this charge (Harmer 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>CA is deemed a success if the teacher understands the student. </li></ul><ul><li>But, if the teacher is from the same region as the student, the teacher will understand errors resulting from an influence from their first language. </li></ul><ul><li>Native speakers of the target language may still have difficulty understanding them. This observation may call for new thinking on and adaptation of the Communicative Approach. </li></ul><ul><li>The Adapted Communicative Approach should be a simulation where the teacher pretends to understand only what any regular speaker of the target language would and reacts accordingly. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Task-based instruction <ul><li>Teachers have been using tasks for hundreds of years. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently, in the past, the task was a piece of translation often from a literary source. </li></ul><ul><li>More recently, tasks have included projects for producing posters, brochures, pamphlets, oral presentations, radio plays, videos, websites and dramatic performances. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Task-based instruction II <ul><li>The characteristic of all these tasks is that rather than concentrating on one particular structure, function or vocabulary group, these tasks exploit a wider range of language. </li></ul><ul><li>In many cases, students may also be using a range of different communicative language skills. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Task-based instruction III <ul><li>In the model of task-based learning described by Jane Willis, the traditional PPP (presentation, practice, production) lesson is reversed. </li></ul><ul><li>The students start with the task. When they have completed it, the teacher draws attention to the language used, making corrections and adjustments to the students' performance. </li></ul><ul><li>In A Framework for Task-Based Learning , Jane Willis presents a three stage process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-task - Introduction to the topic and task. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task cycle - Task planning and report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language focus - Analysis and practice. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Does TBI work? <ul><li>Task-based learning can be very effective at Intermediate levels and beyond, but many teachers question its usefulness at lower levels. </li></ul><ul><li>The methodology requires a change in the traditional teacher's role. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher does not introduce and 'present' language or interfere ('help') during the task cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher is an observer during the task phase and becomes a language informant only during the 'language focus' stage. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Type of TBI activities <ul><li>Meaningful tasks using the target language: </li></ul><ul><li>visiting the doctor </li></ul><ul><li>conducting an interview </li></ul><ul><li>calling customer services for help. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment is primarily based on task outcome (ie: the appropriate completion of tasks) rather than simply accuracy of language forms. This makes TBLL especially popular for developing target language fluency and student confidence. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Content-based Instruction (CBI) (Davies, 2003)
  24. 24. Snow, 2004 The intregration of language teaching aims with subject matter instruction
  25. 25. (Shang, 2006)
  26. 26.   Met’s Analysis (2004)   Content-Driven    Content is taught in L2.   Content learning is priority.   Language learning is secondary.   Content objectives determined by course goals or curriculum.   Teachers must select language objectives.   Students evaluated on content mastery.     Language-Driven    Content is used to learn L2.   Language learning is priority.   Content learning is incidental.   Language objectives determined by L2 course goals or curriculum.   Students evaluated on content to be integrated.   Students evaluated on language skills/proficiency.  
  27. 27. Sheltered method Theme-based method Language content